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Full text of "History of Hereford cattle"

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JECT TO AN OVERDUE FINE AS 
POSTED AT THE CIRCULATION 
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100M/7-89— 891646 



HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 




Benjamin Tomkins. 
(Born 1745, died 1815.) 



HISTORY 

OF 

HEREFORD CATTLE 



BY 

JAMES MACDONALD 

SECRETARY OF THE HIGHLAND AND AGRICULTURAL .SOCIETY OF SCOTLAND 
AND 

JAMES SINCLAIR 

EDITOR OF THE "LIVE STOCK JOURNAL" 



REVISED EDITION BY JAMES SINCLAIR 



ILLUSTRATED 



LONDON 
VINTON & COMPANY, Ltd. 

, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 
1909 



^^ 



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^ 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 

In attempting to delineate the history of Hereford cattle, it 
has not been thought necessary to enter into the wider subject 
of the origin of the various domesticated races of British 
cattle. Those who may be inclined to look into that fasci- 
nating but almost hopelessly involved question we would 
refer to Mr. Storer's exhaustive and interesting work on 
" Wild White Cattle," and our own lesser volume on " Aber- 
deen-Angus Cattle," where the prevailing views are set forth 
and discussed. 

The present work is confined to matters which more im- 
mediately relate to the Hereford breed, whose importance and 
popularity seemed to merit attention from the Live Stock 
historian. We have dwelt at considerable length on the 
operations of leading early breeders, and this has been done 
with the object of throwing light upon the origin, composition, 
and extension of the improved Hereford. 

For assistance in the undertaking, thanks are due, in a 
special manner, to Mr. William Housman, who has given us 
the benefit of his intimate knowledge of the breed in pre- 
paring the chapter on the Breed in the Show-yard. Professor 
Boyd Dawkins ; Mr. John Hill, Felhampton Court ; Mr. 
Thomas Duckham, Baysham Court ; Mr. Thomas Tomkins 
Galliers, Wistaston ; Mr. Forester, Sherlowe ; Mr. George 
Smythies, Marlow Lodge ; Mr. J. L. Hewer, Aston Ingham ; 
Mr. Haywood, Blakemere ; Mr. John H. Yeomans, Stretton 
Court ; Mr. William Tudge, Leinthall ; Mr. Ralph Palmer, 
Nazeing; Mr. T. L. Miller, Beecher, Illinois, and others 
have also afforded us valuable aid, which we would here 
acknowledge. 



1886. 



PREFACE TO REVISED EDITION 

The first edition of the History of Hereford Cattle was pub- 
lished in 1886, and in the course of a few years the issue was 
sold out. Since that time numerous requests have been made 
by breeders at home and abroad for a revised edition. These 
applications latterly became so frequent that it was ultimately 
decided to re-publish the book in a new and enlarged form. 
The necessary alterations and additions have involved a good 
deal of work, but it is hoped that, with the materials available, 
a fairly comprehensive account of the development of the breed 
in the intervening period has been given. 

Acknowledgment is made in the preface to the first edition 
of aid received from a number of breeders and others. In 
connection with the revision it is desired specially to thank Sir 
John Cotterell, Bart., Mr. Wm. Tudge, Mr. A. P. Turner, 
Mr. W. G. C. Britten, Mr. T. T. Galliers, Mr. John Hill, 
Mr. R. Christison, Mr. James Stuckey, Mr. John Neilson, 
Mr. J. H. D. Beales, and Mr. F. S. Prosser. Mr. W. H 
Bustin, Hereford, has allowed us to select from his large and 
representative collection of photographs of famous breeders, 
their homes and their cattle. A number of photographs by 
Mr. F. Babbage and Mr. G. H. Parsons have also been used. 

March, 1909. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I 
ORIGIN OF THE BREED -^ 

PAGES 

Origin of the Breed — Speed's evidence as to Herefordshire cattle in 1627 — 
"No place in England yieldeth more or better conditioned " — State- 
ments of early writers on Herefords — Marshall's testimony, "The first 
breed of cattle in the island" — Hereford Fair in 1788, the finest show 
of cattle anywhere seen — Marshall on the points of the Hereford — The 
colour a middle red, a bald face being characteristic of the true 
breed (1788)— George Culley— J. H, Campbell and the Charlton ox of 
1790 — Garrard's engravings of red with white face Herefords (1800) — 
Duncumb's county history — Hereford cattle "long esteemed superior 
to most, if not all other breeds in the island " — T. A. Knight on Lord 
Scudamore's importation of red with white face cattle from Flanders 
about 1660 — Lawrence's speculations as to origin of the breed — His 
conclusion that with respect to profit no breed in England could stand 
in competition with it — Parkinson, Bingley, and Vouatt — Later authori- 
ties — Rev, John Storer and Professor Boyd Dawkins on the Welsh 
white cattle with red ears — White-faced cattle of Holland— The Tully 
white-faced bull (1750) — Lord Chesterfield's opinion— Alleged intro- 
duction of white-faced bull from Yorkshire — Professor Boyd Dawkins 
on the origin of the Breed — Domestic cattle from two sources : Bos 
primigenius and Bos iongifrons — Herefords derive their white face from 
Bos priiiiigenins, strongly accentuated by Flemish cattle — White faces 
frequent in eighteenth century — Recapitulation and conclusions — Here- 
ford breed formed by judicious amalgamation of various good sorts . I--3' 



CHAPTER H 

THE PIONEERS AND TPIEIR WORK 

Cattle breeding in the eighteenth century — Stock reared principally for 
working purposes, beef and milk being secondary objects — Low prices 
of stock — Nine oxen sold for £$2, or 5J guineas each — Change of 
system produced by improvement of agriculture and industrial develop- 
ment of the country — Pioneer breeders of Herefords — The Tomkins 
family — T. T. Galliers' researches — Richard Tomkins in 1720 bequeaths 
a yoke of oxen, called Spark and Merchant, to his son Richard, and a 
cow, called Silver, to his son Benjamin — Historical account of the 
Tomkins family — Two breeders named Benjamin Tomkins, father and 
son — The elder Benjamin Tomkins (born 17 14, died 1789) — His work 
as a breeder begun about 1742, he being thus the first distinguished 
cattle breeder — The Galliers family — Sale at Wigmore Grange in 



X CONTENTS 

PAGES 

1795 — Tully, Skyrme, and Haywood families; characteristics of iheir 
stock — High prices for Tully cattle — Prizes at Smithfield — ^John 
Haywood, a breeder of Herefords in 1713 — The bull Prizefighter 
shown at Shifnal in 1800 against a Longhorn to decide a bet of 100 
guineas — Services rendered by the old breeders, M-ho had their favourite 
sorts, these varieties having warm admirers and keen partisans . 32-48 

CHAPTER III 

BENJAMIN TOMKINS, THE YOUNGER 

Benjamin Tomkins, the Younger (bom 1745, died 1815) — Low and Eyton 
on the foundation of his herd — Alleged purchase of cows called Pigeon 
and Mottle at Kington Fair about 1766 — Probability that he acquired 
stock from his father — Silver Bull 42, "the foundation of his breeder's 
future eminence" — Was he descended from Silver Cow of 1720? — The 
Tomkins' strains of Silver, Pigeon and Mottle— Their characteristics 
and colours — Close breeding — High merit of Tomkins' stock — What 
Tomkins did for the breed — Disregard of colour — Early maturity and 
wealth of flesh thought more important — Valuation of herd in 1808 — 
Notes on the Tomkins cattle— Sale of his herd in 1819 — High prices: 
a bull sold for £s^^ > average for breeding animals, ;^I49 — Alleged 
deterioration of Tomkins' herd — The Misses Tomkins — Final dispersion 
of herd in 1854 — Other members of the Tomkins family — Mr. T. C. 
Yeld's History of the Breed — His testimony as to the excellence of 
Galliers, Tully, Skyrme, and Tomkins cattle— A letter by Mr, T. A. 
Knight — ^John Price of Ryall — -Description of his herd — His sales — 
Breeding stock to the value of ;^20,ooo disposed of by auction — Mr. 
Welles on Price's cattle — Other breeders of Tomkins and Price strains 
—Lord Talbot, etc. — The remarkable record of the Tomkins family 49-79 



CHAPTER IV 

THE HEWER AND JEFFRIES FAMILIES 

William and John Hewer — A biographical account of the family — Materials 
on which William Hewer founded his herd about 1787 — He expresses 
his indebtedness to Tully and Tomkins strains— An old quarrel — William 
Hewer's Silver 540 — Sovereign 404 — Dimensions of some of William 
Hewer's cattle — John Hewer (born 1787, died 1873)— His removal to 
Purslow, Shropshire, about 1817 — Character of the Hewer stock about 
1820 — Letting of bulls — Thirty-five animals on hire at one time — The 
White-faces — Influence of Hewer blood — The tick faces — John 
Hewer's management of his cattle — His sales — The Jeffries family — 
Purchasers at Wigmore Grange sale in 1797 — Winners of prizes in 
1803— The Jeffries family pedigree — Thomas Jeffries, the breeder of 
Cotmore, first prize bull at the Royal Show at Oxford, 1839— Edmund 
Cheese Jeffries — Use of Hewer bulls— Sale at the Sheriffs— Presentation 
to Thomas Jeffries 80-97 



CHAPTER V 
A GROUP OF FAMOUS BREEDERS 



account of early herds— Prizes at the Herefordshire Agricul- 
ociety's Shows, commencing 1798 — Thomas Andrew Knight of 



Mr, Yeld's 

tural Society's Shows, commencing 1798- 

Downton — A successful and scientific breeder — His herd founded on 



CONTENTS 



Tully, Tomkins, and Skyrme blood — Principles and objects of breeding 
— Sells stock to the Emperor of Russia in 1802 — James Yar worth of 
Brinsop ; commenced breeding 1S02 — Walker of Burton, his herd said 
to have been the best in the county at the time — The Yeomans family 
— Royal and Countess — Sir J. G. Cotterell, Bart,, Garnons — Mr. Tench, 
Bromfield — Rev. J. R. Smythies, Lynch Court, commenced breeding 
in 1806 — Won first prize for cows adapted for dairy purposes at the 
Royal Show, 1839 — Messrs. Williams, Thinghill and Brinsop — Messrs. 
Turner, Aymestry and Lynch Court — Mr. Jones, Breinton — Mr. 
Weyman, Moreton and Stockton — Mr. Parry, Old Court — Sir Hunger- 
ford Hoskyns — Theophilus Salwey, of Ashley Moor, and the Knight 
strains — T. C. Yeld, The Broome — Thomas Longmore, Walford — Mr. 
Carpenter, Eardisland ........ 98-I19 



CHAPTER VI 

PROGRESS OF THE BREED ^'^ 

In the hands of the graziers— Weight of oxen— J. H. Campbell of Charlton 
— Westcar of Creslow — Prizes for his oxen from 1799 to 181 1 — Twenty 
sold for an average ;[^io6 each — Challenges — Tomkins drives twenty 
cows to Hereford and offers 100 guineas for an equal number superior 
to them — Crickneck and Prizefighter — Challenges by Mr. Price of 
Ryall and Mr. Turner, Aymestry — In the showyards — Successes at 
Smithfield — Agricultural Society of Hereford — First Royal show — 
Extension of the breed — Feeding experiment — Division in the ranks, on 
colour chiefly — The dispute about white face and mottle face, ending 
in the adoption of the uniform red with white face— Establishment 
of the Herd Book — Formation of the Hereford Herd Book Society — 
ItsTresidents and Vice-Presidents — The Secretaries — Hereford Cattle 
Breeders' Association and its absorption by the Herd Book Society — 
Questions as to terms of registration in Foreign Herd Books — The 
American, Canadian, New Zealand, South African, and other Herd 
Books — Books and publications on Hereford cattle . . . 120-147 



CHAPTER Vn 

LATER IMPROVEMENT AND PROMINENT BREEDERS 

Progress and later improvers — Lord Berwick's herd at Cronkhill — Walford 
871 and Sir David 349— Silver — Adforton — Mr. W. Tudge's career as 
a breeder— The bulls Sir Roger 4133, Lord Wilton 4740 and Regulator 
4898 — The Adforton sale in 1877 — Messrs. Rea, Monaughty, and 
Westonbury— INIr. Monkhouse of The Stow — Sir Thomas 2228, sold 
in 1866 for £i,09 10s. — Mr. Roberts, Ivingtonbury — Mr. Edward 
Price, Court House— John Price, Court House — His purchase of 
Horace 3877— Mr. William Taylor and the Showle Court herd — 
Longhorns 471 1, sire of Anxiety 5188— INIr. Philip Turner, The Leen 
— The Grove 3rd 5051 — Sold for 810 guineas at the successful sale in 
1883 — Mr. George Pitt, Chadnor Court — His famous sale in 1883— 
Mr. William Hall, Ashton— Mr. Thomas Edwards, Wintercott — 
Leonora, the gem of the herd — Mr. T. J. Carwardine, Stocktonbury — 
Description of Lord Wilton 4740— The historic sale in 1884, realizing 
a total of ^22,987 13^-.— Samuel Goode, Ivingtonbury— W. E. Britten, 
Stapleton— John Burlton, Luntley Court— T. L. Meire, Cound Arbour 
— R. L. Burton, Longner— Frederick Piatt, Barnby Manor, and the 



CONTENTS 



bull Horace 3877— J. T, Cooke, Moreton House— S.W. Urwick— Rev. 
Archer Clive— E. Bowen, Corfton— J. Bowen Jones and the Ensdon 
herd— G. Child— T. Duckham— T. Fenii, Stonebrook House— G. T. 
Forester, Sherlowe — E. Grasett, Wetmore— R. Green, The Whittern— 
J. H. Arkwright, Hampton Court— PI. Haywood, Blakemere— J. Hill, 
Felhampton Court— E. J. Morris, Stapleton Castle— T. Myddleton, 
Beckjay— Eees Keene, Pencraig Court— A. Rogers, The Rodd— 
Benjamin Rogers, The Grove, and the famous sires he bred and used 
— E. Yeld, Endale— J. H. Yeomans, Stretton Court— W. Price, The 
Vern— Pictures of old time Herefords 14S-223 



CHAPTER VIII 

SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 

The Royal herd at Windsor — Herds at Baucott ; Berrington Hall ; Brampton 
Bryan ; Broadward ; Bryngwyn ; Buckenhill ; Buckland ; Claston ; 
Clehonger Manor ; Croome Court ; Downton Hall ; Duxmoor ; Eves- 
batcli Court ; Eyton-on-Severn ; P frwdgrech ; Finstall Park ; Garnons ; 
Hardwick Court ; Hardwicke Grange ; Hill House, Newton ; Hinton ; 
Holme Lacy, Ashton and Marsh Hall ; Ivingtonbury ; Kenswick ; 
Kinnersley Castle ; Knightvvick Manor ; Llanwern Park ; Lodge Farm, 
Nazeing ; Leinthall and Summer Court ; Lower Eaton ; Lynch Court ; 
Lynhales ; Marlow Lodge ; Wigmore Grange ; Marston ; Marsh Brook 
House; Monkton Court ; Mnntford j Moreton Jeffries Court ; Onibury ; 
Orleton Manor ; Paunton Court ; Penoyre ; Perton Court ; Poston 
Court ; Pipton ; Rush Court ; Saltmarshe Castle ; Sheepcote Farm ; 
Shelsley Bank ; Showle Court ; Shrawardine ; Stansbatch ; Staunton 
Old Court ; Tarrington ; The Farlands ; The Field ; The Leen ; The 
Lowe ; The Willows ; Trebarried ; Thinghill Court ; Uphampton ; 
W^all End ; Westonbury ; Wintercott ; Woofferton ; Zeals, etc. . 224-2S0 



CHAPTER IX 

THE BREED'S EXTENSION 

Widespread distribution of the breed — Herefords in Scotland — Mr.Lumsden's 
herd — Mr. Harvey's herd — The Earl of Southesk's herd— Mr. Copland's 
experiences — In Ireland — Mr. R. Reynell — The Killynon herd — The 
herds of Mr. Kearney, Mr. Pollock, Mr. Fetherstonhaugh — Many 
new herds — The breed in America and Canada — Early importations — 
Popularity of Herefords in America — T. L. Miller's work — Adams 
Earl — A. F. Freeman — C. M. Culbertson — Fowler and Co. — George 
Leigh and Co. — The Hon. M. PI. Cochrane — Numerous herds — 
American Hereford Association — Prices in U.S.A. — Herefords at 
the ColuTlTbinn" Exposition, 1S93 — Some Noted Sires: The Grove 3rd ; 
Sir Richard 2nd ; Sir Bartle Frere ; Anxiety — Herefords and the Test 
— Some Large Imports — Prize steers in U.S.A. — Noted Breeders — 
Polled Hereford in U.S.A. — The breed in South America — Herds 
and Shows in the Argentine — An Argentine Sketch of Hereford 
Prospects — Typical Argentine herd — San Gregorio — The Liebig's 
Extract of Meat Company's extensive herds on the River Plate — 
Australasian Colonies — Mr. Reynolds, Tocal — The Breed in Queens- 
land — Mr. R. Christison— New Zealand — Mr. Stuckey — ^Jamaica — The 
Knockalva herd — South Africa— British East Africa— France, etc. 281-355 



CONTENTS xiii 

CHAPTER X 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BREED ""^ 

PAGES 

Characteristics of the breed — Their distinctiveness and uniformity — The 
White face — Its fixity — Hereditary power — Conformation — The Here- 
ford Herd Book Society's Report and Description — Mr. John Hill's 
description of typical Hereford — Wealth of flesh — Grand yard cattle 
— Hardy constitution — Improvements in form — Mr. A. P. Turner on 
the breed and its qualities — Mr. Terry's experiences of the breed — 
Mr. E. J. Morris on their merits — Mr. W. G. Hotten and Mr. J. S. 
Tucker on the breed in Cornwall — Notes by Mr. Ralph Palmer, Mr. 
J. K. Hyslop, etc. — Milking properties and the Zeals herd . 356-373 



CHAPTER XI 

SYSTEMS OF MANAGEMENT 

Practical notes on systems of management by Mr. A. P. Turner, The Leen ; 
Mr. G. T. Forester, Sherlowe ; Mr. S. Robinson, Lynhales ; Mr. G, 
Child, Court of Noke ; Mr. W. Tudge, Leinthall and Summer Court ; 
Mr. James, Mappowder ; Mr. W. S. Powell, Eglwysnunyd ; Mr. G. H. 
Meire, Eyton-on-Severn ; Mr. Rees Keene ; Mr. T. Davies ; Mr. 
T, S. Minton, Montford ; Mr. Holder, Trelasker ; Mr. E. J. Morris ; 
Mr. Purdon, Lisnabin ; Mr. J. H. Arkwright, Hampton Court ; Lord 
Coventry ; Mr. R. W. Hall ; Mr. John Ravvlings ; Mr. Morris, The 
Field ; Mr. J. Hamar : Mr. W. S. Russell ; Mr. G. Butters ; Mr. 
B. Rogers ; Mr. T. C. Yeld, etc., etc 374-397 



CHAPTER Xn 

THE BREED IN THE SHOW-YARD 

Local show records — Challenges — Foreign competitions — Smithfield Club 
shows — Summary — Hereford prizes at Smithfield shows — Weights at 
Smithfield shows — Birmingham shows — Bath and West, and Southern 
Counties shows — Royal Agricultural Society's shows — First-prize 
winners in adult classes and champion animals at the Royal Shows, 
1839-1908 — Mr. W. Tudge on champion Herefords from 1886 to 
1908 398-450 



CHAPTER Xni 

RETROSPECT AND FORECAST 

Sketch of improvement — Work of the early breeders — The colour question 
— High reputation for work and other good qualities — Successes at 
Smithfield — Influence of soil — The Tomkins cattle and sale — John 
Hewer's work — Practical objects — Influence of shows — The Herd 
Book — Famous sires — Introduction and spread in the United States — 
Successful sales in 1883 and 1884 — The boom period — Influence of the 
breed in the Western Slates — Highly popular cattle in America — 
Extension in South America— The breed in Queensland— Prominent 



xiv CONTENTS 



PAGES 

breeders on the position and prospects of the breed— Views of Sir John 
Cotterell, Mr. A. P. Turner, Mr. Wm. Tudge, Mr. A. E. Hughes, 
Mr. J, Hamar, Mr. Morris, Mr. R. Edwards, Mrs. Nugent, Mr. A. 
Tanner, Mr. J. R. Hill, Mr. G. Batters, Mr. R. \V. Hall, Mr, H. 
Lang3ton, Mr. R. H, Ridler, Mr. J. Ravvlings— Mr. John Clay's, Mr. 
A. H. Sanders', and Mr. W. S. Van Natta's opinions of the' breed's 
prospects in U.S.A. — Mr. C. H, Eady on Herefords for grazing— 
Freedom from disease— Milking qualities— The outlook a promising 
one 451-477 



CHAPTER XIV 

EXISTING HERDS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM 

List of over 140 existing herds in the United Kingdom, giving date of founda- 
tion, leading sires, principal families, and numbers usually kept 478-490 



ILLUSTRATIONS 
PORTRAITS 

FACING PAGE 

TOMKiNS, Benjamin Frontispiece 

Arkwright, John H 176 

Berwick, Lord ........... 152 

BouGHTON, Sir Wm. Rodse 240 

Britten, W. E. 176 

Britten, W. G. C 144 

cotterell, sir john r. g . 144 

Coventry, The Earl of 144 

DucKHAM, Thomas 152 

Galliers, Wm. (King's Pyon) 32 

Galliers, Wm. (Wigmore Grange) .32 

Hall, H. R ... 240 

Haywood, Henry 152 

Hewer, John 32 

Heygate, Captain E. L. A 144 

Hill, John 176 

Hughes, Allen E . . 144 

Jeffries, Thomas . . . = 32 

Knight, T. A -32 

Miller, T. L 176 

Price, John (Ryall) 32 

Robinson, Stephen 152 

Russell, H. F. 240 

Smith, J. W 240 

Taylor, H. W. 240 

Taylor, Wm 176 

TuDGE, Wm. (Adforton) 152 

Tudge, Wm. (Summer Court) . 240 



Turner, Arthur P. 



144 



Turner, Philip 152 

Yeomans, John H 17& 

HOMES OF THE BREED 

Brook House 49 

Court House 272 

Croome Court 232 



xvi ILLUSTRATIONS 

FACING PAGE 

DowNTON Hall 193 

Flemish Farm, Windsor 224 

Garnons 232 

Hampton Court 193 

Sheepcote Farm 226 

Stretton Court 209 

Stocktonbury Sale (1884) 174 

The Leen 272 

The Leen Sale (1883) 168 

The Stow 162 

Wellington Court 49 

Wintercott 209 

Wistaston 162 

NOTABLE HEREFORDS 

Ancient Briton 15034 248 

Cameronian 23934 280 

Commandant 22040 248 

CoTMORE 376 88 

Earlsfield 19387 224 

Fire King 22135 224 

Good Boy 766S 312 

H.M. THE King's Prize Steer 408 

Horace 3877 160 

Lady Betty (Vol. XXXIL, p. 235) 193 

Leonora 432 

Lord Lieutenant 22323 270 

Lord Wilton 4740 160 

Maidstone 8875 448 

Merry Monarch 54C6 384 

Monarch 7858 384 

Pearl King 24192 464 

Perton 24862 236 

Protector 19660 280 

Rare Sovereign 10499 448 

Rob Roy 24953 464 

Rosewater (Vol. XVHL, p. 285) 432 

Shotover (Vol. XXXV., p. 709) 270 

Silver Cow (Bred by George Tomkins) 16 

Sir J. R. G. Cotterell's Prize Steer . . . . . . 408 

Sir David 349 88 

Sovereign 404 16 

The Grove 3RD 5051 312 

Truthful (Vol. XXV., p. 141) 360 

Tumbler 17588 236 

Wintercott Plum (Vol. XXVIIL, p. 436) 360 

Bulls at Hampton Court 193 

Cows at Zeals Farm 369 



HISTORY OF HEREFORD 
CATTLE 



CHAPTER I 

ORIGIN OF THE BREED 

With the exception of a brief general reference by Speed * 
in the year 1627 to the fact that the climate of Herefordshire 
"is most healthful, and the soyle so fertile for corne and 
cattle, that no place in England yieldeth more or better con- 
ditioned," we have been unable to find any special historical 
allusion to the Hereford breed prior to or during the seventeenth 
century. This omission is explained by the circumstance that 
it was not until about the end of the eighteenth century, when 
British agriculture raised up its own chroniclers, that breeds 
of live stock attracted much notice. Since the advent of 
the agricultural historian, however, this variety has received a 
good deal of attention. Marshall, Culley, Campbell, Garrard, 
Duncumb, Knight, and others, have all had something to say 
regarding the origin and early character of the breed. But 
the accounts they have given, in so far as they relate to its 
origin, appeared to be so contradictory, that, in addressing the 
students at the Royal Agricultural College at Cirencester in 
i863,t Mr. Thomas Duckham, for many years editor of the 
Hereford Herd Book, was constrained to admit, that " as 
regards the early history of the breed, little is known or can 
be gleaned previous to the establishment [in 1799] of the 

great fat show of the Smithfield Club." — —— 

Now it seems that Mr. Duckham's complaint as to the 
absence of reliable information concerning the history of 

* " England, Wales, and Scotland described." By John Speed, 
London, 1627. 

t " A Lecture on the History, Progress, and Comparative Merits of 
the Hereford Breed of Cattle." By Thomas Duckham, Baysham Court, 
Ross. 1863. 

'^HOPIRTY or ^ 



2 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Hereford cattle prior to 1799 was due, not so much to the 
inaccuracy of the opinions that had been put forward, as to 
the circumstance that the various authorities did not properly 
estimate the value and relative bearing of the evidence they 
had been able to collect. What were simply incidents con- 
nected with the development of the breed were accepted and 
repeated by them as separate explanations of its origin, and 
the confusion that has resulted is so great, that it is not 
remarkable that Mr. Duckham should have abandoned the 
attempt to reconcile the conflicting theories. Indeed, we 
might have been inclined to follow his example, and begin the 
history of the breed at the time when it made its appearance 
at the shows of the Smithfield Club at the end of the eigh- 
teenth century. But to have adopted that course would 
scarcely have been satisfactory, and the first object will 
therefore be to endeavour to see whether the apparently 
contradictory statements cannot to some extent be brought 
into harmony. In order to do this, the most convenient course 
to pursue will be first to present a careful summary of what 
each of the leading authorities has written as to the origin and 
early progress of the breed, and then, with the aid of any 
additional facts we have been able to obtain, bring out such 
conclusions as seem to be sufficiently well established. 

Views of Early Authorities 

Marshall (1788-1798) 

There is a long interval between the time of Speed, in 
1627, and Marshall, our next authority, who wrote in 1788. 
The latter was one of the first to deal with the subject in 
a published book, and thus to break the silence that had 
prevailed from the time of the erudite tailor of the seven- 
teenth century, who testified to the large numbers and good 
condition of the cattle of Herefordshire. It is, perhaps, 
desirable to recall that Marshall * was a contemporary of 
Arthur Young, and in some branches of their work he was 
not inferior as an authority to the editor of the " Annals of 
Agriculture." Although he did not overlook any matter con- 
nected with farming. Young directed his attention mainly to 

* William Marshall, the eminent agriculturist and writer on Rural 
Economy, was baptized at Sinnington, near Pickering, Yorks, on July 
28th, 1745. He died September i8th, 1818, and was hurried at Middleton 
on the 24th of the same month. His tombstone is still in Middleton 
churchyard, and there is also a monument to him in the church at 
Pickering. — [Mr, George Scoby, Beadlam Grange, has furnished these 
uo/es.} 



ORIGIN OF THE BREED 5 

the elucidation of improved methods of husbandry. Marshall 
had a special taste for live stock, and wherever he went 
these seem to have attracted his first notice. He was a 
native of Yorkshire, and journeyed all over the country and 
collected facts illustrative of the agriculture of the various 
districts, making particular inquiry as to the breeds of cattl*^^ 
horses, and sheep. 

In describing the cattle of the West of England,* Marshall 
groups together the breeds of Devon, Sussex, Hereford, 
Gloucester, and North Wales, and remarks : " These several 
breeds I conceive to have sprung from the same stock. Their 
colour apart, they perfectly resemble the wild cattle which are 
still preserved in Chillingham Park, and it appears to me that 
the different breeds above noticed are varieties arising from 
soils and management of the native breed of this island. The 
black mountain breeds of Scotland and Wales appear to me 
evidently to be from the same race, agreeing in everything but 
colour with the red breeds that are here adduced." Speaking 
more especially of the cattle of Devonshire, Marshall says : 
" There are numberless individuals of the Devonshire breed 
so perfectly resembling the breed of Herefordshire in frame, 
colour, and horn, as not to be distinguishable from that cele- 
brated breed, except in the greater cleanness of the heads and 
fore-quarters, and except in the inferiority of size." 

) Marshall published his " Rural Economy of Gloucestershire, 
etc.," in 1789,1 and here he dealt particularly with the breed 
that now engages attention. He wrote as follows : — " The 
Herefordshire breed of cattle taking it all in all may without 
risque, I believe, be deemed the first breed of cattle in this 
island. . j . In general appearance the Herefordshire cattle 
resemble very much those of Sussex, except in their superior 
size, and still more nearly the present breed of the Vale 
of Pickering, notwithstanding these several districts are 
separated nearly 200 miles every way from each other, with 
other breeds of cattle interv^ening. Their frame is altogether 
athletic, with the limbs in most cases sufficiently clean for the 
purpose of travelling. The form of many of them as beasts 
of draught is nearly complete. Besides their superiority as 
beasts of draught, and their being eligible as dairy stock 
(being in this respect similar to those of Gloucestershire), the 
females at least fat kindly at an early age, the strongest proof 
of their excellency as fatting cattle. I have seen three-year-old 

* "The Rural Economy of the West of England." By William 
Marshall. 1796-98. 

t " Rural Economy of Gloucestershire, etc." By William Marshall, 
1788-89. 



4 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

heifers of this breed — to use a familiar phrase — 'as fat as 
mud,' much fatter than any heifers of that age I have seen 
of any other breed, the spayed heifers of Norfolk excepted. 
Viewing the Herefordshire breed of cattle in this light, which 
I believe to be a true one, how unfortunate for the rural 
affairs of these kingdoms has been the choice of the spirited 
breeders of the Midland Counties," who had selected the 
Longhorn variety. Marshall goes on to say that at the Here- 
ford fair on October 20th, 1788, he saw about a thousand head 
of cattle, chiefly of the Herefordshire breed ; a large propor- 
tion of them were grown oxen, full of flesh, and sold for 
or were worth at the selling prices of the day, from ;^I2 to ;^I7 
an ox. " The most valuable collection I have met with," he 
adds, " out of Smithfield, by much the finest show I have any- 
where seen." 

In the section of his book devoted to Gloucestershire, 
Marshall gave a description of the qualities of a Herefordshire 
ox intended for grazing in that county, which it will be useful 
to quote. " The general appearance full of health and vigour, 
and wearing the marks of sufficient maturity — provincially 
* oxey,' not steerish or still in too growing a state to fat. The 
countenance pleasant, cheerful, open ; the forehead broad ; the 
eye full and lively ; the horns bright, tapering, and spreading ; 
the head small ; the chap clean ; the neck long and tapering ; 
the chest deep ; the bosom broad and projecting forward ; the 
shoulder-bone thin, flat, no way protuberant in bone, but full 
and mellow in flesh ; the chine full ; the loin broad ; the hips 
standing wide and level with the spine ; the quarters long and 
wide at the nache ; the rump even with the general level of 
the back, not drooping, nor standing high and sharp above the 
quarters ; the tail slender and neatly haired ; the barrel round 
and roomy, the carcase throughout being deep and well 
spread ; the ribs broad, standing close and flat on the outer 
surface, forming a smooth, even barrel, the hindmost large 
and of full length ; the round bone small, snug, not prominent ; 
the thigh clean and regularly tapering ; the legs upright and 
short ; the bone below the knee and hough small ; the feet of 
a middle size ; the cod and twist round and full ; the flank 
large ; the flesh everywhere mellow, soft, and yielding plea- 
santly to the touch, especially on the chine, the shoulders, 
and the ribs ; the hide mellow and supple, of a middle thick- 
ness, and loose on the nache and huckle, the coat neatly 
haired, bright and silky ; its colour a middle red, with a bald 
face, the last being esteemed characteristic of the true Here- 
fordshire breed." 

This, then, is the picture of a typical Hereford as the breed 



ORIGIN OF THE BREED § 

existed about a hundred and twenty years ago. It is so 
complete that it is not to be wondered at that later writers, 
such as Campbell, Lawrence, and Youatt acknowledged that 
they were unable to improve upon the description, which they 
accepted as the best that could be given. It is well in passing 
to emphasise the fact that during the closing decade of the 
eighteenth century the Hereford was in colour a middle red, 
and that a " bald face " was then esteemed characteristic of 
the true breed. 



George Culley (1794) 

The next witness we shall call is one who deservedly holds 
a high place among the early writers on cattle. Culley's 
" Observations on Live Stock " * is a standard work, and is 
generally trustworthy, because the author was not only a good 
judge, but also one who did not usually accept hearsay 
evidence, although unfortunately, as regards Hereford cattle, 
he seems to have done so. In the first edition of his book, 
the substance of which appeared in the " Annals of Agriculture," 
George Culley said : " As to the Herefordshire brown cattle, 
they are, I am pretty clear, neither more nor less than a mix- 
ture between the Welsh and a bastard race of Long-horns that 
are everywhere to be met with in Cheshire, Shropshire, etc." It 
is only necessary to contrast this remark with that of Marshall 
to prove that it cannot be accepted as reliable. Moreover, the 
account was subsequently practically condemned by Culley 
himself, for in the second edition of his book he withdrew the 
passage that has been quoted, and substituted the statement 
that " the Sussex and Herefordshire cattle were varieties of 
the Devonshire, of a greater size, the Herefordshire being the 
largest." He evidently did not feel very confident in dealing 
with the iriatter, and distrusting his own judgment, which had 
already been at fault, he gave a description with which he 
says he had been favoured by Mr. Ellman (probably Mr. 
Ellman, Glynde, of Southdown sheep fame, who was also a 
breeder of Herefords). In this, Mr. Ellman says : " Colour 
red, fine hair, and very fine skin ; neck and head clean ; horns 
neither long nor short, rather turning up at the points ; in 
general well made in the hind-quarters ; wide across the hips, 
rump, and sirloin, but narrow on the chine ; tolerably straight 
along the back, ribs or sides lying too flat, thin in the thigh, and 
bone not large. An ox six years old when fat will weigh 
from 60 to 100 stone, 14 lbs. to the stone [840 lbs. to 1400 

* " Observations on Live Stock." By George Culley, farmer, 
Northumberland. London, 1794. 



6 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

lbs.], the fore-quarters generally the heaviest. The oxen are 
mostly worked from three to six years old, sometimes seven, 
when they are turned off for feeding. The calves run with the 
cows till they are ii or 12 weeks old, when they are weaned 
and turned to grass. A good cow, after the calf is taken from 
her (if well kept), will produce from 6 to 8 lbs. of butter a 
week for three or four months after taking off the calf, and 
double that quantity of skimmed-milk cheese. They do not 
give so large a quantity of milk as the Suffolk cattle, but it is 
much richer in quality." 



J. H. Campbell (1790-92) 

J. H. Campbell, Charlton, Kent, was a contributor to the 
"Annals of Agriculture," and a strong supporter of the Here- 
fords. He wrote two papers for the "Annals,"* treating 
on breeds of cattle and sheep, and mainly relating to this 
variety. 

The information he gives is interesting. It deals principally 
with the fattening properties of the breed, and his remarks on 
that branch of the subject will be more fitly considered in 
another part of the work. Campbell had a controversy with 
Young as to the points that should characterise a model beef 
animal, and having been described as a warm advocate of the 
Herefords, he said : *' I am so because of long experience ; 
if I am wrong it is not for want of painstaking or being 
thoroughly acquainted with several other breeds, and those 
particularly about which there has been most said, at least in 
print, as to which, after a long-continued trial (and in the 
outset of the trial as confident expectation as anybody could 
have of finding them better than the Herefords), in the end 
being of opinion that in most respects they were very greatly 
inferior to them." As regards the origin and appearance of 
the breed, Campbell relied solely on Marshall, whom, of course, 
as to the latter, he was from experience able to confirm. 
Campbell's discussion with Young originated in a difference 
of opinion as to the merits of an ox of " the true Herefordshire 
breed " which the former had exhibited. Campbell says that 
the opinion of many who viewed this animal alive was that 
they never saw so much beef under a hide of the size, and 
upon so small a proportion of bone. He also stated that he 
knew from experience and thorough trials of various breeds 
of none that would become fat on less food, few that would 

* "Annals of Agriculture." By Arthur Young. Volumes xiii, and 
xiv. 1790-92. 



ORIGIN OF THE BREED 7 

not require more, and that most sorts would require much 
more than the true Hereford race. The difference in thriving, 
for the food given, between them and good specimens of other 
breeds, which he had fed along with them, did not require 
weights and scales to determine. This testimony as to the 
character of the Herefords of the eighteenth century, coming 
as it does from an experienced grazier, is very valuable. 

Incidentally Campbell alluded to colour, and stated that he 
never regarded any colour further than as a token of trueness 
of particular breeds. Young had, however, expressed the 
opinion that there was reason to believe that white was a sign 
of degeneracy in all the animals of the creation. Campbell 
denied this, and observed that he was aware of cases of bull 
calves which had been as nicely formed as their owners could 
desire them, and known to be pure in blood, being castrated 
for no other reason than that they had "rather too much 
white to breed from," a course which he looked upon as mis- 
chievous. It is, perhaps, worthy of note, that in Volume VI. of 
the "Annals," Young mentions that Bakewell thought pale 
colours such as white, yellow, etc., were indications of finer 
meat than the darker ones. 



George Garrard (1800) 

The curious old work by Garrard * contains a number of 
coloured prints of cattle, and tables showing their measure- 
ments. There are five drawings of Herefords, and all these 
represent animals that are red with white faces. One is the 
first prize ox at the inaugural show of the Smithfield Club in 
1799, exhibited by Mr. Westcar, and bred by Mr. Tully of 
Huntington. 

It may be interesting to give Garrard's description in detail 
as follows : — 

" The excellence of an animal, it must be confessed, in 
a great measure depends upon the soil where it has been 
bred, and the land upon which it is fattened. Without doubt, 
therefore, we are much indebted to the rich pasture by the 
Wye and the Lugside for that perfection which so eminently 
distinguishes the Herefordshire cattle. These noble animals 
are found in the highest state of beauty and condition within 
about seven miles round the city of Hereford ; but very fine 
stock may be met with in various parts of the country. About 
Leominster there are some very good cattle bred, and near 

* "A Description of the Different Oxen Common in the British 
Islands," embellished with engravings. By George Garrard. 1800. 



8 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Ross also — two places very distant from each other. There 
are likewise excellent oxen bred near Ledbury, and many 
other places. 

"The best Herefordshire cattle display all those points 
which are considered as marks of true beauty in the finest 
specimens of British cattle ; such as light fore-end, broad and 
deep bosom, straight back, and a round barrel, produced by a 
broad projecting rib, the loins broad, the hip bones spreading 
wide and standing high and level with the top of the back and 
pushing forward to the first rib, long and flat quarters, etc. ; 
and considering the size and weight of these animals, they are 
remarkably small in the bone, but the feet are more spread 
than those of lighter cattle. The oxen are in great repute for 
purposes of husbandry, the ploughing in the county of Here- 
ford being almost wholly done by them. 

" It is allowed, when worked singly, that four or five oxen 
will plough as much ground, day by day, as the same number 
of horses, of about 1 5 hands high. Against a steep bank the 
oxen seem to suffer less than the horses, and excepting the 
hot summer months, they are the most desirable stock to 
cultivate the land with ; working them double is the best 
mode during the hot months, as they are apt to be unruly on 
account of the flies. In comparing them with horses, much 
must depend upon their condition ; there is no doubt of four 
being equal to three horses. Mr. Clark, in his remarks upon 
the mode of husbandry pursued in the county of Hereford, 
having made some observations upon the very different 
draught horses in that county, concludes by saying that the 
worthy inhabitants have not committed any blunder in making 
the ox the favourite hobby horse, and adds that any attempt 
to change the present breed of their neat cattle, would exhibit 
the most glaring instance of folly. 

" The height of the bulls is generally from 13 to 14 hands ; 
the cows about 13 ; oxen from 15 to 17, or 17.2 and 18, but 
15 to 15.2 is the common height of the working oxen. 

" The colour of this breed is red or brown, with a white or 
mottled face ; some having circles of flesh-colour or yellow 
round the eyes, and a white circle round the ears at the 
insertion ; a streak of white along the top of the neck to the 
shoulders, the under part of the throat white, and so continued 
along the belly to the setting-on of the tail, which should 
rather project. The legs are also often white, or equal parts 
white and brown, or red spotted, according to the colour of 
the animal, mostly having a white tassel at the end of the tail. 

" The bulls, like those of Devonshire, are apt to be high 
and thick upon the neck, which cannot be considered as a 



ORIGIN OF THE BREED 9 

blemish, it being peculiar to the bull only, and is undoubtedly 
the effect of health and high blood. 

" The horns of this breed of cattle are very distinct ; those 
of the bull are from one foot to one foot four inches long, and 
about ten inches round, at the insertion ; the spring low, and 
back from the head ; the first direction is rather backwards, 
then curves sideways and forwards, deviating but little from 
a straight line, the point rather inclined downwards. The cows' 
horns are from one foot to one foot two inches long, and from 
six to seven inches round at the setting-on ; the shortest horns 
are generally the thickest ; no cow is found with more delicate 
horns — springing rather high from the head, then taking a 
direction sideways, curving forwards, upwards, and backwards, 
the points approaching each other. The horns of the oxen 
are from two to two feet six inches long, and about 10 or it 
inches round at the insertion ; like those of the bulls, they are 
placed low and back on the head, first projecting backwards, 
then curving sideways and forwards, then upwards, backwards, 
and outwards, the points turning from each other. 

" The horns of the Herefordshire cattle change in different 
specimens, from that variety which is always to be found in 
nature ; they may be more or less elevated, longer or shorter, 
but they will be found mostly to take the form here described. 

"As breeding is the first object with the Herefordshire 
farmer, the dairy, of course, is not much considered, and the 
quantity of milk that an individual cow may give is not often 
ascertained. The calves are kept with the cows ; and the 
farmer only attends to the dairy as a convenience for his own 
family ; but it is said that the average of a good dairy (of 
which there are a few) is about 3 cwt. of cheese in a year 
from one cow, or 2 lbs. of butter by the day through the 
summer. The calves are of a thrifty nature, the veal of a fine 
grain, and weigh from 24 to 40 lbs. per quarter at six or nine 
weeks old. 

"The cows when fattened weigh from 9 to 12 score the 
quarter, sometimes from 15 to 16; oxen from 14 to 18, or 
20 score the quarter. They have thin hides, and the weight 
is proportioned to the size of the animal. There is a smaller 
breed of cattle in Herefordshire, which seems to be crossed 
with some of the coarser Welsh breeds, that have a much 
harder and heavier skin than the larger sort, which shows their 
excellence in nothing so much as in having a fine soft skin, 
and small bone. 

" Seven or eight years back a good cow and calf were worth 
from 12 to 15 guineas, which at present would fetch from 
18 to 25. 



10 



HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 



" A pair of steers, or young oxen, for work, then worth £28, 
now will fetch ;^38, and such oxen from the yoke that were 
worth ;^i8 each will now produce from £26 to £^0 or more. 

"At Smithfield market, Christmas, 1799, a butcher of 
Reading gave 100 guineas for an ox of this breed, and there 
were two others sold for i^ioo each, fed by Mr. Westcar, of 
Creslow, in the Vale of Aylesbury. 

"The Smithfield Society adjudged the prize to one of 
them. It was bred by Mr. TuUy, of Huntington, within 
two miles of Hereford, and weighed 1928 lbs., and carried 
288 lbs. of fat. The tongue sold for ^^"1 u., and the hide for 

The dimensions given in Garrard's book included those of 
a cow and an ox, the property of the Duke of Bedford, a bull 
and a cow from the Earl of Egremont's stock, and Mr, Westcar's 
prize ox of Mr. Tully's breeding. They are as follows : — 



Dimensions of Herefordshire 


Cattle (1799). 










1 




2 




3 




4 




5 










Earl of 








Duke of 








Bull 




Egremont's 




Ox. 




Bedford's 


Fat ox. 










cow. 








cow. 








Ft. 


~iZ 


qr. 


Ft. in. qr. 


FtT 


li^ 


qr. 


Ft. in. 


qr. 


Ft. in. qr. 


Height of the— 






















Hindquarters 


4 


7 





4 5 


5 





f 


4 5 





5 2 i 


Shoulder 


4 


6 





4 3 i 


5 





i 


4 3 





5 2 1 


Knee 




I 





I 


I 


3 





I I 





I I 


Hock 


I 


7 





I 7 ^ 


I 


10 





I 7 


1 


I 9 h 


From the ground to the— 






















Dewlap 


I 


6 





I 6 


I 


7 





I 6 


i 


— 


Brisket 


I 


8 





I 7 i 


I 


8 





I 7 


i 
4 


I 8 


Chest 


2 








I 9 § 


2 








I 9 


i 


I 9 


Length of, or from the — 






















Rump to the extremity of 






















the bone 


2 





h 


2 2 i 


2 


5 





2 2 





300 


Pole to the tail 


7 


6 





6 8 J 


7 


8 





6 7 





790 


Face 


I 


9 





I 9 


I 


9 





I 6 


i 


I 10 


Horn 


I 








I 2 


2 








I 2 


k 


2 6 i 


Round the — 






















Chap 


I 


ID 





160 


I 


10 





I 7 


i 


I 10 


Cheek and forehead ... 


3 


7 





3 3 h 


3 


II 





3 6 





420 


Neck 


3 


s 


i 


300 


3 


7 





3 


i 


3 II 


Chest 


6 


9 





670 


7 


II 





6 9 


1 


9 3 h 


Knee 


I 


2 





I 


I 


2 





I 





I 4 i 


Bone of foreleg 





8 


A 


070 





9 


i 


7 


i 


9 i 


Coronet of fore foot ... 


I 


3 





I I J 


I 


3 


1 


I I 





I 5 i 


Hock 


I 


5 


> 


I 2 


I 


7 





I 4 





I 8 


Bone of hind leg 





9 


i 


8 i 





10 


f 


9 





10 J 


Coronet of hind foot ... 


I 


I 


1. 


I 


I 


2 





I I 





I 2 f 


Horn 





ID 





070 





II 





6 


J 


10 


Breadth of the— 






















Face across eyes 





II 





080 


I 








8 


h 


I I J 


Hips 


2 








210 


2 


4 


i 


2 I 





2 10 



ORIGIN OF THE BREED li 

Garrard acknowledges his indebtedness to Mr. Lechmere 
of Rydde, near Worcester, for many of the particulars he 
gives, and adds that gentleman's own description as follows : — 

" The face should be long and taper, the middle of the 
forehead broad, and rather inclined inwards, which is effected 
by the hollow of the skull that contains the eyes, being rather 
projecting ; the eyeballs prominent and brisk ; the lids thin 
and well stored with eyelashes, which, as in the human species, 
give a general expression to the features. The setting on of 
the head and neck remarkably fine and elegant, and afterwards 
progressively leading down to a full and deep bosom, guarded 
on each side by the points of the shoulder, being neatly led 
into the line of the neck, and inclined rather upwards, so as to 
produce that even appearance, which is so striking in Hereford 
cattle, beginning at the closing of the shoulders, and running 
on all along the top of the chine. If a contrary shape occurs, 
and the points of the shoulders push downwards, the con- 
sequence is evident ; the neck appears out of proportion, the 
weight or strength which ought to be in the closing or junction 
of the shoulders at top is destroyed, and the end of the chine 
at that part is thin and hollow, so that the whole frame forward 
is completely deprived of that due symmetry it ought to 
possess. The ribs, all the way from the part just alluded to, 
should begin pretty early to project after its junction, or 
springing forth from the backbone, and this effect is more 
especially necessary in what we call the first rib, or the nearest 
the hip, which cannot be too broad or projecting, and should 
be pretty near the hip or free-bone. By this early inclination 
to project, the upper part of the ribs support a full chine, which 
is of as great value as any, in the scale of provisions, and 
cannot bear an equal apparent weight, in a flat or weak sided 
cow or ox ; and by the first rib and hip coming near altogether, 
the under loin is kept up and supported to the hand of a skilled 
judge, which, though a beast may be fat, cannot be equally the 
case where these parts are far asunder, and there is a dispro- 
portionate vacuum. I next come to remark the situation of 
the hip-bones, which I look upon to be the most essential parts 
to add beauty, weight, and value to every sort of beast that 
comes under the description of horned cattle. These cannot 
stand too wide, or, in my idea, too high on a level with the 
top of the back, running straight from the two extremities. 
The distance to the point of the rump should be long, taking 
the aitch bones upon as exact a level as possible, for where 
these project or come out at all, so as to equal the prominence 
of the hip, it is impossible for a beast to come well to handle, 
as they will be hard and similar to most bulls to touch, and 



Ue, 



12 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

cannot get fat in those points most requisite to make a fat 
animal desirable. The point or ends of the rump on each side 
of the tail should when poor be well supplied with loose skin, 
and be soft, so as to allow room for expansion, as the creature 
progressively fills out in feeding, and these points should stand 
rather high, so that the root of the tail may be guarded on 
each side, for when this is not the case, and the points of the 
rump are low, the tail stands high and disfigures the animal, 
and they seldom are so well inclined to load with fat on that 
part. There are gristles at the setting-on of the tail, which 
should rather project on each side ; even when cattle are poor, 
as I have ever observed, they accumulate much more fat in 
this part, which is very essential to the sale of a beast. These 
cattle are generally short and full in the thigh, for where they 
are of a contrary shape they never fill out well in the twist, or 
that part leading from the tail to the udder of a cow, which 
is of infinite consequence to the weight of the round of beef 
after the animal is slaughtered. Let it be observed that the 
bone being small below the knee and hock is a singular per- 
fection, and it commonly happens that the fattest animals have 
the most slender bones to support their weight," 

John Duncumb (1804-5) 

It might reasonably have been expected that valuable 
information concerning the origin of the breed would have 
been found in the works of John Duncumb, M.A., secretary of 
the Herefordshire Agricultural Society, and the historian of the 
county. But neither in his " History of Herefordshire," * nor 
in the " General View of its Agriculture," drawn up by him for 
the Board of Agriculture,! is very much light thrown upon the 
subject. The paragraph relating to cattle, which appears in the 
History of the County, is reproduced in the " General View," 
followed in the latter case with a summary of the opinions 
of Mr. T. A. Knight, on the general subject of breeding. 
Duncumb says : — " The cattle of Herefordshire have long been 
esteemed superior to most if not all other breeds in the island. 
Those of Devonshire and Sussex approach nearest to them in 
general appearance. Large size, an athletic form, and unusual 
neatness characterise the true sort ; the prevailing colour is a 
reddish brown, with white faces. The rearing of oxen for 
the purposes of agriculture prevails universally, nearly half the 
ploughing being performed by them, and they take an equal 

* "Collections towards the History and Antiquities of the County of 
Hereford." By John Duncumb. 1804. 

t " General View of the Agriculture of the County of Hereford." 1805. 



ORIGIN OF THE BREED 13 

share in the labours of the harvest. They are shod with iron 
in situations which frequently require their exertions on hard 
roads, but it has already been noted that grazing is not 
generally pursued except for provincial consumption. The 
show of oxen in thriving condition at the Michaelmas fair in 
Hereford cannot be exceeded by any similar annual collection 
in England ; on this occasion they are generally sold to the 
principal graziers in the counties near the metropolis, and there 
perfected for the London market." Except the distinct state- 
ment as to the prevailing colour of the breed, their use for 
purposes of draught, and their reputation for grazing, there is 
little in what Duncumb says that aids us in arriving at a 
conclusion as to their early history. But on all these points 
Duncumb, a resident in the county, fully endorses the state- 
ments of Marshall. 

T. A. Knight (1790) 

If, however, Duncumb's writings are unsatisfactory, the 
same objection cannot be made to the investigations of another 
eminent Herefordshire man. Few names among the early 
Hereford breeders is more honoured than that of Thomas 
Andrew Knight of Downton Castle. We shall subsequently 
have something to say in reference to Mr. Knight's career as 
a breeder, as it was he who originated a distinct variety of the 
Hereford cattle known as " the Knight Greys." In the field 
of scientific research, Mr. Knight was one of the most dis- 
tinguished men of his time. He was President of the London 
Horticultural Society, and was a member of twenty-one 
different scientific societies. In testimony of the value of 
his labours as a diligent student of natural history, he received 
medals from eleven societies, among others from the United 
States and Sweden. It was chiefly by reason of his experi- 
ments in horticulture that he acquired his world-wide fame, 
and he wrote numerous books on the subject. He was also 
the author of a treatise on live stock. 

Mr. Knight was born at Wormesley Grange, in Hereford- 
shire, in August, 1759, and after studying at Oxford he retired 
to his native county, where he spent the remainder of his life, 
" the study of what Goldsmith so well denominates * animal 
biography,' affording him constant delight and amusement." 
The foregoing sentence is quoted from a biography prefixed 
to a selection from his works.* In that book it is remarked : — 

* "A selection from the Physiological and Horticultural Papers, 
published in the Transactions of the Royal Horticultural Society." By 
the late Thomas Andrew Knight. London, 1841. 



14 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

" He had by this time (1806) become well known as a practical 
agriculturist and an improver of the breed of Herefordshire 
cattle. The stock of this county had long been distinguished 
for its superior quality ; the origin of this superiority he had 
taken some pains to discover, and the result of his inquiries 
led him to attribute it to the introduction from Flanders of a 
breed of cattle by Lord Scudamore, who died in 167 1." The 
writer of the biography adds, that in Cuyp's pictures the cattle 
of Flanders are usually represented of the Herefordshire 
colour with white faces. Considering Mr. Knight's eminence 
as a scientist, and one who was not likely to adopt a theoiy 
on insufficient evidence, it is somewhat curious to find Cecil, 
in his " Hints on Agriculture," thus referring to the matter : — 
" The origin of the Herefords is not accurately known, though 
it is related that they were imported from Flanders some two 
centuries ago. Whether there is any truth in this I will not 
presume to ofifer an opinion, or whether the report originated 
in the circumstance that cattle of a similar description are 
depicted in old Flemish paintings. This at least confirms that 
they had in Flanders cattle similar in appearance." Mr. Knight, 
we may be sure, would not have invented a report as Cecil 
appears to suggest. And let it be noted clearly that Knight 
did not say that the Hereford breed was imported, but 
merely that its superiority was attributed to the importation 
of Flemish cattle by Lord Scudamore, thus intending, no 
doubt, to convey the impression that the infusion of the 
Flanders strain into the Hereford cattle had developed the 
good properties of the native breed to a greater extent than 
had before been attained. 

In Mr. Cooke's volume on the History of Herefordshire,* 
there is a reference to the family of Hereford, several members 
of which were in the Netherlands during the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and it is remarked : " These gentlemen are traditionally 
credited with having procured in Flanders, for Lord Scuda- 
more, the cattle from which the celebrated herds of the county 
are descended." 

John Lawrence (1805) 

John Lawrence devotes several pages of his " Treatise on 
Cattle " t to the Hereford breed, but his observations as to its 
origin are not very clear. " The Herefordshire cattle," he says, 

* "Collections towards the History and Antiquities of the County of 
Hereford, in continuation of Duncumb's History." By William Henry 
Cooke, M.A., Q.C., Recorder of Oxford. 

t "A General Treatise on Cattle, etc." By John Lawrence. 1805. 



ORIGIN OF THE BREED 15 

" obviously at this day a mixed breed, are in general supposed 
to have been originally of the Devonshire species. There are 
no documents existing with which I am acquainted respecting 
this presumed origin, or the succeeding crosses, or what length 
of time the present famous variety has been permanent, but 
its great size is doubtless derived from an intercopulation with 
the heaviest of the Welsh breeds, or with that of Shropshire, 
an adjoining county. A Welsh chiefly, or Pembroke cross, is 
now said to be much affected by the Herefordshire breeders. 
Are we to conjecture that the Herefordshire owe their bald 
face to the smoky-white faces of the red cattle of Montgomery, 
from which race, crossed with Devon bulls, originated the 
famous one of which we now speak, their various colours 
arising from other Welsh crosses ; or, that the Montgomerys 
derive their smoky face and substance from a Hereford cross ? " 
There is certainly plenty of room for speculation in these con- 
jectures. The only pity is that Lawrence seems to have had 
no evidence to support either theory. He quotes Marshall's 
description of the breed, which, he says, was obtained on the 
spot from breeders and graziers. As regards the excellence 
of the breed, Lawrence was in no doubt, however puzzled he 
may have been as to its origin. " There are certain peculiar 
prominent features of distinction invariably to be observed 
among them — the horns, the white face, a faintness or dulness 
in the colour, great substance, as well as depth of carcase, with 
generally a roundness of the bones." In advising the Here- 
ford breeders to preserve the old blood in a state of as great 
purity as possible, Lawrence assures them that they possessed 
" for some purposes the most valuable breed of cattle in the 
world." " The distinguishing qualities of Hereford oxen," he 
continues, "are the produce of beef, quick feeding in propor- 
tion to their growth and size, and the union of strength and 
speed in labour. With respect to the most profitable return 
in quantity of beef, it may be presumed no breed in England 
can stand in competition with this, and they have accordingly 
been most successful at the annual prize shows. They also 
command the first price alive or dead." 



Parkinson (1810) 

Parkinson's Treatise on Live Stock, dated 18 10,* is of a 
somewhat general character. He says the Hereford cattle 
may be properly termed " half-horned " [Marshall's " middle- 

* "Treatise on the Breeding and Management of Live Stock." By 
Richard Parkinson. 18 10. 



i6 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

horned" is a better phrase], being very similar to the cattle 
bred from a Short-horned cow and a Long-horned bull. " Most 
of them have white faces, bellies, and throats, and all their 
lower parts are of the same colour, with some white on the 
shoulders, or rather the chine, but seldom continuing along 
the back in the ornamental way of the Lancashire cattle." 
Their colour, he adds, is chiefly a dark red ; some are brown, 
others yellow, but scarcely any blue or black ; some few are 
brindled with white, as above described. "They are not a 
showy kind of cattle, having little of the ' gentleman ' about 
them, but are of a very useful kind." He had seen several of 
this breed of cattle that had been imported into Ireland, which, 
on worse keep, did much better than some Devons imported 
about the same time. The Hereford cattle are, he remarks, 
larger than any other sort, excepting the Yorkshire. They are 
heavily fleshed, many of them being fine grained and beauti- 
fully marbled, with a more regular proportion of fat and lean 
than some other breeds. On the whole, he concludes they 
must be allowed to be a very valuable breed, and well fitted 
for the grazier. Parkinson thought the alleged change of the 
breed from red to red with white face was effected by the 
introduction of a bull from some other part of the country. 

Rev. W. Bingley (1809) 

Bingley, in his " British Quadrupeds," * presents a full 
description of the shape and colour of the Hereford cattle as 
they appeared early in the last century, which may be quoted. 
" The Herefordshire cattle are of great size and weight, yet 
remarkably small boned. Their fore-end is light, their bosom 
broad and deep, and their loins broad, the hip-bones spreading 
wide, and standing high and level with the top of the back. 
The back is straight and the barrel round, produced by a broad 
projecting rib. These animals are distinguished by a bald or 
spotted face, a streak of white along the top of the neck to 
the shoulder, bright and spreading but not long horns, and a 
small head. Their general colour is dark red or brown, but 
the belly and under part are white. The legs are also some- 
times white or spotted, and the tip of the tail is almost always 
white. . . . These noble animals are in general very active and 
tractable, and being powerful for draught they are in great 
repute for the purposes of husbandry. They are likewise, from 
their great substance as well as depth of carcase, in high 
esteem among graziers." In Bingley's work there is an 

* " Memoir of British Quadrupeds." By the Rev. W. Bingley, M.A,, 
F.L.S. London, 1809. 




Silver Cow (Bred by George Tonikins). 




SoVEREUJN 404 (iJreil bj' John ilewer). 



ORIGIN OF THE BREED I7 

engraving of a Hereford bull and cow, from an original draw- 
ing by Samuel Howitt, representing animals with markings 
very much as the author of the book states, there being a 
considerable proportion of white. As Bingley specially men- 
tions some oxen belonging to Mr. Tully of Huntington, it is 
probable that the drawing was made from animals that were 
reared in or related to the herd of that famous breeder, among 
whose variety there was a good deal of white. 



YOUATT (1835) 

The account of the Hereford breed given by Youatt in his 
book on Cattle,* published in 1835, has excited a considerable 
amount of angry controversy, although the discussion has been 
more in reference to what he is believed to have omitted, than 
as to what he has actually recorded. The long accounts of some 
other breeds have been contrasted with his brief description of 
the Herefords, and it certainly seems surprising that, writing in 
1835, Youatt should not, except in the most indirect way, have 
mentioned anything about the great success of the breed at 
the Smithfield Club shows ; that he should not have named 
any of the more prominent breeders, or recounted any of the 
important sales of herds that had by that time taken place. 
What makes these omissions still more strange and note- 
worthy, is the fact that Youatt expressly states that he had 
obtained " valuable information from Mr. A. Knight, of Down- 
ton Castle," very little of which, however, is printed in his book. 

" The Hereford oxen," says Youatt, " are considerably 
larger than the North Devons. They are usually of a darker 
red, some of them are brown and even yellow, and a few are 
brindled, but they are principally distinguished by their white 
faces, throats, and bellies. In a few the white extends to the 
shoulders. The old Herefords were brown or red brown, with 
not a spot of white among them. It is only within the last 
fifty or sixty years that it has been the fashion to breed for 
white faces. Whatever may be thought of the change of 
colour, the present breed is certainly far superior to the old 
one." This is really all we have in Youatt that can be said 
to bear on the question of the origin of the breed. 

In his general description of British oxen, Youatt follows 
Marshall in dividing the breeds into four varieties — Long- 
horns, Middle-horns, Short-horns, and Polled. The Middle- 
horns are spoken of as a breed inhabiting principally the North 

* " Cattle : their Breeds, Management, and Diseases." By William 
Youatt. London, 1835. 



i8 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

of Devon, the East of Sussex, Herefordshire, and Gloucester- 
shire, and as not having been derived from a mixture of the 
Longhorns and Shorthorns, but as being a distinct, valuable, 
and beautiful breed. They are regarded by Youatt as an 
aboriginal race, a description which is also applied to the 
Welsh and Scotch breeds. " We may," he adds, " almost 
trace the colour, namely, the red of the Devon, the Sussex, 
and the Hereford, and even where the black alone are now 
found the memory of the red prevails ; it has a kind of 
superstitious reverence attached to it in the legends of the 
country, and in almost every part of Scotland ; and in some of 
the mountains of Wales, the milk of the red cow is considered 
a remedy for every disease, and a preservative from every 
evil." 

Some of the most valuable testimony Youatt had collected 
about the Herefords is found scattered all over his book. On 
the whole it must be said, however, that he scarcely did justice 
to the breed, and we are informed that his book has created 
an erroneous impression regarding it — an impression which, 
in a work published under such high auspices, has, we are 
assured, had a prejudicial effect in foreign countries, where, 
for some time, it was accepted as an almost infallible authority 
on the merits and history of the British varieties of cattle. 

Professor Low (1845) 

Professor Low, in his able work on " Domesticated Animals," * 
points out that Herefordshire was of old a part of the county 
of the Cambro-Britons, but at a very early period it fell under 
the dominion of the Anglo-Saxons. The Herefordshire cattle, 
he observes, have that orange-yellow colour of the skin which 
distinguishes the Pembrokes and the Devons, and that medium 
length of horns which separates these breeds and their varieties 
from the race termed Long-horned. He adopts the Middle- 
horned classification, and says that until a period comparatively 
recent, we knov/ nothing from any authentic records of the 
changes which Hereford cattle have undergone from mixture 
or otherwise. The breed as it then existed, he believed, owed 
all its reputation to modern changes. Low supplies some 
information regarding the work of lienjamin Tomkins, which 
will be more particularly referred to in another chapter. He 
speaks of " the breed of Tomkins as having been formed from 
the pre-existing cattle of Herefordshire." 

As will be subsequently shown. Low seems to have been 

* " On the Domesticated Animals of the British Islands." By David 
Low, F.R.S.E. 1845. 



ORIGIN OF THE BREED 19 

under the impression that there was only one breeder named 
Benjamin Tomkins, and that the Hereford breed was formed 
by him. Some subsequent writers have adopted his state- 
ments on this point, describing Tomkins " as the original 
founder of the breed." To fall in with this theory would 
make the writing of the early history of the breed in some 
respects comparatively easy. But it would be somewhat 
difficult to show how a breed, which before the close of the 
eighteenth century had become of such celebrity as to be 
termed " the first in the island," could have been established 
in the course of a few years by the efforts of one man. In 
mentioning these considerations, we shall not, it is hoped, be 
understood as proposing to detract from the importance and 
high value of the work accomplished by the Tomkins family 
as the earliest improvers of the breed. It is merely desired 
to indicate here, as will be shown more fully subsequently, 
that there were two breeders of the same name, and that 
while the elder Benjamin Tomkins was the first great im- 
prover, his son, also named Benjamin Tomkins, completed 
his work in the development of the Here fords with regard 
to beef production. Indeed, in another portion of his book, 
Professor Low himself uses a phrase that is much more 
in conformity with the facts, when he says : " Some of the 
finest of the breeds of England may be termed artificial with 
relation to the means employed to give them their distinctive 
characters ; such was the variety of the Long-horned formed 
by Bakewell ; such is the modern Durham improved by 
Colling ; and such is the highly esteemed breed of Hereford 
perfected by Tomkins." 

T. ROWLANDSON (1853) 

In the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of 
England for 1853,* Mr. T. Rowlandson wrote an account of 
the farming of Herefordshire, in which he gave a description 
of the breed. He says, the Hereford, or, as they have some- 
times been termed, the Middle-horned cattle, have ever been 
esteemed a most valuable breed, and when housed from the 
inclemency of the weather, probably put on more meat and 
fat in proportion to the food consumed than any other variety. 
He also mentions that the flesh of the Hereford ox was 
superior to all indigenous breeds for that " beautiful marbled 
appearance caused by the intermixture of fat and lean, which 
is so much prized by the epicure." After commenting on the 

* " Farming of Herefordshire." By T. Rowlandson, Journal R.A.S.E,, 
vol. xiv., 1853. 



20 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

similarity in appearance of all the breeds in the West of 
England, Mr. Rowlandson remarks : " The old Herefords are 
said to have been brown or reddish brown, and it is only 
within the last eighty or ninety years that it has become the 
fashion to breed for white faces. The history of the introduc- 
tion of the latter, we are assured, arose as follows : — The 
gentleman who furnished the statement says he was informed 
by Mr. P. Tully that the introduction of the white marked 
cattle was accidental, and occurred in the stock of one of that 
gentleman's ancestors, who lived at Huntington in Holmer, 
in the following manner : — * That about the middle of the last 
century the cowman came to the house, announcing as a 
remarkable fact that the favourite cow had produced a white- 
faced bull calf. This had never been known to have occurred 
before, and, as a curiosity, it was agreed that the animal should 
be kept and reared as a future sire.' Such, in a few words, is 
the origin of a fact that has since prevailed through the county, 
for the progeny of this very bull became celebrated for white 
faces." Mr, Rowlandson further quotes from the history of 
Wales, to prove the existence of white cattle with red ears, 
and mentions that the river Wye, which almost bisects the 
county of Hereford, was appointed the boundary of the two 
counties by Athelstane in 939. " These facts," adds Mr. 
Rowlandson, " are suggestive of the mode in which the white- 
faced cattle have originated." 

Robert Smith (1858) 

The report of the Chester Show of the Royal Agricultural 
Society of England in 1858,* by Mr. Robert Smith, contains 
some references to the early history of the various breeds of 
cattle. As to the Herefords, it is stated that they clearly come 
under the same denomination as the Devons, viz. the Middle- 
horn tribe of cattle. They are considered an aboriginal breed, 
and are descended from the same stock as the Devons, " Little 
is known respecting their origin further than that for many 
generations they can be traced as the peculiar breed of the 
county from whence they take their name. Yet a few years 
since they were not of the same uniform appearance of colour 
as now, there having been some herds self-coloured, like the 
Devon and Sussex breeds, and opinions have been published 
that this was their original character. Subsequently we find 
the grey, the mottled, and the white-faced each with their 
distinct admirers and their successful exhibitors. This sub- 

* "Report of Live Stock at the Chester Show," 1858, Journal 
R.A.S.E. 



ORIGIN OF THE BREED 21 

division of a race of animals, it may be readily imagined, would 
occur from the use of a self-coloured bull with a white-faced 
cow, or the reverse ; but that the race was originally red with 
a white face is clearly indicated by the almost perfect uniformity 
of colour which the breed of the county now presents." Mr. 
Smith's statement is printed as it is found, but it will be 
observed that he somewhat contradicts himself. 



E. F. Welles (1854) 

Mr. E. F. Welles was a coadjutor of Mr. Eyton in the 
compilation of the early volumes of the " Hereford Herd Book," 
and made the sketches of typical animals by which they are 
illustrated. He also collected valuable information as to the 
early herds, and contributed the article on Hereford cattle to 
Morton's " Cyclopedia of Agriculture." * He says an opinion 
prevailed, well supported by the oldest living authorities, that 
the breed at no very remote period was for the most part self 
coloured, like the Devon and Sussex, and some entire well- 
descended herds of that colour had within the preceding 
thirty years been in the hands of distinguished breeders. The 
breed characterised by mottled faces, he thought, most pro- 
bably took its origin from a mixture of the old self colour with 
some accidentally possessing white marks. In the absence of 
certain data we must, says Mr. Welles, resort to probabilities 
to account for the origin of the white face, and as to the period 
when it was noticed as a distinct " breed." He quotes the 
statement of Mr. Knight as to the importation by Lord Scuda^ 
more from Flanders of red cows with white faces, to which 
reference has already been made. Mr. Welles appears to 
have thought that it was in the mottle-faced variety that the 
truest standard of form was to be found. 



Old Welsh White Cattle 

The proximity of the county of Hereford to Wales, as 
well as the fact that in ancient times a portion of it was 
actually within the borders of the Principality, suggests the 
probability that in the early development of the breed the 
cattle of Wales may have had considerable influence. It will 
be observed that several of the writers we have quoted were 
of opinion that the tendency to white markings in the Hereford 
breed may have been first derived from an infusion of the old 

* " A Cyclopedia of Agriculture." Edited by John Chalmers Morton. 
1854. 



22 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

white breed of Wales. At this stage, therefore, it will be 
convenient to give an authentic account of the Welsh white 
cattle, and indicate how they were distributed in the contiguous 
districts. The late Rev. John Storer deals with this subject 
very exhaustively, and in preference to picking up the threads 
of the narrative from various authors, we shall furnish an 
extract from Mr. Storer's book on the Wild White Cattle,* 
which will place the matter clearly before the reader. 

Mr. Storer writes : " By far the strongest instance of an 
ancient white race of domestic cattle comes from Wales ; and 
it seems such cattle were much more common than elsewhere 
in Wales in the county of Pembroke. ' It appears,' says 
Professor Low, ' from various notices that a race of cattle, 
similar to that at Chillingham Park and elsewhere, existed in 
Wales in the twelfth century. . . . The individuals of this 
race, yet existing in Wales, are found chiefly in the county of 
Pembroke. . . . Until a comparatively recent period they 
were very numerous, and persons are yet living who remember 
when they were driven in droves to the pastures of the Severn 
and the neighbouring markets.' Notwithstanding every dis- 
couragement, black being uniformly preferred by the breeders, 
this white colour sometimes breaks out in the cattle of that 
neighbourhood, and I have examined several single white ones 
which have come down with large herds of black ones from 
Pembrokeshire for the Northamptonshire graziers. Some of 
these have a certain quantity of black upon them, but some 
are nearly pure white, with black ears, muzzle, eyes, tips of the 
horns and hoofs ; and they have generally some strongly 
marked small black spots on the head, neck, and body. They 
have not now, as formerly, red ears. They strongly resemble 
the wild cow (those I have seen have been heifers) in colour, 
but not at all in form, having reverted to the ancient type in 
colour only. No one who had seen the Chillingham or 
Chartley cows could detect any resemblance except in colour, 
and partially only in the growth of the horns ; in other respects 
they were unmistakably Welsh." 

Mr. Storer then prints an account of the Welsh white 
cattle, written by Professor Boyd Dawkins.f This, by the 
kindness of Professor Boyd Dawkins in presenting us with a 
copy of the work in which it is contained, we are enabled 
to amplify. " The earliest record of the Welsh white cattle 
with red ears is to be found in the Venedotian code of laws 

* "The Wild Cattle of Great Britain." By the late Rev. John 
Storer, M.A, 

t " British Pleistocene Mammalia." By Professor Boyd Dawkins. 
1878. 



ORIGIN OF THE BREED 23 

ascribed to Howel Dha, and which probably is of the tenth or, 
perhaps, eleventh century ; the usage implied by the laws 
being, no doubt, much older than the codification. The fine 
to be paid for injury done the King of Aberfraw is a hundred 
white cows for each hundred townships, and ' a white bull with 
red ears to each hundred cows.' In the later Dimetian code 
the Lord of Dynevwr is to have for the infringement of his 
prerogative * as many white cattle with red ears as shall extend 
in close succession from Argoel to the Palace of Dynevwr, 
with a bull of the same colour with each score of them.' In 
the still later Latin quotation of the Welsh laws, one hundred 
white cows with red ears were considered equivalent to a 
hundred and fifty black cattle. The specification of white with 
red ears in these passages is considered by Mr. Youatt and 
Mr. Darwin to denote merely difference of colour and not of 
breed. From, however, its continual occurrence, and from its 
agreement with the characters of the Chillingham ox, there 
can be little doubt that it denotes a difference of breed ; and this 
conclusion is rendered almost certain, since, in comparison 
with the Welsh black cattle, it denotes the most prominent 
features. The size, also, of the Chillingham ox is about one- 
third greater than that of the black Welsh and dark coloured 
Highland cattle, the ratio between them being the same as 
that between the hundred white cattle and the hundred and 
fifty black of the Leges Wallice. The regular presents of 
cattle made by the Cambrian princes to the kings of England 
contain the same distinct specification of colour. White, too, 
with red ears was the herd of four hundred oxen from the 
wilds of Brecknock, with which Maud de Breos purchased 
peace for her offending lord, of King John, through the 
intercession of his queen." 

" The Welsh white cattle with red ears," continues Mr. 
Storer (and in this remark he removes a doubt which Professor 
Boyd Dawkins had suggested as to the authenticity of the 
story, owing to an error regarding the authority mentioned by 
Youatt), " were brought into further notoriety by the present 
of four hundred such cows and one bull, which Maud de Breuse 
made to the queen of King John, in order to purchase peace 
for her offending lord. Speed has been mentioned as the 
authority for this statement ; the real authority is Hollinshed, 
in whose Chronicles it is said: 'Anno 121 1. We read in an 
old historie of Flanders, written by one whose name was not 
known, but printed at Lions by Guillaume Rouille, in the year 
1562, that the said ladie, wife of the Lord William de Breuse, 
presented upon a time unto the Queene of England a gift of 
foure hundred kine, and one bull of colour all white, the eares 



24 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

excepted, which were red. Although this tale may seem 
incredible, yet if we shall consider that the said Breuse was 
a Lord Marcher, and had good possessions in Wales and in 
the marshes in which countries the most part of the people's 
substance consisteth in cattell, it may carry with it the more 
likelihood of truth." Mr. Rowlandson, we may add, states 
that these cattle were sent from Brecknockshire. 

In closing his history of the ancient Welsh white cattle 
with red ears, Mr. Storer gives it as his opinion that they were 
not derived from England, and had no connection except such 
as the Hungarian or Tuscan cattle had with the British wild 
cattle, viz. descent in remote ages from a foreign source. 
" The true solution," he says, " seems to be that the Welsh 
white cattle with red ears, both in North and South Wales, 
whatever was their pristine origin, appeared first in the ex- 
tremest parts of both, multiplied by degrees, and finally 
extended along the sea coasts and the river valleys, though 
only to a limited extent, into some of the neighbouring English 
counties. One such herd, possibly derived from this source, 
existed until lately at Vale Royal, halfway between North- 
wich and the Forest of Delamere. They were white with red 
ears, and were in all probability derived from North Wales, 
as from thence the original monks of Vale Royal came." 
Professor Low mentions that cattle of this sort were in con- 
siderable numbers between Stafford and Lichfield ; and he 
says they were destitute of horns. Mr. Storer believes that 
in this case the colour was probably derived from some remote 
cross of the wild blood once abundant in that neighbourhood, 
or by descent from some importation into these parts of the 
Welsh tame race. 



White-faced Cattle of Holland 

Mr. Storer has some observations on the continental breeds 
of cattle which may also be summarised here as indirectly 
bearing on the subject under consideration. He says he has 
reason to believe that in the course of two or three centuries 
the character of the Dutch breed, like that of Friesland, has 
been completely changed. " I have carefully examined and 
taken notes of the pictures containing cattle — and they are 
numerous — of the old Dutch and Flemish masters in two 
celebrated collections in this country, and my conclusions are 
confirmed by those who have examined them elsewhere. If 
any credence is to be given to the pictures of Paul Potter, 
Rubens, Berghem, Cuyp, Teniers, Vandevelde, etc., the Dutch 
cow of from 2C)0 to 300 years since was totally different, both 



ORIGIN OF THE BREED 25 

in colour and in form, from what she is now. The black cow 
is very rare in these pictures, and I have never met with an 
instance of black and white ; mouse-coloured ones are not 
uncommon, neither are white ones with red ears, and some- 
times with spotted necks or bodies ; reds of different shades 
and the greater number of light tints are the most common, 
sometimes self-coloured, sometimes with the face or some 
other part white. You may find among them many a striking 
likeness of the old Yorkshire or Holderness cow, some even 
which might be taken for the improved Durham ; some which 
have strong similarity to the Hereford : but nowhere any 
much resembling the present Dutch cattle." 

Recapitulation and Conclusions 

Having thus placed before the reader an outline of every 
important piece of information we have been able to find in 
print that throws any light on the origin of the Hereford 
breed, we may now endeavour to sift the apparently con- 
tradictory statements of the various early writers, and deduce 
such conclusions as seem to us to be reasonable and well 
founded. 

There is a certain degree of unanimity among the authors 
who have been quoted, in thinking that the Herefords were 
originally a self-coloured race of cattle like the Devons and 
Sussex, and that they were derived from the same source. 
But the earliest writer who went into the subject in detail, 
namely, Marshall — who saw the breed on its native pastures 
in 1788 — described the colour as "a middle red with a bald 
face, the last being esteemed characteristic of the true Here- 
fordshire breed." This statement points to the establishment 
of " bald " or white faces at a period considerably antecedent 
to the close of the eighteenth century, when Marshall made 
his survey, and the peculiar markings were not confined to 
one or two select herds, but had become, although not 
universal, so widely diffused as to be characteristic, even of 
the oxen of "the true breed" sold to the Gloucestershire 
graziers. It has been the attempt to account for the existence 
of the white markings in the breed that has led most of the 
historians astray. 

One of the first efforts to assign to a specific cause the 
superior quality of the Hereford breed was made by Mr. 
Thomas A. Knight, to whose testimony high importance is 
attached. That Lord Scudamore, who died in 1671, intro- 
duced into the county of Hereford from Flanders a number of 
cattle with the distinctive markings of red body with white face 



26 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

is, we think, unquestionable, and it was to this importation that 
Mr. Knight attributed the superior qualities of the breed. 
But, as has already been remarked, it should be clearly 
understood that Mr. Knight does not assign the origin of the 
breed itself to this importation, but merely traces the develop- 
ment of certain merits in the Hereford cattle to the influence 
of the animals that came from Flanders. Mr. William Henry 
Cooke, Q.C., Recorder of Oxford, who wrote a continuation 
of Duncumb's " History of Herefordshire," records the fact that 
members of the Hereford family who were in the Netherlands 
in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were traditionally 
credited with having procured these cattle for Lord Scudamore. 
In reply to an inquiry from the authors on this point, Mr. 
Cooke writes as follows : — " In my boyhood, passed in the 
adjoining village of Mordiford, I was assured by an intelligent 
farmer, who was a prominent breeder of Herefords, that the 
first cattle were obtained for Lord Scudamore through the 
agency of the Dunkirk members of the Hereford family, and 
the help of Sir Edward Harley, at that time Governor of 
Dunkirk. There can be little doubt that if this improved 
breed had existed previous to the civil wars, such cattle would 
have been secured for food by the dominant faction, who are 
known to have appropriated all the live stock found on the 
Holme Lacy estate." 

Mr. Welles, in his article on the breed in the " Cyclopedia of 
Agriculture " edited by J. Chalmers Morton, after mentioning 
the fact that Mr. Knight had stated that Lord Scudamore 
introduced from Flanders "some red cows with white faces, 
adds : " I have been informed by a breeder of eminence, now 
deceased, that he had heard his mother, when a very old 
woman, say that she remembered them first introduced as 
a breed," which, he says, may in some degree corroborate the 
statement of Mr. Knight. 

The Flemish cattle introduced by Lord Scudamore must 
have had some influence in changing the colour and form of 
the Hereford breed, the exact extent of which it is now 
impossible to determine, inasmuch as we have no records as 
to their dissemination, or observations as to the effect of the 
cross, further than the testimony of Mr. Knight. But we are 
inclined to think that the first deviation in colour can be 
traced to another and an earlier source. It has been con- 
sidered desirable to give somewhat lengthy extracts from Mr. 
Storer's and Professor Boyd Dawkins' writings in reference 
to the white cattle of Wales. These cattle, we may assume, 
were to be found in the portion of Herefordshire that was at 
one time included in Welsh territory, and they may probably 



ORIGIN OF THE BREED 27 

have extended to other parts of the county. Their prevalence 
in the adjoining county of Brecknock has been estabhshed. 
If the Welsh white cattle had been crossed with the native 
breed of Hereford, as it is almost certain they would have 
been, the first cause of the appearance of animals with white 
markings among the stock of the county does not seem to 
be far to seek. But the influence of the Welsh white cattle 
on the early Herefords does not diminish the value of Mr. 
Knight's testimony regarding a subsequent infusion of fresh 
blood by means of the Flemish cattle. These, however, would 
simply have strengthened a tendency to white markings, 
already existing in the breed — thus assisting the early im- 
provers who aimed at fixing the white face as a dominant 
characteristic. 

The information given to Mr. Rowlandson, on the authority 
of Mr. Tully, is entitled to credence only in so far as it relates 
to that gentleman's own stock. There were white-faced cattle 
in the county before the birth of the bull calf thus marked in 
the herd of Mr. Tully's ancestor about the middle of the 
eighteenth century, although that may have been the earliest 
appearance of an animal of this colour among the Huntington 
stock. In view of the facts that have been mentioned, the 
occurrence at Huntington does not seem so mysterious as has 
been supposed, and it is manifestly wrong to say that it was 
to this bull calf that the change in colour of the whole breed 
was due. No doubt, however, this unexpected incident, and 
the persistent use of the white-faced bull as a sire, must have 
assisted other agencies in strengthening the hereditary character 
of the white markings among the Hereford cattle generally. 
The inter-crossing with the white cattle of Wales ; the cross 
of the white-faced Flemish cattle, and the methodical use of 
the white-faced bull calved in the Huntington herd, were all, 
so to speak, tributaries of one main force — the white-faced 
characteristic in Hereford cattle, which ultimately came to 
possess the power and uniformity of a fixed family current. 
The preservation of the testimony of Mr. Tully is valuable, 
mainly as affording an early example of the power of breeders 
to direct or modify the character of our breeds of cattle. 

The Earl of Chesterfield devoted some attention to the 
investigation of the origin of the Hereford breed of cattle, and 
in answer to a letter addressed to him by the authors, through 
the Hon. and Rev. Berkeley Stanhope, By ford Rectory, Here- 
ford, in 1885, his lordship courteojusly wrote: "Some time 
ago I looked up the history of our'cattle, and found it stated 
that they came from the Ukraine — not that Lord Scuda- 
more imported them. I believe he had them from Holland." 



28 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Lord Chesterfield subsequently sent an extract from an able 
article that appeared in the Quarterly Revieiv for March, 
1849, in which it is said: "The Hereford brings good 
evidence that he is the representative of a widely diffused and 
ancient race. The most uniform drove of oxen which we ever 
saw consisted of 500 from the Ukraine. They had white 
faces, upward horns, and tawny bodies. Placed in Hereford, 
Leicester, or Northampton markets, they would have puzzled 
the graziers as to the land of their nativity, but no one would 
have hesitated to pronounce that they were rough Herefords." 
There is yet another explanation of the " origin " of the 
breed. In the possession of the Galliers family (who, as we 
shall subsequently point out, were closely connected with the 
early improvement of Hereford cattle) is a curious document 
that was found among the papers of Mr. William Galliers, of 
Frogdon, who was born in 1744, and was the eldest son of the 
gentleman referred to. It is as follows : — " HEREFORD BUL- 
LOCKS. — This breed, so celebrated for producing quantity of 
beef, indeed, the crack of the present day, seems to combine 
all the desirable qualities — length, depth, substance, rotundity, 
fineness, yet sufficiency of bone. From seeing a very 
beautiful and complete show ox, about the year 1797, which 
they called a Hereford, I was first led strongly to suspect 
that the Hereford had at some period received a northern 
cross. My opinion has lately been confirmed by a Here- 
fordshire farmer, who informed me that about 50 years 
since a Mr. Galliers, of the Grange, near Leominster, pro- 
cured from Yorkshire a red bull with a white face and rather 
wide horns. He bred from this bull, and the produce becoming 
fashionable in Herefordshire, actually laid the foundation of 
the present famous breed, and thence it seems the bald face 
of the Herefords is derived. My informant further imparted to 
me a late and very commendable resolution in the Hereford 
breeders to cross no more, but to adopt the midland county 
system of breeding and improving solely from their own native 
stock. Conjoining beef and labour, they stand doubtless upon 
the summit." The document which we have transcribed from 
the original manuscript is in the handwriting of Mr. William 
Galliers, of Frogdon, and was evidently copied from a journal 
or paper published some time during the first ten years of the 
nineteenth century, which would make the alleged purchase of 
the bull date from about 1750 or 1760. Beyond the fact 
that it is traditionally known that Mr. Galliers, of Wigmore 
Grange, founded a herd of superior white-face cattle soon 
after he succeeded his father in 1740, and did introduce, for 
the improvement of his stock, animals from other districts, 



ORIGIN OF THE BREED 29 

this being the general practice of improvers at that time, 
we have been unable to find any testimony that can be 
regarded as corroborative of the alleged importation of the 
bull from Yorkshire. If it did really take place it may be 
looked upon as another influence in the formation of the breed, 
although here again it is quite misleading to say that this 
bull " laid the foundation of the present famous breed." 
It is probably to this incident that Parkinson refers, when 
he says : * " Doctor de Salis told me when I surveyed the 
county of Bucks, that he had heard an old gentleman farmer 
say the Hereford breed originally were all red cattle — 
red faces, etc., when a bull brought in from some other part, 
with a white face, proving a good getter, was the forerunner 
of this most excellent breed, which, I am inclined to think, if 
not the best, are as good graziers' beasts as any in England ; 
at all events, by what I could learn from the Doctor, they 
were very much improved by the cross." 

Professor Boyd Dawkins, the eminent scientist, author of 
" Cave Hunting," " Early Man in Britain," etc., favoured us 
with the following valuable communication in reference to the 
development of the Hereford breed : — " The point you raise 
as to the colours of the cattle is very interesting. So far as I 
know, in the Roman times in this country, there were only 
small domestic cattle of the type of the Scotch and old Welsh, 
i.e. of the strain of Bos longifrons. The large cattle {i.e. 
white with red ears — Chillingham) were introduced about the 
time of the English conquest of Britain, and probably from 
• the low countries ' and the region of the Elbe. They spread 
over the whole country on the eastern side (and were found in 
Wales in the days of King John, at latest — and I think in the 
days of Howel Dha). Ultimately the dark Welsh cattle were 
pushed to the west, into the hilly districts from which now 
they are so rapidly disappearing. Both these breeds are 
Neolithic in point of age on the continent. The Hereford 
breed, in my belief, derives its white face from the latter, or 
Bos primigeniiis stock, and as the large cattle of Holland are 
derived from this strain, it is very likely that the fresh blood 
introduced by Lord Scudamore, many centuries after the 
original introduction, would strongly accentuate the white 
face, I have not gone into the question of the red cattle, 
because the red colour is, according to Sorby,t always present 
in dark hair, where it is masked by the black pigment. 

* " Treatise on the Breeding and Management of Live Stock." By 
Richard Parkinson. i8lo. 

t Dr. Sorby, of Sheffield, whose essays are recorded.in the Catalogue 
of Authors, pubhshed by the Royal Society. 



30 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Remove the latter, and the colour is red. In such domesticated 
and crossed animals as cattle, I should expect red to occur 
sporadically." 

A review of all the known circumstances connected with 
the origin and early development of the Hereford breed seems 
to establish the fact that it was founded on a variety of the 
aboriginal cattle of the country of the type from which 
the Devon and Sussex breeds have been derived, and that the 
original colour was probably a whole red. At an early period 
the Welsh white cattle, which were not only different in colour 
but larger in size than the county variety, and probably con- 
taining some foreign blood, were introduced and mixed with the 
stock of Herefordshire, imparting a tendency to white markings, 
and enlarging the frames of the native breed. As Professor 
Boyd Dawkins very aptly puts it, Lord Scudamore's importa- 
tion from Flanders during the seventeenth century " strongly 
accentuated the white face," but it did not render it universal, 
because late in the eighteenth, and early in the nineteenth cen- 
tury, there were still Hereford cattle of dark red or brown colour 
with scarcely any white, as well as those with mottle faces, a 
peculiarity which may have indicated a disposition to revert to 
the original colour. The cross with the large Flanders cattle 
may also have further increased the bulk of the county breed. 
During the eighteenth century other districts of England were 
resorted to for stock, of which, perhaps, we have an example 
in the case of the bull alleged to have been introduced by Mr. 
Galliers about 1760 ; in the case of an infusion of Gloucester- 
shire blood by Mr. Yarworth, which will be mentioned in 
another place, as well as an infusion of Devon blood by the 
same breeder ; and a mixture of the Montgomery cattle, stated 
by Mr. Housman to have been made by one of the Tomkins 
family. 

It should also be remembered that during the eighteenth 
century the Herefords were not the only breed among which 
there were specimens with white faces, although there was pro- 
bably none in which this trait was so largely diffused. The bull 
said to have been introduced from Yorkshire was white iaced. 
Several of the early Durham cattle were of the same colour, 
Parkinson (18 10) mentions that the Yorkshire cattle belonging 
to his grandfather were in colour and horns very like the 
Herefords : generally red with white faces. Marshall, in his 
♦'Rural Economy of Norfolk" (1780-82), says the predomi- 
nant breed in that county was " a Herefordshire breed in 
miniature, and the favourite colour a blood red with a white 
or mottled face." A painting by Stubbs, of which Sir Walter 
Gilbey has an engraving at Elsenham Hall, represents a 



ORIGIN OF THE BREED 31 

celebrated Lincolnshire ox of the Long-horn breed drawn in 
1798, that is of a reddish colour, with white face. 

Like nearly all our most valuable modern breeds, the 
Hereford would therefore appear to have been the result of a 
judicious amalgamation of various good sorts, both home-bred 
and foreign — various elements engrafted into the native stock 
stimulating the development of the better properties, but the 
original breed was by far the most predominant influence in 
its ultimate development. 

It was not until about the middle of the eighteenth century 
that the improvement of any breed of cattle began to be con- 
ducted upon scientific principles ; and when these were put in 
operation in the county of Hereford, it was upon a race that 
had been drawn from various sources, and that had come to 
possess great hereditary power and uniformity in merit, if not 
in colour. Even before Bakewell's work was commenced there 
is evidence that special care was being devoted to the breed- 
ing of Hereford cattle by members of the Tomkins family. 
From what we shall be able to bring forward, it will be seen 
that the improvement of the Hereford breed as beef pro- 
ducers was commenced at an earlier period than that of any 
other description of British cattle, and although on certain 
points our information is not so ample as could have been 
wished, yet it is believed we have been able to sketch with 
tolerable completeness the materials on which the present 
splendid breed has been established. Considerable attention 
has necessarily been devoted to colour, which Darwin calls that 
" most fleeting of characters," and this feature will meet us 
and challenge explanation in subsequent portions of the work. 
Here we have sought mainly to convey the views of all the 
authorities as to the elements that may have entered into the 
composition of the breed. 

But one of the most important factors — the power of man 
to seize upon and perpetuate desirable properties — has scarcely 
been touched upon. This, however, will form the chief subject 
with which we shall have to deal, when w^hat may be termed 
the historic period in the annals of the breed is reached. 



CHAPTER II 

PIONEERS AND THEIR WORK 

Before proceeding to trace the early progress of the Hereford 
breed, it is desirable that the objects for which cattle were 
reared during the eighteenth century should be recalled. The 
slight inducement that was at that time offered to agriculturists 
to improve the live stock of the farm must also be indicated. 

As is well known, the production of beef or milk vv^as not 
then the sole aim in cattle-breeding. Usefulness for the pur- 
poses of labour in the field was generally regarded as being 
of more importance than either. Even up to Marshall's time 
(1770- 1 800) cattle were in many parts used chiefly for draught, 
and it was only after they had discharged this function that 
they were fattened for the butcher. In his " Rural Economy 
of Gloucestershire," Marshall mentions that the animals that 
were purchased for fattening by the farmers of that county 
were of the Hereford breed, and that the prices for six-year-old 
oxen from the plough varied from ;;^io to £1$. He records 
a case in which an ox was worked until it was fifteen years 
old " and then fattened tolerably well." A further example 
is cited by him of three oxen, each aged eighteen years, 
having been finished in the time usually allowed for six-year- 
olds, a fact that he had " singular satisfaction in registering." 
He relates with astonishment the circumstance that the age 
at which Hereford oxen were generally fattened was six 
years, and as to this example of what he looked upon as 
extravagant waste, he observes : '* I do not mean to censure 
the workers of these oxen for throwing them up in their prime 
as beasts of draught, much less to blame the graziers for 
fattening them or the butchers for slaughtering them in their 
useful stage of life, but I cannot help expressing my regret on 
seeing animals so singularly well adapted to the cultivation 
of the lands of the kingdom, as are the principal part of the 
six-year-old oxen of Herefordshire, proscribed and cut off 
in the fulness of their strength and usefulness." Those were 
manifestly not the days of early maturity and " Baby Beef." 




r!ioto:iiy ir. //. Bus//',.] 

Wm. Galliers (1744-1S32 

(King's Pvon). 
John Price (Ryall). 
T. A. Knight.' 



William Galliers 
(Wigmore Grange). 
JoHX Hewer. 
Thomas Jeffries. 



PIONEERS AND THEIR WORK 33 

It is also stated by Duncumb that up to 1805 the rearing 
of cattle in Herefordshire for the purpose of agriculture 
prevailed almost universally, nearly half the ploughing being 
performed by them, while they likewise took an equal share in 
the labours of the harvest. For these operations a very large 
description of animal was required. According to Professor 
Low, size, adaptation to the dairy, and the purposes of labour 
were the properties chiefly sought by the early breeders of 
Herefordshire prior to the first recorded attempt at systematic 
improvement. 

Nor were the prices paid even for well-matured cattle very 
tempting. As has been seen, Marshall gives the range of 
value of six-year-old oxen at ;^io to ;i^i5. Duncumb states 
that an original account-book kept by William Town, in 
the county of Hereford, contained the following entry : — 
"25th August, 1694, sold the nine oxen at £$2, the money 
to be paid into the exchequer within a month." The price, 
Duncumb adds, was thus 5^ guineas each, and the oxen were 
probably sold fat in London. Mr. A. E. Hughes, Wintercott, 
has in his possession a curious document — described as " a 
true and perfect inventory of the real and personal estate of 
William Davies, late of Wintercott, in the parish of Leominster, 
in the county of Hereford, taken and appraised in March, 
1 76 1 " — which throws some light on the prices then prevailing 
for cattle in Herefordshire. It states that in the cow-house 
at Wintercott were five cows and calves which were valued 
at £26 10s. the lot ; one cow in calf and a dry cow, £7 ', in 
the ox-house, two oxen, ;^ii lis.; and in the fold six two- 
year-old beasts, ;^I2 los., and five yearling beasts, £y los. 
Even allowing for the greater value of money, there was evi- 
dently not much encouragement, until towards the close of 
the eighteenth century, for farmers to exercise care in the 
breeding of their cattle, their attention having been directed 
chiefly to the rearing of animals of large size and great 
strength. 

The history of the early improvement of agriculture in 
England has often been written. It does not require repetition 
here, except in so far as it is necessary to show that it was ac- 
companied by a decided change in the objects for which cattle 
breeding was carried on. As the result of the improvement in 
husbandry, and the industrial development of the country, the 
ox came to be bred, not solely or chiefly as an animal of 
draught, but principally as a machine for the rapid and 
economical conversion of the crops of the farm into human 
food. Bakewell early perceived the new mission that was 
opening up for live stock, and from 1755 he took the most 

D 



34 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

prominent part in the inauguration of a method that ulti- 
mately effected a revolution in cattle and sheep breeding in 
England. As Youatt puts it : " Improvement had hitherto 
been attempted to be produced by selecting females from the 
native stock of the county, and crossing them with males of 
an alien breed. Mr. Bakewell's good sense led him to imagine 
that the object could be better accomplished by uniting the 
superior branches of the same breed than by any mixture of 
foreign ones," This description of part of Bakewell's system, 
and it is only a part, requires supplement to the extent that 
his aim was to produce animals not for draught, but those that 
would quickly accumulate flesh and fat. 

Almost contemporaneously with Bakewell — some of them 
indeed preceding him — there appeared in Herefordshire a race 
of breeders who endeavoured to improve the cattle of that 
county, and one of them at least (the elder Benjamin Tomkins) 
began the work antecedently to him, his herd having acquired 
celebrity soon after the year 1742. It may be assumed that 
these pioneer breeders had not, in all cases, a clear aim in 
breeding for early maturity and the accumulation of flesh 
and fat. Their efforts for a considerable time were doubtless 
directed to securing in their stock adaptability both for the 
purposes of draught and the production of beef Conse- 
quently when individual breeders of Herefords are first heard 
of, either historically or traditionally, it is in connection with 
the celebrity of their teams of work oxen, these being after- 
wards sold to the graziers. 

Richard Tomkins and Benjamin Tomkins, 
the elder 
The authors in 1885 were favoured by Mr. Thomas Tomkins 
Galliers, Wistaston, Weobley, with a mass of information 
regarding some of these early breeders of Hereford cattle. 
Among the documents placed at their disposal was a copy of 
the will of Richard Tomkins of the New House, King's Pyon, 
Hereford, which was made in 1720, and was proved in 1723. 
By it, Richard Tomkins, described as a yeoman, bequeathed 
to his sons and daughters his estate, consisting of New House, 
Cross Field, and other lands, as well as personal property. 
To his son Richard he demised, with other effects, " one yoke 
of oxen called Spark and Merchant," and to his son Benjamin 
" one cow called Silver, with her calf" It is indicated by the 
distinct specification of these animals that Richard Tomkins 
devoted unusual attention to the breeding of his stock, for 
this is one of the earliest instances in which the names of 
cattle are given in a document of the kind. It further shows 



PIONEERS AND THEIR WORK 35 

that not only the work oxen, but also the breeding stock were 
held in estimation by this old breeder. 

Reference has already been made to the fact that several 
authorities on the history of Hereford cattle have designated 
Benjamin Tomkins— who was born in 1745, and was the son 
of the first great improver — as the founder of the breed. 
Here there is evidence that care was being bestowed 
upon the breeding of Hereford cattle a considerable time 
before Benjamin Tomkins, the younger, was born. Although 
the claim on his behalf cannot therefore be fully sustained 
as regards himself personally, there is no doubt that his 
father was the first by whom the systematic improvement 
was begun, while he undoubtedly contributed in a very large 
measure to the development of the new character of the 
breed as beef producers. It will, therefore, be interesting to 
give some notes on the history of the Tomkins family which 
Mr. Galliers supplied. 

" The celebrated Benjamin Tomkins of Brook House, 
King's Pyon, whose herd of Hereford cattle realised such 
high prices in 1819, was," Mr. Galliers observes, "one of the 
ancient and much renowned house of Tomkins of Weobley, a 
small town lying about 12 miles north-west of Hereford, in 
that county. Existing documents show that the family were 
seated in the county as early as 1430. The Tomkins of 
Weobley were of considerable note and position in its neigh- 
bourhood prior to the civil wars of Charles the First, but being 
enthusiastic Royalists they suffered much in consequence of that 
unfortunate monarch's overthrow. They were distinguished 
in music and painting, being patronised by Royalty in both 
arts, and the leading members of the house were great and 
consistent politicians for many generations, representing 
Leominster and Weobley in Parliament at successiv^e periods 
during the seventeenth century. The branch from which the * 
distinguished cattle breeder — or rather breeders — sprang was 
known as the Tomkins of Garnestone, a considerable domain, 
picturesquely situated immediately south of Weobley, which 
belonged to James Tomkins, lord of Weobley and M.P. for 
Leominster 1623-8, who was much esteemed as a county 
gentleman and an active debater in the House of Commons. 

" The material support furnished by him to his Royal 
master, Charles the First, during the civil wars, so impoverished 
the family that a great portion of their property in and around 
Weobley was lost, and we find several of his descendants 
yeomen or farmers in the neighbourhood in the beginning of 
the eighteenth century, notably one Richard Tomkins of the 
New House, King's Pyon, who spent his life there and became 



36 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

a very successful farmer, famous for his breed of work oxen. 
In his will made in 1720, and of which I have sent you a 
copy, he specially bequeathed a yoke of oxen called Spark 
and Merchant to his son Richard, and a cow called Silver 
with her calf to his son Benjamin. There can be no doubt 
that these cattle were so willed for special reasons, for accord- 
ing to his will it appears he was possessed of considerable 
property when it was made. Richard Tomkins died in 1723, 
leaving six sons and one daughter. Five of the sons estab- 
lished themselves as farmers in the immediate neighbourhood, 
namely— (i) Miles of The Hill (Gentleman Miles) ; (2) 
Richard of Wormesley (Dick of the Grange) ; (3) George of 
Wootton ; (4) Benjamin of Canon Pyon and Wellington ; (5) 
Thomas of Calverhill. 

"The fourth son, Benjamin, the first distinguished cattle 
breeder, was born at the New House, King's Pyon, in 17 14, 
and began business at the Court House, Canon Pyon, about 
1738. He married Anne Preece of Alton in 1742, and sub- 
sequently removed to Wellington Court in 1758, where he died 
in 1789, leaving six children — four sons and two daughters. 
It appears that he and William Galliers of Wigmore Grange 
were very intimate friends. Each of them at that time (1760) 
possessed a herd of noted cattle, the result of years of thought 
and labour. They seem to have bred from each other's stocks, 
and it is understood that conjointly and separately they made 
excursions to different parts of England in search of blood to 
improve them. 

" Benjamin Tomkins, the renowned breeder, was the second 
son of Benjamin Tomkins of Court House, Canon Pyon, where 
he was born in 1745, and began farming at Blackball, King's 
Pyon. He married, in 1772, his first cousin Sarah, second 
daughter of Richard Tomkins of The Grange, Wormesley. 
He occupied Blackball until 1798, when he sublet it to his 
nephew, George Tomkins, jun., of Frogdon, and removed to 
Wellington Court, which he held as a by-take after his father's 
death in 1789. In 18 12 he gave up Wellington Court and 
went to reside at his own place. Brook House, King's Pyon, 
where he died in 181 5." 

It has been considered advisable at this stage to present 
these full and exact details regarding the Tomkins family, 
because great misconception has previously existed on the 
subject which it is necessary to at once endeavour to remove. 
For the confusion that has arisen Professor Low is largely 
responsible. In his able work on the " Domesticated Animals 
of the British Isles," published in 1845, Low remarks: — "The 
Hereford breed, as it now exists, owes all its reputation to 



PIONEERS AND THEIR WORK 37 

modem changes." He adds, "About the year 1769 the late 
Mr. Benjamin Tomkins began a system of breeding which 
ultimately exercised a great influence on the stock of this part 
of England. . . . Mr. Tomkins, when a young man, was in 
the employment of an individual, afterwards his father-in-law 
and had the especial charge of the dairy. Two cows had been 
brought to this dairy, supposed to have been purchased at the 
fair of Kington, on the confines of Wales. Mr. Tomkins 
remarked the extraordinary tendency of these animals to 
become fat. On his marriage he acquired these two cows, 
and commenced breeding from them on his own account. 
The one with more of white he called Pigeon, and the other, 
of a rich red colour with a spotted face, he called Mottle." 

It has always appeared improbable that the Benjamin 
Tomkins mentioned by Low (who was evidently unacquainted 
with the fact that there were two breeders of that name), 
would have been likely to go out to service, seeing that his 
father possessed considerable means. Mr. Galliers' attention 
having been drawn to the matter, he stated his view of the 
circumstances, which agreed with our own. " You will observe," 
he said, "from the will of Richard Tomkins of the New 
House, that Benjamin Tomkins the elder (born in 17 14) was 
left only a cottage with a little land, and the cow Silver and 
her calf. Having two younger brothers, it is likely he would 
have left home early and taken a position of trust on a farm, 
so that the statement that he married his employer's daughter 
seems highly probable, more especially when we consider the 
position he afterwards attained. It appears to be not generally 
known that there were two Benjamin Tomkins of Wellington 
Court, father and son, and hence the confusion as to them and 
their cattle. Low must refer to the father, for the Hereford 
cattle were established before the second Benjamin Tomkins 
was married in 1772. It is likewise highly unlikely that the 
second Benjamin Tomkins was ever employed by Richard 
Tomkins of The Grange (whose daughter he married), as 
that generation of the family were not only independent of but 
considered themselves above that kind of thing. My aunt 
(Miss Letitia Galliers) remembers her ancestors talking of the 
cattle of the first Benjamin Tomkins, who was able to leave 
his eldest son Thomas at the Court House, Benjamin at 
Blackball, he himself going to Wellington." 

After consideration of the foregoing facts, it will be 
admitted that some of Low's statements must have applied to 
Benjamin Tomkins, who was born in 17 14 and died in 1789, 
and not to his son Benjamin, who was born in 174S, married 
in 1772, and died in 181 5. These explanations remove several 



38 



HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 






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PIONEERS AND THEIR WORK 39 

difificulties other than those merely of a biographical descrip- 
tion, that have occurred to those who have studied the history 
of the breed as it is disclosed in the works of writers who 
have attempted to connect the names of individuals with its 
early improvement. Low, it will be noticed, fixes the date 
of the commencement of the improvement of the breed by 
the marriage of Benjamin Tomkins, an event which occurred 
in 1772. The alteration of the character of the whole breed 
of a county progresses slowly. It must first be carried out in 
the breeder's own herd, and the influence gradually extended 
to others. Now, the Hereford in 1788 had attained such a 
reputation as a distinct variety that it drew from Marshall the 
compliment " of being the first breed of cattle in this island." 
Between 1772 and 1788 the interval is about sixteen years, 
and it is impossible that the fame of the breed could have been 
established in that brief period by the efforts of one man. 
But Benjamin Tomkins the elder was married in 1742, at 
the age of 32, when presumably he began on an extensive 
scale his work as a cattle breeder, the nucleus of his herd being 
the cow Silver and her calf, bequeathed to him by his father 
in 1720, he being then only six years old. Between that date 
{1742) and the time indicated by Marshall, the interval is 
46 years, during which great ameliorative changes might have 
been, and doubtless were, effected on the breed. In the im- 
provements then carried out, Tomkins (father and son) took 
the leading part. 

The importance of having correct dates induces us to print 
an extract from the pedigree of the Tomkins family, which 
has been prepared by Mr. Galliers, and the accuracy of which 
can be certified, it being extracted from official records that 
are open to public inspection. 

There is thus evidence to prove that the elder Benjamin 
Tomkins was a breeder of Hereford cattle, and that his 
stock traced back to that of his father Richard Tomkins, 
who flourished in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
Benjamin Tomkins senior, as we have seen, was an active 
improver of the breed, and was celebrated for his strain of 
cattle, which are traditionally believed to have been chiefly of 
a dark red or very dark brown colour, with mottled faces. 
Except what has already been mentioned no record of his 
career as a breeder has been discovered, but it is evident 
that he was one of the first who made an attempt to breed for 
the butcher as well as for the plough. The improvement of 
the breed for beef purposes begun by him, was completed by 
his son, the work of the two extending from 1742 to 181 5. 

There were about the same time, engaged in the work of 



40 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

improvement, several other breeders whose names have come 
down to us, particularly those of Tully, Skyrme, Galliers, 
Haywood, and Yeomans. So far as pedigree records reveal 
the earlier history of the improved breed, it may be said to 
have been largely moulded upon the stocks of Tomkins, 
Tully, and Skyrme. Before referring to Tully and Skyrme, 
it will be convenient to allude to another family of breeders. 

William Galliers of Wigmore Grange 

William Galliers of Wigmore Grange was intimately 
associated with the elder Benjamin Tomkins in the work of 
improving the breed. His connection with the early Herefords 
has been overlooked by most writers, a circumstance in some 
measure due to the fact that the later members of the family 
have not continued to breed pedigree Hereford cattle, and also 
owing to Mr. Eyton, the first editor of the Herd Book, not 
having obtained much information regarding the stock derived 
from the Galliers herds. But there can be no question as to 
the merit of the early Galliers cattle. They went into the very 
best herds of the time ; and any doubt as to their superiority 
will at once be removed when it is stated that William Galliers 
of Frogdon, son of William Galliers of Wigmore Grange, 
gained no fewer than 13 cups and two decanters for Hereford 
cattle at the shows of the Herefordshire Agricultural Society 
between the years 1802 to 18 13. 

William Galliers of Wigmore Grange, the friend and 
companion of the elder Benjamin Tomkins, was born in 17 1 3, 
and died on May 26th, 1779, in his 66th year. There is 
in existence a lease of Wigmore Grange in his favour, dated 
June 27th, 1760, granted by Mr. Salwey Cockram, and made 
in consideration of the surrender of a previous agreement for 
21 years, from June, 1745. No doubt this gentleman did 
much to improve the breed, and his close connection with the 
elder Benjamin Tomkins has already been noted. There 
seems to have been frequent disputes as to whether he or the 
elder Benjamin Tomkins was the more eminent breeder, and 
it is believed by some that Wigmore Grange was one of the 
earliest seats of the " White faces." As has been pointed out 
in the preceding chapter, there was an opinion prevailing that 
Mr. Galliers had introduced sometime during the first half of 
the eighteenth century a bull, red with white face, from York- 
shire, but no confirmation of the allegation has been obtained 
other than the document printed in the first chapter, although 
there is little doubt that both the elder Benjamin Tomkins 
and Williani Galliers went outside the county for fresh blood. 



PIONEERS AND THEIR WORK 41 

The herd at Wigmore Grange, which had by that time 
passed into the possession of John GalHers, son of WiUiam 
Galliers and brother of WiUiam GalHers of Frogdon, who 
gained so many prizes at the early shows of the Herefordshire 
Agricultural Society, was sold on October 15th, 1795. Prior 
to that time a number of the best animals in the herd had 
been acquired by William Galliers, junior, who went to 
Oxhouse about 1765, to Eye in 1790, and to Frogdon in 1799. 
But the names of the purchasers at the Wigmore Grange sale 
prove that the herd was then held in high estimation by com- 
petent judges. This being the first sale of Herefords of which 
there is a detailed account, it may be useful to give the full 
list of prices and purchasers, as showing some of those who 
were then interesting themselves in the breed. Prices for 
Herefords had not at that time begun to advance, and it is 
evident that, at the date of the sale, agricultural affairs were 
in a depressed condition. 

Accoimt of Stock sold at Wigvwre Grange, October l^th, 1795 : 

Lot I, Dainty— Mr. Smith, Shellesley, £iz i^s. ; (2) Pleasant— Mr. 
Jeffries, The Grove, ^9 15^. ; (3) Blossom — Mr. Jeffries, The Sheriffs, 
£\\ ijyS. ; (4) Tidy— Mr. Price, Buckland, ^13 ; (5) Damsel and calf- 
Mr. Downes, Ashford, ^13 15^.; (6) Broady and calf — Mr. Smith, 
Berrington, ^^17 \s. \ (7) Young Broady and calf^Mr. Smith, Dirty 
Middleton, £\o \s. ; (8) Tulip— Mr. Lambert, Leinthall, ^8 gj. ; 
(9) Stately— not sold; (10) Gentle— Mr. Smith, Shellesley, ^26 ^s. ; 
(11) Sally — Mr. Jones, Wrexham, £\'>,; (12) Nancy — Mr. Smith, 
Yeston, £1^ i2>s.\ (13) Dolly — Mr. Jones, Wrexham, ^10 \os.\ (14) 
Nutty— not sold; (15) Dumplin — Mr. Smith, Yeston, ^23 lU. ; (16) 
Young Nubbin — Mr. Turner, Aymestry, ^14 \Zs. ; (17) Nelly — not sold ; 
(18) Peggy— Mr. Jeffries, The Sheriffs, £% \y. ; (19) Old Broady— Mr. 
Smith, Yeston, ^20 \os. ; (20) Old Nubbin— not sold ; (21) Lovely — Mr. 
Ashdown, Little Breinton, ^13 ; (22) Molly — Mr. Turner, Aymestry ; 
(23) Tanny— not sold ; (24) Pretty— not sold ; (25) Goodluck— Mr. 
Ashdown, Little Breinton, ^16; (26) Bull— not sold ; (27) Madcap — not 
sold; (28) Madcap's calf— Mr. Proctor, Orleton, ^12; (29) Pretty — not 
sold ; (30) Bull calf, Lady's, see 35 — Mr. Beddoes, Diddlesbury, 
£2\ los.\ (31) Blowdy — not sold; (32) Her bull calf— Mr. Smith, 
Holme Lacy, ^12 I2J. ; (33) Silk— not sold; (34) Her bull calf— Mr. 
Phillips, Joy, /J13 15^. ; (35) Lady — not sold; (36) Cherry— not sold; 
(38) entered above ; (39) Duchess — Mr. Turner, Aymestry, £21 2S. ; 
(40) Her calf^Mr. Harris, £\2\ (41) Young Blowdy — not sold; (42) 
Her bull calf— Mr. Smith, Shellesley, ^18 18^. ; (43) Bull calf— Mr. 
Smith, Yeston, ;^24 \os. ; (44) Browny — not sold ; (45) Rose — not sold; 
(46) Ring — not sold ; (47) Tulip — not sold ; (48) Two-year-old heifer- 
Mr. Turner, Aymestry, ^32 i,s. ; (49) Ditto — Mr. Smith, Holme Lacy, 
^8; (50) Ditto— Mr. Smith, Berrington, £12, iZs. ; (51) Ditto— Mr. 
Downes, Ashford, £() 13J. ; (52) Ditto — Mr. Turner, Aymestry, ;i^i5 Bj. ; 
(53) Ditto— Mr. Smith, Yeston, £\o ; (54) Ditto— Mr. Jenks, Grindon, 
^14 ; (55) Ditto, Mr. Wainwright, £\2 ; (56) Ditto— Mr. Lewis, Gladstry, 
£7 ys. ; (57) Ditto— Mr. Lewis, Gladstry, ^6 12^. ; (58) Ditto— Mr, 



42 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Downes, Yeston, £c) \2s. ; (59) Ditto — Mr. Jeffries, The Grove, ^9 9^. ; 
(60) Ditto— Mr. Lambert, Long Leinthall, £c) i^s. ; (61) Ditto — Mr. 
Jones, Wrexham, £c) gs. ; (62) Ditto— Mr. Jones, Wrexham, ^^8; (63) 
Ditto — Mr. Weyman, Breinton, ;^io ; (64) Ditto— Mr. Boddenham, 
£7 9s. ; (65) Ditto— Mr. Smith, Berrington, £7 2s. ; (66) Ditto— Mr. 
Jeffries, The Sheriffs, ;i{^io los. ; (67) Ditto— Mr. Smith, Berrington, 
^10 2J. ; (68) Ditto— Mr. Downes, Yeston, i^io ; (69) Ditto — Mr. 
Jeffries, The Sheriffs, £g gs. ; (70) Ditto— Mr. Smith, Berrington, £g ; 
(71) Two Bullocks — Mr. Smith, Berrington, ^12 12s. ; (72) Two calves 
— Mr. Price, Buckland, ^12 I4.r. ; (7;^) Ditto— Mr. Edwards, Comb, 
^11 los. ; (74) Ditto— Mr. Hitchcott, Brakes, ^11 2s. ; (75) Ditto— Mr. 
Onions, Rowton, ^10; (76) Ditto— Mr. Harris, Moor, £7; (77) Ditto- 
Mr. Harris, Moor, £7 7s. ; (78) Ditto — Mr. Harris, Moor £g gs. ; (79) 
Ditto— Mr. Downes, Yatton, ^8 8s. ; (80) Mr. Downes, Yatton, ^9 ; 
(81) Ditto— Mr. Harris, Moor, ^6 I5J-. ; (82) Ditto— Mr. Ashdown, 
Little Breinton, ^8 12s. 

The two sons of William GalHers — William, born at 
Wigmore Grange in 1744, who died at Oxhouse in 1832, 
aged 88 years ; and John, born at Wigmore Grange in 1755, 
who died at Coxall in 1828— were both celebrated breeders. 
The prize list of the early shows of the Herefordshire 
Agricultural Society proves the character of the stock of 
William Galliers, and the sale list just given indicates the 
estimation in which the herd, after it had passed into the 
hands of John Galliers, was held, although he does not seem to 
have long continued breeding Herefords after his removal 
to Coxall in 1795. Miss Letitia Galliers, granddaughter of 
William Galliers of Frogdon, remembered some animals of 
the mottle-face variety being at Oxhouse. She believed that 
at first a portion of the Galliers cattle were more or less mottle 
faced, but they gradually assumed the red with white face 
markings, and by selection they ultimately became wholly of 
that colour. There could, in her opinion, be no doubt that her 
grandfather won his prizes with white-faced animals. Some 
notes taken from a memorandum book belonging to William 
Galliers of Frogdon show that in 1775 his oxen weighed 
80 St. 4 lbs., while in 1787 an ox weighed 89 st. 11 lbs., and 
a cow 84 St. 9 lbs. He seems to have sold his cattle by 
weight, at 4^. per lb. 

William Galliers went from Frogdon to Lynch Court in 
1 8 16, where he bred the bull Cupid 260. He resided at 
Lynch Court only for about two or three years, and then 
removed to Oxhouse. It is believed that his stock at Lynch 
Court were acquired by the Rev. J. R. Smythies, while the 
remainder of his herd at Oxhouse passed to his son Thomas 
Galliers (born 1775, died 1861), who bred Reform 254, calved 
in 1826. Reform was the sire of Prince, and the Rev. J. R. 
.Smythies' Young Cupid 259 was by Cupid 260. Thomas 



PIONEERS AND THEIR WORK 43 

Galliers did not continue breeding pedigree cattle, although he 
kept up a good stock. The Galliers cattle thus became 
absorbed in the general stock of the county, and had to some 
extent passed out of recollection when the first volume of the 
Herd Book was compiled in 1846. 



Skyrme and Tully Families 

Thus far it has been possible to speak with some degree of 
certainty as to the pioneer breeders, and to refer to docu- 
mentary evidence in support of the statements made. But 
when we come to the families of Tully and Skyrme, the case 
unfortunately is different. A diligent search has been made 
for fresh information regarding these early breeders, but our 
efforts have to a large extent been unsuccessful. Few docu- 
ments exist, and in their absence tradition is of secondary 
value. Among those with whom communications were opened 
on the subject was the late Mr. Duckham, formerly editor of 
the Hereford Herd Book, who replied : " I do not think there 
is any one connected with either the Skyrme or Tully families 
who can give the slightest information respecting their herds. 
In 1862 I revised and printed a second edition of Volumes I. 
and II. of the Hereford Herd Book, and whilst engaged in 
doing so I made every enquiry I could, in order to make the 
entries more complete, but all the old members of these 
families had passed away. The few descendants who were 
alive were quite unconnected with agriculture, and could not 
give me any information. They, too, are now gone, and I do 
not know any one who can aid you in the matter. A Tully 
bull appears to have been the foundation of Mr. Tudge's herd. 
The celebrated Lord Wilton 4740 traces back to him. The 
first prize ox at the first meeting of the Smithfield Club was 
bred by Tully. The lithograph in my lecture at Cirencester 
was taken from a coloured print I obtained from a member of 
the family. A man who should have been able to have told 
me much respecting the Tully stock, and by whose judgment 
the Hampton Court herd was established, has been dead 
several years, and all he knew passed away with him. 
Although repeatedly pressed by me, I could obtain but little 
support or information for the Herd Book." Enquiries in 
other directions have been almost equally fruitless. 

It has been stated in Mr. Rowlandson's report on the 
agriculture of the county of Hereford, that the first of the 
white-faced cattle was observed in the herd belonging to 
the Tully family, about the middle of the eighteenth century. 
This would indicate the period at which attention was first 



44 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

specially devoted to the breeding of this strain at Huntington, 
and there can be no doubt that the Tully cattle were of great 
merit. They are found taking prominent places at all the 
early shows— at Smithfield and at the Herefordshire Agricul- 
tural Society's exhibitions, while at the first show of the 
Royal Agricultural Society of England in 1839, the first prize 
cow is stated in Volume I. of the Herd Book to have been 
Huntington, bred by Mr. Tully. Many of Mr. Westcar's oxen, 
including the winner of the first prize at Smithfield in 1799, 
were bred by one or other of the Tullys ; and Bingley, in his 
"British Quadrupeds" (1809), states that Mr. Tully, Hunting- 
ton, fatted an ox "to 1928 lbs., the fat weighed 288 lbs., the 
tongue was sold for a guinea, and the hide for three guineas." 
Garrard (1800) gives a coloured print of the first prize ox at 
Smithfield in 1799, which, as has been stated, was bred by Mr. 
Tully. Mr. Welles explains that a larger portion of white 
showed itself in the Tully cattle than in those of any herds of 
eminence on record. Many oxen, he says, of heavy weights, 
and sold for extraordinary prices at Smithfield, originated with 
him. His cattle generally were of large size, but often too 
soft in their flesh and too sleek in their hair. The elder Mr. 
Tully, in whose herd probably the white calf was observed 
about 1750, seems to have left three sons, who attained 
considerable distinction as breeders — Samuel at Huntington, 
Joseph at Haywood, and another at Clyro. ' On February 
2 1 St, 1 8 14, the herd belonging to Samuel Tully at Huntington 
was sold. For the times prices were high. The best cow in 
calf fetched ;^ioo, and the four next best cows and heifers 
with their calves sold for ;^264 los. The whole 16 breeding 
cows with their calves and in calf realised ;i^82i, averaging 
£$ I 6s. each. The contemporary report says, " the remainder 
of this excellent stock fetched equally high prices." Mr. 
Samuel Tully, Huntington, was accidentally killed by one of 
his own bulls in August, 1804. In the obituary notice it was 
said that Mr. Tully stood pre-eminent as a breeder of cattle, 
and it is evident that personally he was held in the highest 
esteem. The herd of Mr. Joseph Tully, Haywood, was sold 
in 1810. 

A large number of the Herefords of the present day can 
be traced back to the herds of the Tullys of Huntington, 
Haywood, and Clyro. 

The cattle of Mr. Skyrme of Stretton, of which records are 
still more scanty, were of a light red colour inclining to yellow, 
with the faces occasionally faintly ticked or speckled. William 
Skyrme of Dewsall, who died in 1804, aged 65 years, had 
^Iso a somewhat noted here}. His daughter, then in h^r 86th 



PIONEERS AND THEIR WORK 45 

year, informed us that her father's cattle were red with white 
face and had wide horns. But it is from the herd of Skyrme 
of Stretton that the most famous animals of this strain are 
descended. 

It is a noteworthy fact that Mr. Thomas A. Knight, in 
founding his herd in the latter part of the eighteenth century, 
after a few preliminary experiments, selected stock from the 
herds of Tully, George Tomkins, and Skyrme, the last, as 
Mr. Housman remarks, giving the somewhat pale red colour, 
the Tomkins cattle the darker shades of red, and the Tully 
the grey, afterwards so celebrated as " the Knight greys." It 
is thus apparent that in the opinion of Mr. Knight, who was 
no mean judge, these three strains of blood were about the 
best the county possessed at the end of the eighteenth century. 
The Tully and Skyrme cattle formed the foundation of a large 
number of other herds, as will be shown when the proceedings 
of later breeders engage attention. It is a misfortune that so 
little can be ascertained as to the material they used, and their 
method of breeding. 

In April, 1805, the whole of the cattle belonging to Mr. 
Skyrme of Stretton were sold by auction when he retired from 
business. He had from the first been an exhibitor at the 
shows of the Herefordshire Agricultural Society from 1797, and 
had been successful. His herd consisted of 21 working oxen, 
8 three-year-old bullocks, 22 cows and heifers with calves and 
in calf, I four-year-old bull, 8 two-year-old heifers, 3 two-year-old 
bullocks, 5 yearling bullocks, and 5 yearling heifers. The sale 
bill described the stock as being " without exception some of 
the finest sorts of breeding cattle in the Kingdom." It went 
on to say that the stock were " worthy the attention of gentle- 
men and curious breeders who wished to rear from the Here- 
fordshire breed which had been peculiarly fortunate in having 
prizes awarded them at the cattle shows at the Smithfield 
and Woburn Abbey," and further that heifers from this herd 
had been sold at £'j^ each. At the sale yearling heifers fetched 
£26, and two-year-old heifers £2<^ ioj-., £2%, and £2^ \os. 
A four-year-old heifer without calf brought ;^4i, and another 
;^42, while a four-year-old heifer with calf realised ;^54. 

Haywood of Clifton-on-Teme 

The family of Haywood of Clifton-on-Teme, where they 
resided for many generations, had a famous variety of cattle, 
which can be traced back to the year 17 13. Mr. Henry 
Haywood of Blakemere House (whose valuable assistance in 
preparing this work is thankfully acknowledged), in a letter 



46 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

to the authors, said: "In the division of John Haywood's 
property in 17 13, he specially refers to his cattle and to one 
of his sons. My father always told me that his great grand- 
father (the said John Haywood) was considered a superior 
man of business, and was a breeder of Hereford cattle ; and 
my uncle, Joseph Smith of Shellesley (who had always lived 
in that neighbourhood), often mentioned this John Haywood 
as a leading man and breeder of Herefords. His information 
would be correct, as he was greatly interested in the breeding 
of Hereford cattle, and had a large herd descended from the 
stock of Tomkins and Price of Ryall" Mr. Haywood had 
in his possession a picture by Weaver, representing the Here- 
ford bull Prizefighter, which bears the following inscription : — 
" Prizefighter, bred by Samuel Haywood, the property of 
Mr. Gwilliam of Purslow, Shropshire, shown at Shifnal, 29th 
December, 1800, by Mr. Tench of Bromfield, against Mr. 
Knowles of Nailston, Leicestershire, to decide a bet of 100 
guineas, determined in favour of the Herefordshire by Mr. 
Pester, Somersetshire." At Blakemere House there was another 
picture of an ox "bred by S. and C. Haywood of Clifton-on- 
Teme, Worcester, and got by the celebrated bull Prizefighter, 
bred by their father, and sold to Mr. Green, Ashford, who won 
many prizes." He was sold with his dam to Mr. Cheese of 
Lyonshall, and passed into the possession of a gentleman at 
Upton-on-Severn, who sent him to the Smithfield Show in 18 16, 
where he took first prize, and was " considered faultless." The 
ox was mottle faced, with red legs and white tail. Mr. H. 
Haywood said : " My grandfather Samuel Haywood bred 
the bull Prizefighter, that was shown at Shifnal in 1800, and 
the ox that took the first prize at Smithfield in 18 16 was bred 
by my uncle Samuel and my father Charles Haywood, who 
would at that time be young men at home, their father having 
died previous to the birth of the said ox. My uncle Samuel 
died young, and my father took a sheep farm about 18 16, but 
my uncle Edward Jeffries Haywood bred a few Herefords up 
to his death, but never exhibited. The Jeffries obtained their 
first Herefords from the Haywoods, and Edmund Cheese 
Jeffries, brother to Thomas Jeff"ries, who bred the bull Cotmore, 
always bred regardless of the pure white face, and at his sale 
the bull Sheriff and other cattle were mottle faced." 

The colour of some of the cattle belonging to the Haywoods 
was dark red with very little white. Mr. John Hill, formerly 
of Felhampton Court, and now of Marsh Brook House, Church 
Stretton, who also owns a painting of Prizefighter, and who 
has placed at our disposal the whole of his valuable collection 
of documents relating to the breed, thus describes the colour ; 



PIONEERS AND THEIR WORK 47 

" White boss with red hairs among it, and shaded with white 
over left eye and dingy white blaze, a little white round the 
jaw, and a white throat line ; horns white with black tips ; 
white flag to tail ; no other white of any sort." Mr. Housman, 
in a communication that appeared in the " National Live Stock 
Journal," referring to the picture at Blakemere House, says : 
" The bull is considered a mottle-faced one, but if there was 
much white upon his head the painter has failed to indicate it. 
The colour appears to be a deep almost self-red, excepting 
that on the forehead and at the end of the tail it is intensely 
dark. It is also very deeply shaded upon some parts of the 
body, the horns are tipped with black, and, unless the painter 
has been betrayed by a desire to give the effect of shadow, the 
nose, too, must have been darkly clouded. But, perhaps, the 
most remarkable peculiarity is the tight tuck-up at the throat. 
This is made the more apparent from the position of the head, 
which, instead of being carried somewhat horizontally, as the 
head of a Hereford is usually carried, is considerably bridled, 
and the horns curve inward and downward." 

The bull Prizefighter went into the possession of Mr. 
Gwilliam of Purslow Hall, Salop. It may, therefore, be 
assumed that the herd of this gentleman was closely allied to 
that of the Haywoods, and, as showing the value that was 
attached to the blood, it may be mentioned that in October, 
1808, Mr. Gwilliam's stock was sold, when a cow and a calf 
were purchased by Sir W. W. Wynn for ^^225 i^s., a heifer 
and calf sold for £121 i6s., and three bull calves realised 
jCi6g IS. The whole of the cows sold averaged £6^ 8s. 6d. 
each. This is, indeed, the first of the high prices on record for 
Here fords for breeding purposes, and it is not unwarrantable to 
assume that it can, to a large extent, be placed to the credit of 
the Haywood strains, which, however, have for many years lost 
their distinctive character, and become merged in the stock of 
the county. 

These, then, were some of the pioneer breeders of Herefords, 
who stand out more distinctly than their compeers in the misty 
records of the past. The list might be considerably enlarged, 
because many living breeders can trace back their stock as 
having been in the possession of ancestors who lived in the 
eighteenth century. Those who have been named comprise 
the more distinguished breeders, whose strains enter most 
largely into the composition of existing herds. 

The main object of these old breeders seems to have been — 
at least at the beginning of their operations — to rear large, 
heavy cattle, that after having been worked in the plough, and 
having " taken an equal share in the labours of the harvest," 



48 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

would fetch a good price from the graziers of the Midland 
counties, who assembled in large numbers at the Hereford 
October fair. By them they were purchased with the view of 
being fattened for the butcher, or as Duncumb puts it, " perfected 
for the London markets." No doubt, however, increased 
attention was being by some breeders devoted to the quality 
of the beef, and to the type that would best produce it There 
does not seem to have been much uniformity about their 
cattle, either in respect of form or colour. As to the latter 
point, Marshall, it is true, says a bald face was characteristic 
of the true Herefordshire breed, while Duncumb remarks that 
the " prevailing " colour was a reddish brown with white faces. 
Within these descriptions there was, of course, room for much 
diversity, which doubtless existed. The leading breeders 
would appear to have had their favourite sorts, and these 
varieties had warm admirers and keen partisans. 

At a very early date the system of in-and-in breeding was, 
to some extent, adopted, and a separate character was 
established for the various " breeds," as they were called, the 
trade mark, as it may be termed, chosen for each being the 
colour markings. Thus there were the Tomkins, Tully, Skyrme, 
Galliers, and Haywood " breeds." The selection of a uniform 
type was not for many years accomplished, and the struggle 
for supremacy, begun during the eighteenth century, was 
continued for a considerable period. The conflict, we think, 
did much to prevent the spread of the breed outside its 
native districts. Nor was the division favourable to its 
progress within the county, which would have been better 
promoted by a concentration of effort than by the separation of 
supporters of the various types into somewhat hostile groups. 




USE (IScnjamin 'l\)nils 




Photos by 11 '. H. Biisli 



^V ELLINGTON CoURT (Benjamin Tomkins). 



CHAPTER III 

BENJAMIN TOMKINS, THE YOUNGER 

In tracing the continued early improvement of the breed 
the leading position must be given to Benjamin Tomkins, 
the Younger, born in 1745 and who died in 18 15. He 
was the grandson of Richard Tomkins (whose stock were of 
such value as to be specially mentioned in his will in 1720), 
and the son of Benjamin Tomkins (born 17 14, died 1789), 
the inheritor of the cow Silver and her calf, and one of 
the first improvers of the breed. There is some difficulty 
in fixing the exact date when young Tomkins set to work 
independently as a breeder. Professor Low gives two dates 
• — 1769 and 1772, the latter being the year in which he was 
married. Mr. Eyton, in the Appendix to Volume I. of the 
Herd Book, quoting Low as his authority, says Tomkins' herd 
originated about the year 1766. Low, however, does not 
mention the year 1766, but 1769 and 1772. It is understood 
that he remained with his father until 1769, when he began 
on his own account at Blackball. The father, too, it should 
be noted continued his work as a breeder until his death in 
1789, twenty years after the son had commenced. 

Although on certain points Professor Low fell into error 
regarding the history of Benjamin Tomkins and his connec- 
tion with the breed, there must have been some foundation 
for the statements he gave as to the origin of his herd, or 
that of his father, the latter being the more likely, and if 
applied to the older breeder the circumstances are made much 
clearer. Many of the references should therefore be read as 
dealing with the herd of the elder Tomkins. Mr. Eyton had 
communicated on the subject with Miss Tomkins, daughter of 
Benjamin Tomkins ; and it is further reported that Tomkins 
told Mr. Price of Ryall that he had bred the whole of his herd 
from two heifers and a bull, selected by himself early in life. 
Eyton's account of the origin of the herd runs as follows : — 
" Mr. Tomkins' herd originated, according to Professor Low, 
in two cows purchased by him at Kington fair about the year 

E 



50 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

1766 ; according to others they were purchased from a wheel- 
wright in the village, and had been taken notice of by Mr. 
Tomkins on account of their singular aptness to fatten. Miss 
Tomkins informs me that one was a grey one, and the other a 
dark red one with a spotted face ; the former he called Pigeon, 
and the latter Mottle. From whatever source obtained, there 
is no doubt that these animals, with occasional crosses from the 
best selected herds in the neighbourhood, were the foundation 
of the stock which has been so celebrated for many years at 
King's Pyon. During the latter portion of Mr. Tomkins' life 
he used none but bulls bred by himself, and did not cross with 
any other stocks, which system many of the breeders into 
whose hands his stock has fallen have since carried on. So 
justly confident does Mr. Tomkins appear to have been in the 
superiority of his stock, that he once drove 20 of his cows 
to Hereford on the day of the agricultural show, and offered 
100 guineas to any one who would show an equal number 
superior to them ; the offer, however, was not accepted." 

It will be observed that Mr. Eyton does not speak with 
much confidence as to the place whence the two cows with 
which Tomkins commenced were obtained. He gives, without 
endorsing either version. Low's statement that they were 
bought at Kington fair, and also that of others to the effect 
that they came from a wheelwright in the village ; and alludes 
to the whole subject in evident uncertainty. Low also in a 
subsequent reference so far contradicts himself by remarking 
that Tomkins appears to have selected good cows where he 
could obtain them in the district, and Eyton says that he had 
occasional crosses from the best selected herds in the neigh- 
bourhood. It is not wholly improbable that Tomkins may 
have picked up the nucleus of his herd in the manner described, 
but considering that he had his father's large and first-rate 
stock from which to make selections, it is curious if he should 
have gone outside it. If these two cows were bought as stated, 
they must have been secured on account of some special 
excellence they possessed which suited them better for the 
purposes he had in view than other stock which he might 
easily have obtained. The bull with which he began probably 
came from the herd of the elder Benjamin Tomkins, and the 
subsequent infusions of fresh blood which he evidently 
introduced would most likely also have been from his father's 
celebrated stock and some of the other old herds that have 
been mentioned. 

Be that as it may, the details given regarding the alleged 
purchase of the two cows throw some light on the principles 
that undoubtedly guided the father and son in their subsequent 



BENJAMIN TOMKINS, THE YOUNGER 51 

careers as breeders. They prove that the first thing they looked 
for was the fattening propensity of their stock, and they also 
show their indifference to colour markings. The latter fact is 
further evidenced by another circumstance. Tomkins always 
maintained that his Silver Bull 41 was the best stock-getter he 
ever had. Mr. Duckham points out that this animal was bred 
by Tomkins in early life, and " formed the foundation of his 
breeder's future eminence ; " and Mr. Eyton says : — " The bull 
which is often referred to by the name of Silver Bull, 
Tomkins always considered as the first great improver of his 
stock. There is a prevailing opinion respecting this bull's 
name that it was given to him because he was of a silver or 
grey colour, but the fact is that he was a red bull with a white 
face, and a little white on his back ; and his dam was a cow 
called Silver." It is interesting to note in passing that in the 
designation of two of Benjamin Tomkins' favourite animals, 
there is a revival of the name of the cow which his grand- 
father left by will to his father many years before. The facts 
regarding the origin of the two herds have been confused, but 
it may be assumed that these animals were descendants of 
Richard Tomkins' Silver cow, and from her may thus have 
been derived one of the characteristics of young Tomkins' 
stock ; so that it may be said that many modern Herefords of 
this line trace back to the Silver cow of 1720. 

Tomkins' herd contained not only the Pigeon and Mottle 
families, but also the Silvers, which last were red with white 
faces. The earliest cattle of Benjamin Tomkins were in 
fact of three distinct strains, the names of Silver, Pigeon, and 
Mottle being used to distinguish the varieties. We were in- 
formed by Mr. George Bray, sen., of Haven Dilwyn (then over 
70 years old, and who was a nephew of George Tomkins, whom 
he personally knew for many years), that the Tomkins cattle 
were (ist) grey ; (2nd) hail-backed, which meant that they 
were white along the back, and had a good deal of white about 
the neck and underneath the belly, and somewhat up the 
sides ; (3rd) ticked or smoky-faced, with more or less white 
along the back ; (4th) red with white face, with less white 
about the body ; and (5th) mottles of all shades, from dark red 
with no white on the l3ack. He agrees that, at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century, even the Tomkins stock varied in 
every possible way as to colour markings. The three principal 
divisions were— the Silvers, red with white face and having 
more or less white along the back ; the Pigeons, of a grey 
colour ; and the Mottles, mottle-faced. 

These facts afford strong proof that both the Tomkins 
disregarded colour. With the two cows used in building up 



52 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

the herd— one grey and the other dark red with a spotted face 
— and the most impressive sire red with white face, it is not 
surprising that in both herds the colours of the animals became 
greatly diversified. One who does not speak without good 
authority, writes to us : — " Sometimes Tomkins' white faces and 
sometimes his mottles were the best. They appear to have 
changed and changed about, according to the character of the 
bulls he used." This point is of some importance, because 
the fact that Tomkins did not attempt to permanently fix a 
particular colour on his stock rendered the subsequent amal- 
gamation of the valuable blood from his herd with other strains 
possessing different markings, and the ultimate establishment 
of the red with white face as the standard colour of the breed, 
much easier than would otherwise have been the case. 

It is plain that in the opinion of Benjamin Tomkins flesh 
and form were much more worthy of cultivation than parti- 
cular shades of colour, and he devoted great attention to the 
development of both these characteristics. But, unfortunately, 
it is not possible to give many details as to his operations as a 
breeder. No private herd books were then kept, and before 
Mr. Eyton commenced the collection of pedigrees for Volume I. 
of the Herd Book, nearly all the evidence as to the system of 
breeding Tomkins adopted had vanished. Professor Low 
says Tomkins appears to have selected good cows where he 
could obtain them in the district, but to have reared his bulls 
from his own stock, although in the earlier stage of his im- 
provements he sometimes made use of other bulls when they 
suited his purpose. After a time, however, he abandoned this 
practice, and confined himself in breeding exclusively to his 
own stock. *' It thus appears," Low goes on to say, "that the 
principle of his system was selection of the most suitable 
individuals for breeding, and that, having produced by this 
means animals of the properties required, he confined himself 
to his own herd. Having arrived at the improvement sought 
for, he communicated to the individuals, by intermixture with 
one another, that uniformity and permanence of character 
which constitute a breed. In this latter respect, however, he 
was not so successful as Bakewell, and many of the Herefords 
deviate considerably from a common type. Tomkins, indeed, 
had what he termed his different lines of stock, as his Mottle 
line and his Pigeon or Silver line, from which, we are merely 
to infer that his animals had not been so amalgamated as to 
acquire a permanent class of common characters." Low's 
dissertation is given for what it may be worth. As already 
mentioned, further investigation leads to the opinion that 
many of his statements really apply to the elder Tomkins. 



BENJAMIN TOMKINS, THE YOUNGER 53 

There can be no doubt that B, Tomkins and his father 
were the first improvers of Herefords as beef producers, and 
that the elder Benjamin Tomkins commenced this work 
about 1742, before Bakewell began his operations, so that 
he may be said to have been the first to devote attention to 
the breeding of cattle for beef purposes. Although Tomkins 
had several lines of blood, their main difference was in colour, 
and it is not agreed that there is any proof of wide divergence 
in other respects in the character of his stock, the several 
families being distinguishable only by their colour mark- 
ings. It may be added, that according to tradition the 
Tomkins Mottle tribe were short-legged, heavily fleshed 
animals of good scale and quality, but not so handsome as 
the Pigeons. 

It is generally believed that Tomkins bred his stock closely. 
In fact, as has been mentioned, all the early Hereford breeders 
proceeded at the outset on the in-and-in system. But it should 
be added that Benjamin Tomkins, sen. and jun., were large 
holders of land and cattle, and that they had thus the means 
of adhering to their own strains without breeding from affinities 
that were too near. Either as the result of the system he 
adopted, or from a deliberate selection of medium-sized 
animals, his cattle became reduced in bulk as compared with 
others in the county which were probably cultivated more for 
working purposes. Price, who subsequently purchased many 
Herefords from Tomkins, says his stock were of smaller size 
than other herds he saw in Herefordshire, but they had more 
of the good properties he had in view than any he could meet 
with elsewhere. The great fact that Tomkins seems to have 
got hold of was that a new sphere of usefulness was opening 
for cattle. This it is believed was the leading principle in 
Bakewell's improvements, both of cattle and sheep, and it was 
the same with Tomkins, and to a lesser extent with the other 
early Hereford breeders. 

A well-informed correspondent tells us that at the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century Benjamin Tomkins possessed 
the best herd of the red with white face and mottle face 
varieties then existing. His nephew, George Tomkins, re- 
peatedly expressed this opinion in the hearing of several 
members of the family now living, and there were few better 
judges. He made a tour through England in 1808, and when 
he returned he told his uncle that his was by far the best 
cattle he had seen anywhere, not only in the county, but in the 
kingdom ; and he advised Benjamin Tomkins to ask more 
money for them. This he did, more than doubling the price, 
which he obtained. '* He doubtless," adds our correspondent 



54 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

"could have taken all before him at the agricultural shows, 
but he would not compete. He was a peculiar, proud, ex- 
clusive kind of man, and regarded the cattle belonging to 
others as quite beneath his notice, considering his own to be 
beyond comparison the best." 

What Tomkins did for the Herefords was to develope 
their early maturing properties, shorten their legs, refine their 
bone, improve their beef points and the quality of their flesh, 
and impart to them more thorough-bred character and 
impressiveness. His disregard of colour, in the opinion of 
some people, was probably a mistake ; and it is almost 
certain that if he had aimed at producing uniformity in this 
particular, the consolidation of the breed would have been 
much more rapidly accomplished, while the waste of energy 
entailed by the struggle between admirers of the white faced, 
the mottle faced, and other varieties, which subsequently 
occurred, would have been avoided. But, of course, there is 
another aspect of the question, and there are not wanting 
those who maintain that the subsequent limitation of colour 
was, in the general interests of the breed, a misfortune. As 
will be shown later on, the battle of colour was fought out 
between the supporters of the red with white faces and the 
red with mottle faces ; and, although the promoters of the 
later variety possessed in largest measure the Tomkins blood, 
they could not successfully maintain the opinion that Benjamin 
Tomkins, in his own practice, attempted to produce uniform 
colour markings. 

It was in 1804 that John Price of Ryall became acquainted 
with the stock of Tomkins. Other eminent breeders acquired 
bulls and cows from him, and his cattle soon spread widely 
over the county. In October, 1808, Tomkins had a large sale 
at the Court Farm, Wellington, which the auctioneer, Mr. 
William James, announced in these words : " For sale, the 
following valuable and much admired stock, the property of 
Benjamin Tomkins, who is going to decline breeding cattle, 
consisting of 20 capital cows and heifers, which have five 
calves now sucking, two four-year-old bulls, one ditto martin, 
nine three-year-old bullocks, six two-year-old ditto, two 
yearling heifers, one of which is heavy in calf, three two-year- 
old bulls, two ditto yearlings. The above stock is of the same 
breed which has for many years been so much admired, and 
allowed by competent judges to be equal if not superior to 
most in the kingdom." A note of the prices or purchasers' 
names at this sale has not been obtained, but we are able to 
give a private valuation of the stock at Wellington Court 
Farm, drawn up by George Tomkins in June, 1808, which 



BENJAMIN TOMKINS, THE YOUNGER 55 

will indicate the owner's estimate of their worth : "12 cows 
and calves at ^^40 each — ;^48o ; 12 oxen at £2-^ — £276', 10 
two-year-olds at i^20 — i^200 ; 10 yearlings at ^^"15 — £1^0" 

Only a comparatively small number of the bulls bred by 
Benjamin Tomkins were entered in the Herd Book, and in 
few cases are particulars given of their breeding. Silver Bull 
41 is registered simply as coming under the division of the 
white faces, and as having been bred by Mr. B. Tomkins. 
Wellington 4 is described as a mottle face, calved 1808, bred 
by B. Tomkins. He passed into the possession of Mr. Price, 
and was purchased at his sale in 18 16 by Mr. Jellicoe of 
Beighterton for ^^283 los., being afterwards sold to Mr. 
Germaine. He v/as considered by Mr. Tomkins "the best 
bull he ever bred, his Silver Bull excepted, and also the best 
stock-getter." In Volume I. of the Herd Book there is a 
coloured lithograph of this bull from a painting by Mr. Welles, 
representing a compact, straight animal of fair size with fine 
bone, mottle face, white dewlap, and white along the lower 
parts of the body. Another of Tomkins' bulls registered in 
Volume I. is Ben 96. Mr. Eyton says Miss Tomkins informed 
him that Ben was by Sam 144, out of one of Mr. Tomkins' 
cows called Nancy. Sam 144 is without recorded pedigree, 
all that is said concerning him being that he was bred by B. 
Tomkins. Wild Bull 145, bred by Tomkins, was, on Miss 
Tomkins' authority, said to be by Silver Bull 41, out of a cow 
called Tidy. Phoenix 55, a mottle face, out of Storrell, bred 
by Mr. Tomkins, and got by Wild Bull 145, was purchased at 
Miss Tomkins' sale in 18 19 for 560 guineas by Lord Talbot. 
Mr. Eyton has this remark as to his dam : — " Storrell, Miss 
Tomkins informs me, was out of a mottle-faced cow of the 
same name, by a Pigeon bull." The bull called " Son of 
Price's 84," bred by Tomkins, was out of Price's No. 25, "who 
was out of a sister to the dam of Price's 23 or the Slit Teat 
Cow by the Silver Bull 41." Proctor's Bull 316 was bred by 
B. Tomkins "out of his favourite cow Old Pink." Voltaire 
39 A was a white-face bull bred by Tomkins, dam Price's 
No. 3. Wizard 59 was a mottle face of Tomkins' breeding by 
Ben 96, and was sold to Mr. Germaine for 300 guineas. 
Wedgeman 166 was bred by Tomkins, but no pedigree is 
given in the Herd Book. 

In the appendix to Volume II. of the Herd Book, Mr. E. F. 
Welles gave some interesting recollections of the stock of Mr. 
John Price, from which a very complete idea can be obtained 
of the character and appearance of the Tomkins' cattle. It is, 
indeed, one of the most valuable statements that has been 
made on the subject. Mr. Welles says : " When Mr. John 



56 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Price commenced cattle breeding, the character of bull most in 
esteem in the chief Midland districts was one having a throat 
with as little loose flesh as possible depending from it. This 
character was also introduced by some breeders amongst Here- 
fords. The celebrated Purslow bull, the property of the 
Hayvvoods of Clifton-on-Teme, had this character. Mr. 
Walker of Burton had also adopted it, and from him Mr. 
Price had a bull or two. Mr. B. Tomkins and other Hereford 
breeders had not been affected by this fashion, and Mr. Price 
when he became acquainted with Mr. Tomkins' stock 
relinquished it, preferring, and upon sounder principles, that 
character which better indicated the male animal, a con- 
siderable degree of throatiness not being objected to. This 
character belonged to Wellington 4, the first bull, and, I 
think, the only one bought by Mr. Price of Mr. B. Tomkins. 
This bull was very dark in colour, with face and bosom both 
mottled and speckled. His dam, too, bought afterwards by 
Mr. Price (but which did not breed with him), was also of the 
same colour. 

" The cows bought by Mr. Price of Mr. Tomkins were the 
following : — First, a large cow with speckled face, giving a 
blue appearance to it, with what may be termed an arched 
forehead or Roman nose, tips of horn blackish, body of 
lightish brown dappled, under part of body and legs inclining 
to blackness, white along her back, and well formed, but on 
rather high legs. Secondly, a cow commonly called the 
Mark-nosed Cow — a red cow with mottled face, square made, 
and on short legs, rich quality of flesh, with a soft and thick 
pile of hair moderately curled. This cow was unfortunate to 
Mr. Price as a breeder, the only produce I recollect out of her 
being the Marked-faced Bull, alias Pion at his sale. Thirdly, 
a large yellow cow with white face, rather long-headed and 
not carrying much flesh. She was the dam of Voltaire, by 
one of Mr. Tomkins' bulls. 

" Pigeon, by far the most remarkable cow he had of Mr. 
Tomkins — and her own character, as well as that of her 
descendants, will well warrant me in terming her the best — 
was a large cow, rather on high legs, somewhat shallow in the 
bosom, with very fine bone, neck rather light, head good but 
horn short ; her colour a speckled grey, the red parts being 
dark, growing still darker about her legs ; hair rather short 
but soft, quality of flesh excellent, back and hind-quarters 
great, excepting thighs, which were rather light, but with good 
twist ; her constitution hardy, and she was a regular and 
successful breeder. About the same time also Mr. Price had 
another cow from Mr. B. Tomkins, which was called the 



BENJAMIN TOMKINS, THE YOUNGER 57 

Rough Cow, from her coat being much curled; she was a 
middle-sized cow, nothing remarkable in form, her colour dark 
red with white back, and she had the reputation of being of a 
family that were good ox breeders. Mr. Price had a bull 
from this cow called Rough Bull, alias Original, but he did not 
long retain any of his stock. There were sisters to him by 
other Tomkins bulls, the most noted of which was No. 14. 
Two more cows Mr. Price subsequently obtained from Mr. B. 
Tomkins— a half-sister to No. 25, and a daughter of Mr. 
Tomkins' famous Slit Teat Cow No. 21. The former of these 
was a small cow, but of very true form, dark colour with white 
along her back ; she was the dam of Lord Talbot's Woodcock, 
sire of Mr. Price's Woodcock Pigeon. I am not aware that 
Mr. Price had any more cows from Mr. B. Tomkins ; but he 
afterwards obtained two cows of his blood— one called Damsel 
from Mr. T. Tomkins, and another from Mr. Tomkins of 
Wormbridge, the former the dam of Woodman and the latter 
the dam of Diana. He also bought a few Tomkins-bred 
cows from Mr. James Price ; among these was the dam of 
Peg Murphy." 

These notes, which furnish a complete picture of a large 
number of the Tomkins cattle, fully bear out what has been 
said as to their diversified colours. Mr. Price's selections 
comprised animals that were yellow with white face ; speckled 
grey ; dark red with white back ; red with mottle face ; dark 
colour with white along the back, and lightish brown dappled, 
with white along the back, etc. The only point in which there 
was an approach to uniformity as regards colour was the 
white back. A few other notes as to Tomkins' cows are 
gleaned from the entries in the Herd Book. The Slit Teat 
Cow referred to by Mr. Welles was considered by Tomkins 
the best cow he ever had. Storrell by Wild Bull was, as has 
already been mentioned, dam of Phcenix, sold to Lord Talbot 
for 560 guineas. Old Rose was out of the dam of Silver 
Bull 41. Old Lovely was a daughter of the Slit Teat Cow. 
All we know about others are their names, and in some cases 
those of their sires — Blowdy out of old Pigeon, the dam of 
Mr. Price's Pigeon ; Margaret by Silver Bull 41 ; Stately by 
Wizard 59 ; Blossom by Phoenix 55 ; Old Lilly, Nutty, etc. 

After the death of Benjamin Tomkins in October, 181 5, 
the herd, which had by this time been much reduced in 
numbers by private sales, was kept on by his daughters, the 
Misses Tomkins, until October, 18 19, when part of it was sold. 
Through the courtesy of Mr. Haywood of Blakemere House 
we were favoured with a copy of the original sale bill, con- 
taining the prices and purchasers' names, marked by one 



58 



HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 



who was present at the sale. The document has a historic 
importance and must be reproduced in full : — 

" A catalogue of the valuable stock of prime Herefordshire cattle, the 
property of the late Benjamin Tomkins of Wellington Court, which will 
be Sold by Auction without reserve, upon the premises at King's Pion, 
nine miles from Hereford, on Monday, October i8, 1819, being the eve 
of the Herefordshire Agricultural Show, and two days previous to the 
great cattle fair at Hereford :— 



Lot. Name. Purchaser. 

I. Yearling heifer, Young Blowdy— Mr. W 



West 
Ditto, Young Fairmaid — Mr. Court 
3. Two-year-old in-calf heifer, Young Blossom- 



-Mr. G. Tomkins 
for Lord Talbot 

4. Ditto, Young Silver — Mr. John Tomkins 

5. In-calf heifer, Duchess— Mr. G. Tomkins for Lord Talbot 

6. Ditto cow. Pigeon — Mr. W, West 

7. Ditto, Stately— Mr. G. Tomkins for Lord Talbot 

Ditto, Silk— Mr. Lewis 

Ditto, Beauty— Mr. Cooke 

In-calf cow. Silver — Mr. West 

Ditto, Cherry— Mr. G. Tomkins for Lord Talbot 
Ditto, Prettymaid — Mr. Lewis 

Ditto, Plot— Mr. Turner 

Ditto, Nancy— Mr. G. Tomkins for Lord Talbot 

15. Ditto, Blowdy— Mr. Cooke 

16. Ditto, Fairmaid — Mr. West 

17. Ditto, Tidy— Mr. Cooke 

18. Ditto, Lovely— Mr. Cooke 

19. Ditto, Storrell— Mr. G. Tomkins for Lord Talbot 

20. Ditto, Pink— Mr. Edwards 

21. Bull calf oft' ditto— Mr. Clarke 

22. Ditto off Beauty— Mr. Cooke 

23. Fat cow, Blossom — Mr. James 

24. Pair of two-year-old steers (twins)— Mr. T. Cooke 

25. Ditto— Mr. W. Cooke 

26. Ditto — Mr. James Price 

27. Single bullock — Mr. James Price 

28. Pair of yearling bullocks— Mr. Smith 

29. Ditto— Mr. Patrick 

30. Ditto — Mr. James Price 

31. Ditto— Mr. Oliver 

32. Ditto— Mr. Wedge 

33. Pair of bullock calves — Mr. W. Cooke 

34. Ditto— Mr. W. Cooke 

35. Ditto— Mr. Wight 

36. 

37. Heifer calf— Mr. G. Tomkins 

38. Ditto— Mr. Cooke 

39. Two-year-old bull off Pink— Mr. W. West 

40. Ditto off Storrell- Mr. G. Tomkins for Lord Talbot ... 

41. Four-year-old bull — Mr. Welles 

42. Five-year-old ditto— Mr. T. Cooke 



Price 




{. 


s. 


d. 


56 


14 





99 


15 





105 








73 


ID 





105 








159 


12 





52 


10 





70 


7 





262 


10 





210 








110 


5 





99 


IS 





105 








252 


5 





273 








65 


2 





131 


5 





53 


II 





262 


5 





141 


15 





147 








215 


5 





48 


6 





47 


5 





48 


6 





49 








20 








24 








27 





9 


49 








27 


6 





25 


10 





20 


10 





16 








16 








30 








26 








147 








588 








162 


15 





173 


5 






" N.B. — The above cattle are all of the pure breed, which have been 
so justly esteemed and admired by the most competent judges in every 
part of the kingdom where they have been introduced, and for which 
peculiar blood the highest prices have been obtained, and particularly 
No. 23, which is considered to carry the greatest weight upon the smallest 
bone of any cow in the kingdom." 



BENJAMIN TOMKINS, THE YOUNGER 59 

These were remarkable prices. The 52 head sold made 
£^67^ I4i-., or an average of ^^89 lys. 6d. each, but a number 
were steers. The breeding animals, numbering 28, averaged 
no less than £i4.(), the total for them being £^1"/^ 6s. The 
detailed figures are as follows : — • 

TOTAL AVERAGE 

£ IS. d. £ S. d. 

15 Cows 2249 2 o 149 18 9 

3 Two-year-old heifers ... 283 10 o 94 10 o 

2 Yearling heifers 156 9 o 78 4 6 

4 Bulls 1071 o o 26715 o 

2 Bull calves 362 5 o 181 2 6 

2 Heifer calves 56 o o 28 o o 

28 head /"4178 6 o Average ;f 149 o o 



It is interesting to compare the foregoing averages with 
those realised at the great Shorthorn sales of the Brothers 
Colling, which took place about the same time. At Mr. 
Charles Colling's sale at Ketton in 18 10, the average for 47 
head was i;i5i 8j-. (the bull Comet bringing 1000 guineas), 
At Mr. Robert Colling's sale at Barmpton in 18 18, 61 head 
averaged ;^I28 ijs. lod. ', and at his sale in 1820, 46 head 
averaged ;^49 ^s. yd. 

A statement has been made to the effect that the Tomkins 
Herefords, if they had not from the effects of excessive in- 
and-in breeding fallen into disrepute before Benjamin Tomkins' 
death, at least did so almost immediately afterwards. There 
is certainly no evidence of want of public appreciation in the 
sale list which has just been given. Moreover Mr. John Price 
for many years retained without any mixture the blood of 
Tomkins, and also bred very closely, and yet when his herd 
was dispersed in 1841 — twenty-six years after Tomkins' death 
— the average for 99 lots was £ss i^j. 4d. But it is only 
necessary to glance at the composition of the foundation 
herds of Herefords as recorded in the Herd Book — those of 
Knight, Smythies, Yarworth, Hewer, Walker, Hoskyns, Perry, 
Jellicoe, Smith, Lord Talbot, Sir F. Lawley, etc.— to see how 
largely the Tomkins blood was infused over the breed. There 
was scarcely one of the early herds that was not indebted to 
the Tomkins strains for part of its excellence, and if the results 
of injudicious in-and-in breeding had then, as is alleged, been 
so painfully apparent, the blood would scarcely have obtained 
such wide circulation. That some of Tomkins' cattle went 
into the possession of those who were not able to do them 
justice, and who failed in the attempt to carry out what they 
supposed was his system, is unquestionable ; but that the herd 



6o HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

retained unimpaired its high character when Benjamin Tomkins 
died is proved by the results of the sale in 1819, and by 
the fact that John Price continued for thirty-seven years to 
successfully breed on Tomkins' lines without resorting to 
other blood. 

After the sale in 18 19 the Misses Tomkins remained at 
the Brook House farm, and continued to breed Hereford 
cattle. They had a second sale in October, 1839, when it was 
announced that they were about to retire from business. The 
catalogue of this sale shows that their cattle still retained con- 
siderable reputation. Among the prices were ;^io8 for the 
nine-year-old cow Pigeon, the purchaser being Mr. Gough ; 
;^50 for the eight-year-old cow Stately (Mr. Davenport) ; ^^50 
for the nine-year-old cow Lovely (Mr. Galliers) ; £$6 for the 
seven-year-old cow Diana (Mr. Galliers) ; £c,2 for the three- 
year-old heifer Countess (Mr. Jones); ^51 for the two-year- 
old heifer Tidy (Mr. Galliers). A three year-old bull No. i, 
got by a bull from Old Pigeon by the same sire, made £%2 
(Mr. Griffiths). Among the other purchasers were Mr. 
Smythies, Mr. Yeld, Mr. Vevers, Mr. J. Moore, etc. The 
average for 48 animals was over ^^30. The final sale was in 
October, 1854, one of the sisters having in the interval died. 
The entire herd, numbering 5 5 head, " descended from that 
peculiar blood which has for three-fourths of a century been the 
admiration of the county, and which have upon former occa- 
sions realised higher prices than any other breed of Herefords 
in the kingdom," was then dispersed. No catalogue of this 
sale seems to have been printed ; the announcement having 
been made on a broadsheet specifying the numbers of the 
various classes of stock, and there is no note of prices. The 
auctioneer, however, stated that " the animals were purely 
descended from the herd of the late Mr. Benjamin Tomkins, 
from whom the late Mr. Price of Ryall obtained that breed 
of cattle which, at different times, have been distributed 
through the United Kingdom at enormous prices, particulars 
of which will be found in Eyton's Herd Book." From a note 
in Volume L of the Herd Book, it appears that it was the 
custom of the Misses Tomkins to give the same names to their 
cows through successive generations, and their bulls — of which 
they were in the habit of keeping four or five — were not dis- 
tinguished by names, but by numbers. From these causes no 
bulls or cows bred by them appear in the Herd Book. We 
are informed that for some years the Misses Tomkins had the 
advantage of Mr. George Tomkins' assistance, but when he 
gave up his farm in 1836 the herd does not seem to have been 
so carefully managed, although the system of close breeding 



BENJAMIN TOMKINS, THE YOUNGER 6i 

was continued. Doubtless the Misses Tomkins parted with the 
best portion of their stock in 1819, and most of the remainder 
in 1839; and between that date and 1854, having only them- 
selves and a bailiff to depend upon, it was only to have been 
expected that their herd should not continue to possess the 
special merits by which it was formerly characterised, and 
it may be from its decadence that the idea has arisen that 
Benjamin Tomkins' stock had greatly deteriorated before his 
death. 

Other members of the Tomkins family besides the Misses 
Tomkins engaged in the breeding of Herefords. Among them 
may be mentioned Mr. Richard Tomkins, Hyatt Sarnesfield, a 
brother of the wife of Benjamin Tomkins. He was born in 
1756 and died in 18 18. After the death of this gentbman, 
his herd was sold in April, 18 19. We have the sale list, but it 
is unnecessary to print it in full. The prices were very good 
for the times. A pair of oxen named Summons and Merry- 
man were sold for £80, and another pair named Merchant and 
Lightfoot for £60. Mr. Westcar gave £s^ for a pair of three- 
year-old bullocks, and ^^48 lOs. for another pair. Among 
the purchasers of lareeding stock were the Rev. J. R. Smythies 
and Mr. Jones, Brienton. Mr. Bray tells us that among 
Richard Tomkins' stock were a good many of the "hail- 
backed" variety, and several of the animals included in his 
sale are thus described in the catalogue. The Rev. J. R. 
Smythies purchased two " hail-backed " heifers. George 
Tomkins, of Frogdon, born 1740, died 1797, brother of 
Benjamin Tomkins, the Younger, had also a noted stock of 
Herefords, and he is generally believed to have been a 
remarkably good judge of stock. 

George Tomkins, son of the gentleman just named, nephew 
of Benjamin Tomkins, and a trusted friend of Lord Talbot, 
also bred Hereford cattle. Born in 1776, he occupied the 
farms of Wistaston and Frogdon. He gave up the former 
farm to his son-in-law, Thomas Galliers, in 1836, and then 
retired to the Green, Norton Canon. The portrait of a cow 
bred by Mr. George Tomkins was often pointed out by the 
father and mother of Mr. T. T. Galliers, Wistaston, as being 
a good representative of the Tomkins Silver " breed." This 
cow was purchased by Mr. Peploe, of Garnstone Castle, and 
was a favourite of his, being kept to a great age for breeding. 
He had her painted by Weaver in 18 14, when she was eight 
years old, and the picture hung in Mr. Peploe's study during 
his lifetime, and during that of his successor. Captain Peploe. 
When the Rev. J. B. Webb-Peploe succeeded to the property, 
he presented the oil painting to the late Mrs. Galliers, on her 



62 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

roqucstiiiL;: permission to have a photo taken oi' the portrait of 
her father's Silver cow. This painting represents the Tonikins 
Silver variety of Hcrefords. Mr. T. A. Knight of Downton 
obtained some of his stock from Mr. George Tomkins, who 
died in 1854, aged 79 years. 

Other members of the Tomkins family, who were breeders 
of Hereford cattle, were Richard Tomkins of Dippers Moor, 
born 1757, died 1800; William Tomkins of Wormbridge, born 
1756, died 1821 ; and Thomas Tomkins of Court House, 
born 1743. 

An OiD Breeder's Account 

In the foregoing notice of the early breeders, it has been 
found necessary to discard man>- of the accepted theories on 
the subject. Good reasons for the conclusions arrived at have 
been given, but it is very satisfactory to be able to obtain from 
an independent authority almost complete confirmation of the 
views adopted. Since the preceding pages were written, a 
document has come into the possession of the authors to 
which they attach much value. Mr. Edward Yeld, Endale, 
sent us a histor>- of the breed in manuscript, drawn up many 
years ago by his uncle, the late Mr. T. C. Yeld, of The 
Broomed who' was himself an eminent breeder. From this the 
following is taken : — 

*' The imperfect accounts given of the breed of Herefords 
induces me to record what is within my own knowledge, and 
that derived from sources within my reach : tliat of the 
eighteenth century is derived from my acquaintance with a 
retired intelligent farmer and breeder of Herefords, himself 
a successful competitor at the old Herefordshire Agricultural 
Society, and who possessed a dozen or more handsome prizes 
of his' own winning, during the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries, being in farming more than thirty \-ears in the 
eighttx-nth and twenty in the commencement of the nineteenth 
century. 

'* Going back to the middle of the eighteentli centur)% there 
were very excellent Herefords of two kinds, viz. mottle-faced 
and white-faced. By far the best breed of mottle-faced Here- 
fords were in the possession of Mr. William Galliers o( 
Wigmore Grange ; that of the white-faced in the possession 
of Mr. Tully of Huntington, and Mr. Skyrme of Stretton. 
Before the eighteenth century expired, Mr. Benjamin Tomkins 
obtained the lead and took a veiy prominent part for many 
years. Mr. William Galliers before mentioned and Mr. B. 
Tomkins were on terms of personal intimacy, and from the 



BENJAMIN TOMKINS, THE YOUNGER 63 

great similarity of the breeds there is every probabiHty of their 
being derived from the same source. I may here mention 
(although not strictly within the county) a similar stock of 
mottle-faced cattle bred by Mr, William Walker, senior, of 
Burton, Worcestershire. I do not say that cither of these 
were wholly mottle-faced, but they were all very similar in 
form, and of a rich red colour. 

" There were many other good stocks in the middle of the 
eighteenth century. Among them were Mr. Waring of Letton, 
Mr. Steward of Little Dilwyn, Mr. John Yeld of Milton, Mrs. 
Turberville of Broome, Mr. Wcyman of Morcton, and others. 
That there were excellent Herefords before the nineteenth 
century the following circumstances will show. On one occasion 
the late Mr. George Tomkins, of Wistaston, spending the day 
at my house, and being wishful to know the origin of Mr. 
lienjamin Tomkins' herd, I said to him, ' How did your uncle 
Ben originate his herd.?' He replied: 'My father was an 
excellent judge, and if he saw a good heifer in market would 
always buy it, and his brother Ben would always get it from 
him ; and it is rather singular that Mr. Charles Walker, also, 
at my own house, when asked how his father originated his 
herd at Burton, gave a very similar reply, viz. that when his 
father saw a good heifer in market he always bought it ; and I 
think that proves to demonstration that there were good stocks 
of Herefords, and that good animals were to be picked up in 
the Hereford markets. 

" I cannot supply a better proof of the estimation in which 
Mr. William Galliers' stock was held than to give the names 
of purchasers at his sale which took place at Wigmore Grange, 
15th October, 1795. He then had three sons, all settled in 
business, viz. William, who farmed Frogdon and Wootton 
Farms, King's Pion ; Thomas, who farmed Stapleton Castle ; 
and John, who farmed Coxall." 

Mr. Yeld proceeds to give the names of the purchasers at 
the Wigmore Grange sale, but as, in a previous page, a full 
list of prices and purchasers at that auction has been printed, 
it is unnecessary to repeat it. 

Mr. Yeld adds : " Most of the above were purchasers of 
several lots. They were the cows, calves, and young heifers ; 
the oxen, steers, and bulls were sold in the following spring. 
The writer has seen a painting of one of the oxen, four of 
which, he has learned from the family, sold for over £70 
each. 

" Old Mr. Tully also left three sons in farming business — 
one at Huntington, one at Clyro, and one at Grafton ; and 
these possessed by far the best of what would be called the 



64 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

white-faced Herefords, if I except Mr. Skyrme, of Stretton, 
but of whose stock I have no reliable account, except the 
opinion of Mr. T. A. Knight, which is certainly most favour- 
able. In giving an account of the Herefords of the eighteenth 
century, I have stated nothing but what is from correct 
sources. 

" I now proceed to name the best herds at the commence- 
ment of the nineteenth century, and, although Mr. Benjamin 
Tomkins was in highest repute, there were many who possessed 
equally good cattle. The late Mr. T. A, Knight, in replying 
to my inquiry about the pedigree of the celebrated White 
Bull, writes as follows : — 

" ' Sir, — The account which you appear to have received 
respecting the bull from which you have bred is in every 
essential respect correct, but I did not give the calf to Mr. 
Turley,* He bought it of me for ;^3, and never paid me 
anything for it. Its dam was bred by Mr, Skyrme, of Stretton, 
who, at that time f possessed, in my opinion, by far the best 
breed of cattle in the county, and which was Mr. Westcar's 
opinion. I reared several other bulls from the same cow, 
which were very excellent, and for one of them at 1 1 months 
old I refused 40 guineas. The sire of your bull descended 
from a mixture of the breed of Mr, Tully, of Huntington, and 
Mr. Isaac Martin, who possessed a very excellent, though 
small, stock, I do not think a better bred animal than that 
about which you have inquired ever existed in the county of 
Hereford, I never bred above two or three animals from Mr, 
Benjamin Tomkins' stock, which, I confess, I never liked. 
With good wishes, your obedient servant, 

' (Signed) T, A, Knight, 

' Downton, January 8th, 1836,' " 

Here, for the present, we shall take leave of Mr. Yeld, as a 
consideration at this stage of his further observations would 
somewhat disturb the chronological order of the history. It 
may be pointed out that Mr. Yeld was evidently unaware of 
the fact that there were two breeders named Benjamin Tom- 
kins. The associate of William Galliers, of Wigmore Grange, 
to whom he refers, was, as has already been explained, not 
Benjamin Tomkins, the Younger, as he seems to have believed, 
but his father. 

* It was said Mr, Knight had sat up all night for this cow to calve, 
and when it proved a white one, gave it to his tenant ; which I had 
mentioned, to recall to his memory what bull it w^s. — T. C. Y, 

t About 1810.— T. C. Y. 



BENJAMIN TOMKINS, THE YOUNGER 65 

It was impossible to notice the career of Benjamin Tomkins 
the Younger, without making some reference to his greatest 
supporter and disciple, John Price. Thanks to Mr. Price's 
habit of carefully recording his breeding transactions, and to 
the industry of his friend Mr. Welles, we know almost exactly 
the character of the cows he purchased from Tomkins ; and 
his subsequent method of breeding is clearly narrated in the 
Herd Book entries, which were drawn up from his catalogues 
and notes. Mr. Price was scrupulous in his attention to 
pedigree, and, in his case, there is no occasion for regret at 
the absence of details. 



John Price, of Ryall 

John Price, the eminent breeder, was the eldest son of Job 
and Elizabeth Price, who occupied a farm at Earl's Croome, 
in Worcestershire, where he was born in 1776. The son of an 
industrious farmer, John Price was from an early age engaged 
in all the operations of the farm. Thus employed, he had 
little opportunity for receiving any other than a plain village 
school education. He was taught to read, to write, and the 
use of figures. Whatever disadvantage, however, he experi- 
enced from the want of a more extended education, was amply 
compensated by the possession of great natural abilities — of a 
mind powerful and original in its conceptions and conclusions. 
And as soon as he commenced business on his own account 
he let slip no opportunity of improving his education by 
reading, and seeking the society of gentlemen of high respect- 
ability. Early in life he became a favourite with the Earl of 
Coventry. These facts are gleaned from an obituary notice 
that appeared in the Farme7'S Magazine in 1845. Mrs. 
Pumfrey, Mr. Price's daughter, in a subsequent number of 
that journal, wrote — " All is true that you state of his humble 
birth : not that his parents were of mean grade or fortuneless ; 
but farmers then lived and brought up their sons so differently 
to those of modern times. My father's transcendent natural 
abilities and genius, however, surmounted every obstacle to 
improvement ; by nature and habit he became a perfect 
gentleman, an ornament to any society, and this without any 
assumed polish ; humble and courteous even in his most palmy 
days, he was a favourite with all, the kind and assisting friend 
of many, his very faults leaning so much to the side of virtue 
as to disarm one of blame. Not only, as you say, was he an 
admitted, but an honoured guest at Croome, for even during 
the visit of royal personages has the late Countess of Coventry 
insisted on my father being of their circle. I have known the 

F 



66 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

late Earl of Coventry, with his brothers, dine at my father's 
house five days of the week ; the late Earl of Plymouth, and 
many others too numerous to name individually, none of whom 
need to blush in association with a man mentally superior to 
most. His fame as a breeder and judge of stock will not die 
for many an age ; in which respect I have often been told 
since and before his death, he had no equal." 

Mr, Price ultimately succeeded his father as tenant of Earl's 
Croome, and he early evinced a fondness for the live stock of 
the farm. The cattle he first possessed of any pretensions to 
good breeding were procured from Mr. Walker of Burton. 
Mr. Welles states that with some of these he was induced to 
try crosses with the pure Gloucesters, an old breed famous for 
their milking properties, the improved specimens also making 
good carcases of meat and producing good steers. An uncle, 
Mr. Barnes of Corse Court, was in possession of an excellent 
herd of the Gloucester breed, and Mr. Price procured a few 
cows from him. Mr. Welles says he remembers a cow bred 
from one of these by a Hereford bull making, when fed, an 
extraordinarily heavy animal — weighing upwards of i8 score 
per quarter (1440 lbs.). 

It was about the year 1804 that Mr. Price became acquainted 
with the cattle of Mr. B. Tomkins, from whom he bought a 
few cows, using to them bulls descended from Mr. Walker's 
stock. Mr. Welles recollected the first bull so bred, out of the 
cow Pigeon, bought from B. Tomkins ; but the cross did not 
suit and the animal was disposed of. 

About 181 1 Mr. Price gave up the farm at Earl's Croome 
and bought a small estate at Ryall, near Upton-upon-Severn. 
He also took a large field of pasture, a part of Croome 
demesne, of about 120 acres, which he held till his death. In 
a few years from this time he possessed himself of cows from 
Mr. B. Tomkins, and his herd began to attract considerable 
notice ; among the purchasers of the stock he was able to draft 
being many of the nobility, including the Earl of Plymouth, 
Earl Talbot, and the Hon. Mr. Germaine. In 18 12 he gave a 
challenge, to be decided at the Lichfield Agricultural Meeting, 
to show twenty of his cows in milk against twenty Longhorn 
cows for 100 guineas. The challenge was accepted by Mr. 
Meek, and was decided in Mr. Price's favour. About this 
date he made a large speculation in purchasing land. The 
venture was not a success, and the estate had to be sold at 
great loss. A good stock of cattle and sheep which Mr. Price 
had collected also came to the hammer, and the prices showed 
that much judgment had been exercised in their breeding and 
selection. 



BENJAMIN TOMKINS, THE YOUNGER 67 

Mr. Price then carried on his farming operations at Ryall, 
where he continued to reside, taking, however, more grass land 
of excellent quality at Mytton, near Tewkesbury. But previous 
to this he had obtained more Herefords of Tomkins blood, and 
purchased the bull Wellington and his dam from Mr. Tomkins. 
Soon after 18 16 Mr. Price left Ryall, and took up his residence 
at Poole House, near Upton, still holding the land of which he 
had been tenant for so many years under Lord Coventry. 

Mr. Price frequently expressed his views on the subject of 
breeding. He stated that among cattle, the Highland Scot 
approached more nearly than any other animal to the standard 
of form which he considered the true one. " This," he adds, 
" determined me in adopting them as my model. I was 
desirous of possessing a breed of cattle on a somewhat larger 
scale than the Scotch Kyloes, yet having the same symmetrical 
loggy forms with similar coat and texture of flesh." In this 
opinion, Mr. Price only repeated what Mr. John Charge had 
heard Bakewell many years before state, that from the West 
Highland heifer he thought the best breed of cattle might be 
produced. In commencing to form a herd which should possess 
the form and qualities he thought most desirable. Price, as has 
been indicated, fixed upon the stock of Benjamin Tomkins, 
from whom he purchased a considerable number of cows and 
heifers, and three bulls. These cattle were of smaller size than 
other herds he saw in Herefordshire, but had more of the good 
properties of the model he had in view than any others he could 
meet with. As we have seen, he first attempted to improve 
the Tomkins cattle by crossing them with the larger stock of 
Mr. Walker, with the view of increasing their size, but the 
result was so unfavourable that he put away all these crosses 
and returned to the pure Tomkins variety. Mr. Price con- 
tinued to breed Herefords until 1841, his herd being solely of 
Tomkins blood ; so that for very many years this strain, first 
in the possession of Benjamin Tomkins, father and son, and 
then in that of John Price, was bred continuously without a 
fresh cross. 

For a description of the various animals purchased from 
Tomkins by Price, the reader is referred to the interesting 
notes of Mr. Welles printed on a preceding page. In 
reference to the statement that Price obtained the best 
animals that Tomkins possessed, Mr. Eyton says there was one 
old cow that must be excepted, a remarkably good breeder, 
which Tomkins always refused to sell, although Price offered 
him ;^250 for her. This remark suggests an idea of the sums 
Price paid for the animals he actually bought from the great 
breeder at Wellington Court. Mr. Welles expresses the 



6S HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

opinion that Mr. Price had only one of Tomkins' bulls, the 
celebrated Wellington 4. But in addition to that animal he 
owned Voltaire 39A, a white-faced bull bred by Tomkins, and 
an unnamed bull of his breeding that appears in some of his 
pedigrees. Price seems to have followed Tomkins not only 
in the system of close breeding, but also in his disregard of 
colour. It will have been noticed that the colours of the cows 
he acquired from Tomkins varied greatly. Then among the 
bulls, Wellington was a mottle face ; Voltaire a white face, 
and Victory 33, calved in 1839, bred by Price, was chosen for 
illustration in the first volume of the Herd Book as a typical 
specimen of the grey variety ; while the portrait of Young 
Trueboy 32 is also given in Volume II. as a specimen of the 
greys, although in the entry in the first Volume he is stated 
to have been a mottle face. 

One of the most remarkable cows owned by Price was Toby 
Pigeon by Toby 5, dam Pigeon or Price's No. 6, bred by B. 
Tomkins. It is stated in the entry of one of this cow's produce 
in Volume I. of the Herd Book, that nearly the whole of Mr. 
Price's herd sold in 1841 were derived from her. At nineteen 
years of age she had bred 19 calves, having taken the bull by 
chance when a calf, and at three and four years old she had 
twins. The following is a list of her progeny : — Woodcock 
Pigeon by Woodcock 50 ; Bull, Solon 92 ; Bull, died ; Miss 
Woodman ; Bull, Young Woodman 12 ; Bull, Paris 19 ; Bull, 
Plenipotentiary 23 ; Cow, sold to Mr. Monkhouse ; Bull, 
Trusty 1 5 ; Cow ; Cow, died young ; Ditto ; Burton Pigeon ; 
Bull, died ; Bull, Trueboy 14 ; Cow, Blue Pigeon ; Cow, Stock 
Dove ; Cow, Nonsuch ; Bull, Washington 35. 

Mr. Price frequently challenged admirers of other breeds 
to show their stock against his own, this, as we shall have 
occasion to point out, having been a favourite method of 
settling disputed points as to superiority, prior to the general 
acceptance of the more satisfactory arbitrament of the show- 
ring. He attended one of Lord Althorp's ram sales in 
Northamptonshire, and after the dinner gave a challenge to 
show one of his bulls against any Shorthorn. He succeeded 
in getting up a sweepstakes of five pounds each, and this he 
won with his bull Lundyfoot, which, according to the writer 
of the memoir in the Farmers' Magazine, was allowed to be 
the completest animal any of the company ever saw. In 1839 
he issued another challenge, of which Mr. Haywood of Blake- 
mere House has given us a copy. It is as follows : — 

" Challenge ! ! ! To all breeders of cattle in England, Mr. 
Price of Poole House, Upton-upon-Severn, is willing to show 
a bull and 20 regular breeding in-calf cows bred by himself 



BENJAMIN TOMKINS, THE YOUNGER 69 

for any sum not exceeding ;^ioo, nor less than £2$, to be 
shown before the last day of November next ensuing, against 
a bull and a like number of cows of any sort that have been 
bred by and are now in the possession of any breeder of cattle 
in the United Kingdom. The judges to decide on this 
occasion to be chosen by that noble patron of agriculture and 
stickler for fair play Earl Spencer, and his lordship's friend 
Sir Francis Lawley, Bart., or whom they may appoint. The 
stock to be viewed on the farms of their respective owners, and 
the judges to be paid by the losing party. N.B. — It is a well- 
known fact that this herd has lived on worse and less food, 
owing to the dry summer, than any other herd of cattle in the 
county." 

This challenge was not accepted, but it led to a controversy 
between Mr. Bates of Kirklevington, the well-known Short- 
horn breeder, and Mr. Price. Mr. Bates, writing in 1840, 
said he had visited Herefordshire about 50 years previously, 
and was then and continued still an admirer of the best variety 
of the Hereford cattle. But he considered then, and had for 
above 40 years been convinced, that "the very best Short- 
horns, which were only a few, were capable of improving all 
other breeds of cattle in the United Kingdom, as well as the 
ordinary Shorthorns, which were far from a good breed, and 
much inferior to the Herefords, Devons, and others." Mr. 
Bates added : " I have at present two red twin one-year-old 
bulls, one out of the dam of Duke of Northumberland, you 
may not think unworthy to be put to your herd of Herefords 
for one season, to give you an opportunity of testing the 
merits of this cross-bred. In my opinion they would prove 
an invaluable cross with the best Herefords — increase the 
growth of the Herefords, and at an earlier age be fit for the 
butcher, with a less consumption of food, and quality of beef 
unimpaired ; and also give that breed an increased milking 
quality, both in quantity of milk and richness, yielding more 
butter." To this Mr. Price replied, that he had inspected Lord 
Spencer's Shorthorn herd, and had never seen anything to 
shake his belief that Hereford cattle would pay more money 
for the food they consumed than any other breed with which 
he was acquainted. He said he had tried many crosses, all of 
which signally failed, where the object had been to obtain 
more size and weight by using large male animals with females 
of smaller dimensions. 

Writing to the Farmers' Magazine in 1 841, Mr. Price 
gave a description of his farm and the difficulties under which 
he laboured, owing to shortness of keep, etc. He said : 
"The farm I have occupied since 1829 has not at any time 



70 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

much exceeded 150 acres ; 20 of which are arable, totally 
unfit for the growth of turnips, and nearly 120 acres, part of 
the Croome demesne, belonging to the Earl of Coventry, in 
one ground and rather below second-rate quality of land, 
greatly covered with ornamental timber, and neither buildings 
nor fold-yards on my farm sufficient to hold 20 beasts ; yet on 
this land I have usually kept 100 head of cattle, together 
with a flock of 150 sheep, 40 of which were rams, besides my 
cart and other horses. These are facts well known to the 
whole of my neighbours, who have always given me full credit 
for being the v/orst keeper of stock in England. I have 
seldom made use of oilcake, and on no occasion have I given 
corn or meal to any of my stock." 

On October 17th and i8th, 18 16, Mr. Price had an extensive 
sale at Ryall, which was thus announced : " The cattle stock 
are wholly descended from that of the justly celebrated one of 
the late Mr. Benjamin Tomkins of Wellington Court, in the 
county of Hereford, and are too well known to need any 
comment." The prices realised at this sale were very large, 
and the event forms such an important land-mark in the 
history of the breed, that we give the list of purchasers and 
prices. 

To render the list of value for reference, it is necessary to 
explain that two catalogues of the sale were issued. One of 
these was really a list of Mr. Price's entire herd, what would 
now be called a private catalogue, showing the breeding of the 
animals ; the other was merely a note of the lots, these being 
connected with the elaborate catalogue by reference to the ear 
marks. In the Herd Book all the entries from Mr. Price's 
herd are made out by references to the ear marks of the cattle, 
whose pedigrees were given in this catalogue. We here combine 
the two catalogues and print opposite the name of the animals 
that were sold a note of the purchasers and the prices : — 



Mr. Prices Sale at Ryall, October i6th and lyth, 18 16. 



No. 



COWS. 



horn. Age. ' £ s. d. 

1 21 Bought of Mr. Tomkins, sire Silver Bull — Mr. Morris... lo lo o 

2 13 Bought of ditto, dam by Silver Bull — Mr. W^. Thomas 26 5 o 

3 15 Bought of ditto, sold to Mr. Pratt last year— Mr. Play- 

field 37 16 o 

4 13 Bought of ditto, dam by Silver Bull 

5 — Slaughtered, bred by J. Price ... 

6 9 BoughtofMr. Tomkins, dam by Silver Bull— Mr. Welles 215 5 o 

7 — Sold to Mr. Welles, bred by Mr. Tomkins 

8 9 Sold to Lord Plymouth, bred by J. Price, dam No. 5, 

sire bred by Mr. Tomkins 

9 — Sold to Lord Sackville, bred by J. Price 

10 — Sold to ditto, bred by ditto 

11 — Sold to Mr, Lawley, bred by ditto 



No. on 
horn. 
12 


Age. 


13 
14 


8 


IS 


7 


16 


7 


17 
18 
19 


7 

1 



BENJAMIN TOMKINS, THE YOUNGER 71 

cows— <r<?«//««^(/. 

;£ f. d. 

Sold to Lord Plymouth, bred by ditto 

Sold to ditto, bred by ditto 

Bought of Mr. Tomkins, dam No. i, sire son of No. 25 — 

Lord Talbot 99 15 o 

Bred by J. Price, dam No. i, sire son of No. 25— Lord 

Talbot 57 15 o 

Bred by ditto, sold to Lord Plymouth, dam No. 9, sire 

Voltaire alias No. I 

Bred by ditto, dam No. 10, sire Voltaire — Mr. Ravenshaw 53 1 1 o 
Bred by ditto, sold to Mr, Pratt, dam No. 8, sire Voltaire 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 9 sister to Diamond, sire bred by 

Mr. Tomkins — Mr. Welles 31 10 o 

20 6 Bred by ditto, dam No. 5, sire bred by Mr. Tomkins — 

Mr. West 39 18 o 

21 7 Bought of Mr. Tomkins, dam Lovely, granddam Slit 

Teat Cow, sire son of No. 25 — Mr. Chapman ... 43 I o 

22 7 Bought of Mr. Tomkins — Mr. Hooper 49 7 o 

23 7 Bought of ditto, dam Slit Teat Cow, sire son of No. 25 — 

Lord Talbot no 5 o 

24 6 Bought of ditto, dam No. 25, sire Wellington — Lord 

Talbot 33 12 o 

25 20 Bought of ditto, sister to dam of No. 23, sire Silver Bull 

— Mr. Welles 32 il o 

26 8 Bought of Mr. Moore of Wellington, dam and sire bred 

by Mr. Tomkins— Mr. West 38 17 o 

Bought of ditto, sold to Lord Plymouth 

Bought of Mr. Tomkins— Lord Talbot 50 8 o 

Bought of ditto, dam No. 3 — sold to Mr. Nicholls 
Bought of ditto, dam Wellington's dam — Mr. Price 
Bought of Mr. West of The Home — Mr. Barnes 
Bred by J. Price, dam No. 29, sire bred by Mr. Tom- 
kins — Mr. Ravenshaw 

Ditto, dam No. 9, sire Wellington — Mr. Lechmere 
Bought of Moore of Wellington, dam sister to No. 26, 

sire Wellington — Mr. Thomas 45 3 o 

Bought of Mr. Tomkins, Young Nutty, dam Nutty, sire 

Wellington alias No, 2— Lord Talbot 89 5 o 

Bought of Mr. Tomkins, dam Lonely, sire Wellington — 

Lord Talbot 63 o o 

Dam No. 15, sire Pion alias No. 3 — Mr, Ravenshaw ... 39 18 o 

Bred by J. Price, sold to Mr, Pratt, dam dead 

Bred by ditto, dam No. 16, sire Pion alias No, 3 — Mr, 

Barnes ... ... ... ... ... 30 9 o 

Bred by ditto, dam No. 5, sire Pion — Mr. Lechmere ... 49 7 o 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 33, sire dead, bred by Mr. 

Tomkins — Mr. Wilson 45 3 o 

42 5 Bought of Mr. Tomkins, dam sister to No. 2, sire Well- 

ington alias No. 2 — Mr. Pratt 35 14 o 

43 4 Bred by J. Price, dam dead, sire Original alias No. 4 — 

sold to Lord Plymouth 

44 4 Bred by ditto, dam No, 8, sire Original alias No, 4 — 

Mr, Wilson 34 13 O 

45 4 Bred by ditto, dam No. 15, sire Wellington alias No. 2 

—Lord Talbot 3615 o 

46 4 Bred by ditto, dam No. 16, sire Original alias No, 4 — 

Mr. Wilson 45 3 o 

47 — Bred by ditto, dam No. 6, sire Pion alias No. 3 — Lord 

Talbot 120 15 o 

48 — Bred by ditto, dam No, 18, sire Wellington alias No, 2 

—Mr. Moraunt 36 15 o 



27 

28 


7 


29 


7 


30 


7 


31 


6 


32 


6 


33 


6 


34 


5 


35 


5 


36 


5 


37 


5 


38 


5 


39 


5 


40 


5 


41 


s 



42 








34 


13 





49 


7 





34 


13 






No. on 




horn. 


Age. 


49 


3 


50 


3 


SI 


3 


52 


3 


53 


3 


54 


3 


55 


3 


56 


3 


57 


3 


58 


3 


59 


3 


60 


3 



37 


16 





26 


5 





42 








90 


6 





45 


3 





29 


^ 





50 


8 





38 


'I 





39 


18 





99 


15 






72 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

COYiS,— continued. 

£ s. d. 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 19, sire Original alias No. 4 — 

Mr. Ginders 56 14 o 

Bred by ditto, dam No. 37, sire Wellington alias No. 2 — 

Mr. Pratt 

Bred by ditto, dam No. 35, sire Wellington — Mr. Morris 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 2, sire bred by Mr. Tomkins — 

Lord Talbot ... ... ... ... 

Bred by ditto, dam No. 23, sire No. 3— Lord Talbot ... 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 3, sire No. 2 — Lord Talbot ... 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 15, sire No. 4 — Mr. West 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 7, sire No. 3 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 17, sire No. 4 — Mr. Evans 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 38, sire No. 2 — Mr. Lechmere 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 8, sire No. 2 — Mr. Palfrey ... 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 6, sire No, 3 — Lord Talbot ... 



HEIFERS. 

Bred by J. Price, dam No. 21, sire No, 2 — Mr. Welles I73 5 o 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 32, sire bred by Mr. Tomkins 

and dead — Mr. Moraunt 

Two-year-old heifer — Mr, Morris 

Bred by ditto, dam No. 23, sire No. 2 — Lord Talbot ... 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 4, sire No. 4 — Mr. Webb 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 15, sire No. 3 — Mr, Bosworth 
Bred by ditto, dam No, 23, sire No, 2— Lord Talbot ... 
Bred by ditto, dam No, 17, sire No. 2 — Mr, West 
Bred by ditto, dam No, 30, sire No. 2 — Mr. Bosworth 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 33, sire No. 2 — Mr. Lechmere 
Bred by J, Price, dam No. 42, sire No, 3 — Lord Talbot 

Bred by ditto, sold to Mr. Pratt — Mr. Morris 

Bred by ditto, sold to Mr. Pratt — Mr. West 

Bred by ditto, dam No. 21, sire No. 2 — Lord Talbot ... 

Bred by ditto, dam No. 21, sire No. 2 — Ditto 

Bred by ditto, dam No. 31, sire No. 4 — Mr. Wilson ... 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 7, sire by Mr. WeJles' bull — 

Lord Talbot 

—Mr, West 

Bred by J, Price, dam No. 18, sire No. 2 — Mr. Bosworth 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 36, sire No. 2 — Mr. West 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 8, sire No. 4 — Mr. G. Price ... 
Bred by ditto, dam No. i, sire No. 3 — Lord Talbot ... 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 31, sire No. 4 — Mr. Morris ... 
Bred by ditto, dam No. 43, sire Moses alias No. 9 — 

Mr. G. Price 18 18 o 

Bred by ditto, dam No, 14, sire No, 2 — Mr, Ruck ... 189 o o 
Bred by ditto, dam No, 5, sire Toquas alias No. 5— 

Mr. Morris 18 18 o 

—Mr. Morris,,. 18 18 o 
Bred by J, Price, dam No, 8, sire No, 4— Ditto ... 21 o o 

—Ditto ... 17 17 o 

Bred by J. Price, dam No. 21, sire No. 4 — Mr. Bosworth 26 5 o 

Bred by ditto, sold to Mr. P. Chapman 

Bred by ditto, sold to Mr. Champion 

—Mr. James Price 17 17 o 

— Mr. Moraunt 17 17 o 

Heifer calves were sold at from ;^is 15J. to ;^42, 



61 


3 


62 


2 


63 


2 


64 


2 


65 


2 


66 


2 


67 


2 


68 


2 


69 


2 


70 


2 


71 


2 


72 


2 


73 


2 


74 


2 


75 


2 


76 


2 


77 


2 


78 


2 


79 


2 


80 


2 


81 


2 


82 


I 


83 


I 


84 


I 


85 


I 


86 





87 


I 


88 


I 


89 


— 


90 


— 


91 


I 


92 


I 


93 


I 


94 


I 


95 


I 



37 16 





29 8 





252 





44 2 





43 I 





68 5 





51 9 





43 I 





35 14 





48 6 





28 7 





49 7 





69 6 


6 


89 5 





53 " 





42 





46 4 





47 5 





36 15 





31 10 





52 10 





17 17 






283 lo 





49 7 





147 o 





48 6 





«9 5 





52 10 





136 10 





115 10 





262 10 





94 10 





43 I 





55 13 





341 5 





44 2 





89 s 





65 2 





46 4 





63 





126 






BENJAMIN TOMKINS, THE YOUNGER Ti 

No. on BULLS. 

horn. ;£ s. d, 

1 Voltaire, bred by Mr. Tomkins, dam No. 3 

2 Wellington alias No. 2, eight years old, bred by Mr. Tomkins- 

Mr. Germaine ... ... ... ... 

3 Pion, got by No. I, dam No. 2 — Mr. Lane 

4 Original, got by a bull bred by Mr. Tomkins, dam No. i- 

Mr. West , 

5 Toquas, got by No. I, dam No. 9 — Mr. Morris , 

6 Rumbo, got by No. I, dam No. 4 — Mr. Ravenshaw 

7 Chocolate, got by Pion, dam No. 4 — Mr. Evans 

8 Warrior, got by Wellington, dam No. 4 — Mr. Chapman 

9 Moses, got by Wellington, dam No. 14 — Mr. G. Price 

10 Ryall, got by Pion, dam No. 35— Lord Talbot 

11 Eclipse, got by Wellington, dam No. 25— Lord Talbot 

12 Rolla, got by Pion, dam No. 15 — Mr. Palfrey 

13 Tytheman, got by Moses, dam No. 24 — Mr. Barnes 

14 Waxy, got by Wellington, dam No. 47— Lord Talbot 



BULL CALVES. 

15 Sovereign, own brother to Waxy — Mr. Jas. Price 

16 Master Tozer, got by Moses, dam Young Pigeon— Lord Talbot 

17 Araxes, got by Pion, dam No. 14 — Mr. Ruck 

18 Crispin, got by Waxy, dam No. 59 — Mr. Chapman 

19 Junius, got by Waxy, dam No. 49 — Mr. Pratt 

20 Leopold, got by Waxy, dam No. 61 by Wellington— Mr. Welles 126 

The averages for the various classes, were as follows : — 

AVERAGE. 

£ s- d. 

32 Cows 54 I 6 

13 Three-year-old heifers... 59 o o 

21 Two-year-old heifers ... 57 2 o 

10 Yearling heifers 36 8 8 

21 Heifer calves 24 11 o 

13 Bulls 132 4 6 

6 Bull calves 72 5 6 433 13 o 

116 head averaged ;^58 oc. od. ^^6728 10 6 

There is also a catalogue, with a few prices, of Mr. Price's 
sale at Mitton Lodge Farm, near Tewkesbury, on March 2ist 
and 22nd, 1820, but it is not necessary to reproduce it in full. 
A few high prices were realised. Mr. Jellicoe gave ;£"i27 \s. 
for the cow Vesta ; Mr. Barnes £\0<^ 4^-. for the heifer Thalia. 
Mr. Price's final sale took place at Poole House, on October 
15th, 1 841. Here the cow Toby Pigeon was sold in her 22nd 
year to Sir F. Lawley for ^14. The highest price was ^166 
for the bull Washington, Lord Talbot being the purchaser. 
Among the cows Wood Pigeon made 150 guineas, going to 
Mr. Bird, Hampton Court, Hereford. The heifer Tuberose 
was taken by Lord Talbot at 100 guineas, and Ceres at ;^ii5 
by Sir F. Goodricke ; Mr. Smith, Martly, gave ;^ioo for the 



TOTAL 

£. s. 


■ d. 


1730 4 





766 10 





1 199 8 


6 


364 7 





515 " 





1718 17 






74 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

bull Tramp, Sir F. Lawley ;^I40 for Young Trueboyand;^ioo 
for Victory, Mr. Samuel Peploe bought the bull Murphy 
Delaney for no guineas, and Mr. Evans, Pendeford Hall, 
Stafford, took The Rejected for no guineas. The largest 
purchasers were Lord Talbot, Sir F. Lawley, Sir F. Goodricke, 
Captain Walters, Mr. S. Peploe, Garnstone, and Rev. J. R. 
Smythies, Lynch Court. The average for 99 animals was 
£SZ 16^. 4d., and the total ;^5328. Commenting on the re- 
sults of the sale, Mr. Price said : " Although the average at 
my sale in 18 16 is a little above the average price of my last 
sale in 1 841, it will I think appear evident on taking into 
account the length of time (25 years) that has elapsed between 
the two sales, the great reduction which has taken place during 
that time (and since the sales of Messrs. Colling's Shorthorns) 
in the price of first-rate herds of cattle, and also of other herds 
of cattle, together with circumstances too well known to both 
landlords and tenants to need any comment from me, that the 
average of my last sale is much the best ; thereby placing the 
herd on much higher ground compared with all others than 
they heretofore occupied ; and I do sincerely hope that the 
hands these animals have fallen into will take care that they 
keep their present high position. Should they not continue 
to do so and lose caste, the fault will not be in the cattle." 

At the Poole House sale it was resolved to present Mr. 
Price with his portrait, and a good picture was painted by Mr. 
Frederick Tatham. Mr. Price survived this sale only two 
years. 

At his three sales of cattle in 18 13, 18 16, and 1841, the 
proceeds amounted to no less than ^16,690. A complete 
record of the sale in 1820 does not exist, but we should imagine 
that if the amount obtained at it could be added, it would swell 
the total to ;^20,ooo. 

Li the article on Hereford Cattle contributed to Morton's 
" Cyclopedia of Agriculture," Mr. Welles had a few remarks on 
the character of Mr. Price's stock. He said bethought it must 
be generally admitted that unusual exertions had been made 
through great difficulties by an individual of an adjoining 
county, who had been the most zealous and (if high prices 
were the test) the most successful breeder of Herefords of that 
day [about 1830-40]. And litde as his opinions seemed to be 
in conformity with those of a large portion of the breeders of 
the county of Hereford, and though his great efforts to raise 
the character of the breed had been so little understood and 
appreciated on its native soil, he thought those who calmly 
and dispassionately examined the principles which guided him 
in the pursuit must be convinced there were many points on 



BENJAMIN TOMKINS, THE YOUNGER 75 

which he insisted as indispensable in the formation of a 
superior animal that could not safely be disregarded. Instances 
of failure might be adduced against him in some of his practice, 
but these often resulted with the most sagacious from the trial 
of new combinations ; and Mr. Welles thought it very probable 
that the rising generation of breeders would find that a superior 
intellect brought to bear so exclusively on one subject had not 
been exercised in vain, and that time would dispel many of 
the prejudices existing in certain places against Mr. Price's 
" breed." Mentioning some of the exceptions that might 
fairly be taken to Mr. Price's system of breeding, he said one 
of the most prominent was a great disregard of the milking 
property ; and from his late practice of breeding from near 
affinities, this fault might be supposed to have been more 
permanently fixed in certain families. That it would not be 
desirable in a breed such as the Hereford to make too many 
sacrifices to the milking quality, he thought would be generally 
allowed ; but there might be, he was convinced, a sufficient 
disposition to give a fair quantity of milk and the cow be 
equally good for any purpose required of her. There were, 
however, many cows that from want of proper care of the 
udder after calving and during the time that the grass was 
luxuriant were rendered more or less incapable of a supply of 
milk afterwards, and he thought much inattention on that head 
was often the case in the stock he alluded to. Another 
objection that might be raised against Mr. Price's stock was 
the shortness and rather mean appearance of the horns in 
many of his cows, not characteristic of Herefords in general, 
which had mainly arisen from his attention being devoted to 
more important qualities ; and as the family in which these 
were most concentrated was deficient in horns, he left them 
unimproved, thinking he might, in pursuit of a non-essential, 
run the risk of losing a valuable property ; still Mr. Welles 
believed the possession of good horns to be quite compatible 
with every other valuable requisite, and it was certainly a 
considerable advantage to the appearance of the animal. 

These observations prove that a prejudice had arisen in the 
county against Price's cattle, which, on the evidence of even a 
favourable witness like Mr. Welles, was not without some 
justification. But the variety was very far indeed from being 
even at the close of Mr. Price's career without substantial 
merit. As to the later appearance of Mr. Price's herd, we had 
the following interesting communication from Mr. George 
Smythies : " I had no intimate acquaintance with the Hereford 
herd of Mr. Price. I never saw it until after he had given 
up farming. When I knew the herd it was kept in Lord 



16 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Coventry's park the greater part of the year, and for a short 
time in winter and spring the cattle were tacked out in straw- 
yards with anybody who would keep them. I once saw the 
best lot of 14 two-year-old heifers I ever looked at in a 
yard where they got nothing but stubble — that is the straw 
that remained after hand-reaping of wheat, only there was a 
little clover in it, the field it came from having been sown with 
seeds. During the last few years that Mr. Price kept his 
Herefords, he changed their form a good deal. The Tomkins 
breed, which, I believe, he used exclusively, were very wide over 
their hips and narrow on their shoulders. This he altered, 
getting his cows much wider on the chine with less gaudy hips. 
These characteristics were particularly exemplified in Dove, 
bought by my father at the sale in 1841 for 77 guineas, and 
by Tuberose, sold to Lord Talbot for 100 guineas. Mr. Price's 
cattle were, some of them, red with white faces ; some a 
beautiful roan as was Dove (Dove was a smoky roan, differing 
from the roans as bred by Tully), others being white backed 
with mottle faces. The bulls were brought up differently to 
what they are now, running, in almost a wild state, with the 
cows until they were fit for service, when most of them were 
let and kept from home as much as possible, Mr. Price having 
but little accommodation for them. Consequently they had a 
mean appearance as compared with the cows, which were 
magnificent animals." 

Cobbett, in his " Rural Rides " (1830), writes from Tewkes- 
bury : " I am here among the finest cattle and the finest sheep 
of the Leicester kind that I ever saw. My host, Mr. Price, is 
famed as a breeder of cattle and sheep. The cattle are of the 
Hereford kind, and the sheep surpassing- any animals of the 
kind that I ever saw. The animals seem to be made for 
the soil and the soil for them. The sheep are chiefly of the 
Leicester breed, and the cattle of Hereford white face and 
dark body, certainly the finest and most beautiful of all horn 
cattle." 

The Earl of Coventry writing to the authors in 1885, 
remarked that : " The fame of John Price's Herefords still 
lives in this neighbourhood, and there are yet living people 
who speak of the noble herd with admiration, and describe 
them as being possessed of great scale and extraordinary 
constitution. They were accustomed to range the pastures 
summer and winter, and were almost always to be seen in the 
well-known Cubsmoor, a large grass field of great repute 
amongst graziers. John Price had a bull which weighed 29 
cwt. and a bull calf 9 cwt. at nine months old." 



BENJAMIN TOMKINS, THE YOUNGER 77 



Other Breeders of the Tomkins and Price 
Strains 

In the appendix to Volume I; of the Herd Book a h'st is 
given of the principal breeders of the Tomkins and Price 
stock, from whom pedigrees had been received by Mr; Eyton. 
They were the Earl of Talbot, Ingestre ; Sir F. Lawley, 
Bart. ; Sir F. Goodricke, Studley Castle ; Mr. G. Drake, The 
Manor Farm, East Tytherley ; Mr. Shepherd, Eastwood 
House ; Mr. Thomas Juckes, Tern Farm ; Mr. N. Smith, 
Martley ; Mr. Pratt, New Field ; Mr. Gravenor, Wellington ; 
the Rev. W. P. Hopton, Bishops Froome ; Mr. J. Smith, 
Shellesley; Mr. T. P. Wight, Tedstone Park. Only a few 
of these were resident in the county of Hereford ; and of 
course there are others who ought to have been included in 
the list — notably, the Rev. J. R. Smythies, Mr. Welles, and 
others. 

Lord Talbot, as has been seen, was a liberal purchaser at 
the Tomkins and Price sales. There was considerable un- 
certainty as to the reason why he gave up his herd. Mr. 
George Smythies, Marlow Lodge (son of the Rev. J. R. 
Smythies, Lynch Court), informed us that he was once at 
Ingestre about seventy-two years previously, and naturally had 
not a very clear idea now of what he saw there, but he remem- 
bered he thought the land did not suit the Herefords. We are 
able to give in Lord Talbot's own words the explanation of 
the dispersion of the Ingestre herd, which quite confirms Mr. 
Smythies' impression. In a letter to Mr. George Tomkins, 
Eccles Green, Norton Pyon, dated March 4th, 1847, Lord 
Talbot fully stated his reason for disposing of his herd, 
and as the communication has other interest, as showing 
the friendship existing between these two breeders, we print 
an extract from it. " Dear George," wrote Lord Talbot, 
" Events of a very painful nature have occurred which have 
prevented our meeting, as we formerly did, in friendship and 
good fellowship. The remembrance of past times of this 
nature cannot but be most gratifying to me, and I feel not 
otherwise to you. . . . What you will not, perhaps, expect, 
I have to inform you that I have resolved to give up being a 
breeder of Herefordshire cattle ; not, be assured, from any 
want of partiality to the breed, but simply that I find my land, 
having been now more or less attended to, and constantly 
depastured, is become too rich for a breeding stock. Accidents 
have been so frequent with slipping calf — with the apoplexy 
which over-condition is sure to produce, and other causes of 



7^ HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

disappointment, that, however painful the struggle, I have faced 
it, and have advertised my breeding stock for unreserved sale. 
The die being cast, what is to be done in future ? I wish to 
feed Hereford oxen largely, which intention is, perhaps, forti- 
fied by the facility I have of sending up to Smithfield. The 
want of market, which formerly prevented my feeding these 
excellent cattle to the extent I wished, is now removed, and 
therefore I return with eagerness to the project of feeding 
instead of breeding Herefords." Lord Talbot proceeded to 
ask Mr. Tomkins' co-operation in obtaining suitable cattle for 
feeding, and concluded by inviting him to his sale, which took 
place on October 24th, 1838. In addition to animals bred by 
Benjamin Tomkins and Mr, Price, or descended from their 
herds, the sale included specimens from the herds of the Misses 
Tomkins, and Mr. George Tomkins, We have not a list of 
the prices, which, however, were not extraordinary ; but the 
influence of the Ingestre stock still exists. Lord Talbot seems 
to have again collected a few pedigree Herefords, as we find 
him purchasing at Mr. Price's sale in 1841. 

Sir F, Lawley also secured many of the Tomkins and Price 
cattle, and Mr, Duckham tells us he has heard from old breeders 
that he had a very grand herd of heavy-fleshed mottle faces. 
He had a sale in 1839, of which Mr, George Smythies gave 
us the catalogue. Mr. Smythies attended the sale, when 
several of the lots were purchased by his father, and described 
as having been very good animals. Mr. Smythies also supplied 
us with a priced catalogue of the sale of Sir F. Lawley's herd, 
which took place after his death. The prices were very low, 
the best being only 28 guineas. 

Lord Pl3^mouth, Earl St. Germains, and others, had at one 
time very good herds of this variety, but they have long since 
been dispersed, and few traces of them now remain. In his 
Cirencester lecture, Mr. Duckham mentioned that in 1863 Mr. 
Smith, Shellesley, sent some well-fleshed animals of the mottle- 
faced sort to the Worcester Show, but they were not successful. 
The last, he says, he remembers to have seen a winner was the 
heifer Superb, exhibited by the Earl of Radnor at Salisbury, 
and then purchased for the Royal herd, where she was put to 
the red with white face bull Brecon 918, and produced the 
heavily fleshed bull Maximus 1650, winner of the first prize at 
the Warwick and Battersea Meetings of the Royal Agricultural 
Society of England. The marks on his face showed the tran- 
sition from the mottle face and red with white face ; being 
larger than those of the mottle face, and fewer in number. Mr. 
Smith used many of Mr. Price's best bulls. In 1856 he received 
a letter, stating that H.R.H. Prince Albert had been graciously 



BENJAMIN TOMKINS, THE YOUNGER 79 

pleased to patronise the Hereford breed, and an appointment 
was asked by the representative of H.R.H. in order that Mr. 
Smith's celebrated herd might be inspected. Mr. Duckham 
also mentions Sir F. Goodricke, Captain Rayer, Captain Peploe, 
Mr. Drake, and Mr, Jellicoe as having been breeders of this 
variety. 

It will be convenient at this stage to briefly sum up the 
interesting stoiy of the connection of the Tomkins family 
with the improvement of the Hereford breed. It forms one of 
the most remarkable and interesting in the annals of cattle 
breeding, for here there were four successive generations 
consecutively engaged in the work. First there was Richard 
Tomkins, who in his will, dated 1720, left to his sons cattle 
whose special value is indicated by the fact that they were 
distinctly named. To the younger son, Benjamin, he be- 
queathed the cow Silver and her calf, the elder son receiving a 
yoke of work oxen called Spark and Merchant. The younger 
son became the first great improver, and, starting in 1742 at 
Wellington Court, his herd soon acquired a high reputation. 
His son Benjamin continued the work of improvement for 
some years contemporaneously with his father, and by 1769 
he had also become a famous breeder. He died in 181 5, and 
his daughters afterwards kept on the herd, disposing of part of 
it in 18 19, when very high prices were realised, but continuing 
the stock until 1859. 

This record is in some respects unique, and is the earliest 
account that exists of continuous devotion to cattle improve- 
ment made by members of one family over such a long 
period. Some ambiguity has been caused by Professor Low 
having given a detailed notice of incidents he attributed 
to Benjamin Tomkins the younger, some of which really 
applied to his father. It has been necessary to point out that 
many of these statements, in which Low was followed by other 
authorities, could not possibly refer to the son, and though 
they fit in more with what is known of the career of the 
father, a certain amount of vagueness has had to be left in the 
explanation. Mr. T. Tomkins Galliers (whose industry and 
research have brought to light the records of the Tomkins 
family) has arrived at the conclusion that most of Low's state- 
ments referred to the elder Benjamin Tomkins, and his opinion 
on this subject must necessarily carry great weight. In any 
case there is the distinct record of continuous efforts made by 
members of the Tomkins family from 1720 to 1859, a very 
noteworthy achievement, which places them in the front rank 
as improvers of cattle. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE HEWER AND JEFFRIES FAMILIES 

William and John Hewer 

The student of the Herd Book will find that nearly every 
valuable strain of Herefords at the present day is full of 
Hewer blood. The influence of the Hewer cattle has indeed 
been remarkable. It is not merely that a few families that 
have become exceedingly valuable are of this line of descent, 
but that the modern character of the entire breed has to a 
large extent been determined by this variety, not alone as 
regards colour markings, on which the Hewer impress has 
been very powerful, but on the more essential matters of 
shape and quality. 

This being the case, it is needless to say that a most 
important section of Hereford history is that relating to the 
proceedings of the Hewers. Here, again, however, reliable 
information is not over-plentiful. It may be explained that 
the original idea of the founder of the Herd Book was to 
confine it to a record of the Tomkins-Price stock ; but this 
manifestly would not have been a Herd Book of Hereford 
cattle, and the plan was so changed that all the varieties 
were admitted. A Hereford Herd Book without the records 
of the Hewer cattle would certainly have been a curious 
production, comparable only to the performance of the play of 
" Hamlet " with the leading character omitted. This was 
evidently appreciated by Mr. Eyton, and so in Volume I. 96 
bulls bred by William and John Hewer were entered ; but 
Mr. Eyton was either unable to collect much information 
about the Hewer family and their herds, or he did not greatly 
trouble himself about the subject. All that he has to say 
regarding them is that Mr. John Hewer informed him " that 
the breed he now possesses has been in his family for many 
years. A great number of the principal breeders have had 
bulls from him. He at present possesses more bulls, most of 
which are let, than any other breeder in the county." Then 
if the pedigrees are closely examined, it will be found that so 



THE HEWER AND JEFFRIES FAMILIES 8i 

far as they are registered the Hewer cattle trace back to a 
bull called Silver 540, as to whom the only facts vouchsafed 
are that he was white-faced, was calved in 1797, and was bred 
by Mr. William Hewer of Hardwick. 

Obviously there was not within the covers of the Herd 
Book an adequate account of the Hewers and their cattle, 
nor had former writers on Herefords added any trustworthy 
information to these scanty details. An effort was therefore 
made to find whether all the records had perished, and if it 
were really impossible to get some light thrown on this branch 
of the history of the breed. Although Mr. John L. Hewer, 
Aston Ingham, Ross, most cordially seconded our efforts, it 
is to be regretted that owing to papers having been mislaid, 
and to the habit of the old breeders to look upon the sources 
and management of their herds as trade secrets which must 
on no account be disclosed, we have not succeeded quite so 
well as could have been wished. Still, it is possible to remove 
much of the uncertainty and misapprehension in which the 
subject has been enveloped. The account of the Hewer family 
that follows is chiefly taken from communications furnished 
by Mr. John L. Hewer. 

William Hewer, the father of John Hewer, was a native 
of Gloucestershire, being one of the Hewers of Northleach, 
and was descended from William Hewer, so frequently 
mentioned in Pepys' Diary. He was born in 1757 and 
married a Monmouthshire lady — Miss Hughes of Court 
Morgan, near Abergavenny. In order to be near his wife's 
family, he went to live at the Great Hardwick, near Aber- 
gavenny, Monmouthshire. The date of his removal to 
Monmouthshire is uncertain, but it seems to have been about 
1787. He occupied the Hardwick and Dobson's farms for 
28 years, and then took a farm at Llanellen, about a mile 
from the Hardwick. About the year 1825 there was a kind 
of panic amongst the banks, and one in which he had a large 
sum of money invested failed. William Hewer was so over- 
come by the disaster, that, with his eldest son William, he left 
the country for America, but he lived only about six months 
after he arrived, being quite broken hearted. He died in 
New York in November, 1825, and was interred at the 
cemetery of St. Mark's Churchyard, Bowery, New York, on 
December 2nd, being at the time of his decease 6S years 
of age. 

John Hewer was born on March 12th, 1787, and died on 
September 28th, 1873. His son, Mr. John L. Hewer, never 
heard him say positively whether he was born at Kilkenny 
farm, near Northleach, where his father resided before going 

G 



82 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

to Monmouthshire, or at the Great Hardwick, Abergavenny. 
John Hewer, senior, assisted his father at the Hardwick, and 
it was then he formed the idea of having the Herefords of 
uniform colour and markings. During that time he had a 
few cattle of his own, and had the benefit of his father's 
experience. The statement that John Hewer went to his 
relatives in Gloucestershire in 1805, and remained with them 
for several years, is, we are assured, incorrect. He never 
left home, except on a visit, till about the year 18 17, when 
he went to Purslow Hall, in Shropshire. Here he continued 
for several years. On his departure for America, William 
Hewer left his wife and the younger portion of his family 
in England. They took a farm called The Grove, in 
Monmouthshire, and John Hewer managed it for his mother, 
and did very well until some misunderstanding took place 
between him and other members of the family ; after which 
he went into Herefordshire, living first at Hill House, Aston 
Ingham. He subsequently proceeded to Moor House, about 
a mile from Hereford, and from that place to Brandon Cottage, 
where he had some land. In 1835 he occupied Hampton 
Lodge, near Hereford, and Litley Farm. He gave up the 
latter holding in 1839, the date of his first great sale. He 
was at Hampton Lodge until 1846; then at Lower Wilcroft, 
where he continued for two years. For two years he was at 
Palmer's Court, Holmer, whence in 1850 he went to Vern 
House, Marden, w^here he settled down, having purchased it 
in 1855. Until 1873 he resided at Vern House, when he 
sold it to Mr. H. Burr of Aldermaston, and took Paradise 
Villa, Marden, where he died in the same year and was buried 
in Holmer Churchyard. 

These are the salient biographical facts as to the two 
Hewers. The authors were naturally very anxious to ascertain, 
if possible, where William Hewer originally procured his 
Hereford cattle, he being a native of Gloucestershire, living 
in Monmouthshire, and never having resided in the county of 
Hereford. Mr. John L. Hewer remarked that he could not 
say where his grandfather obtained his stock, but he always 
understood from his father that his great-grandfather had a 
herd of Herefords, and that William inherited them. Certain 
it is, says Mr. J. L. Hewer, he was a successful exhibitor at 
the Bath and West of England Shows before the close of the 
eighteenth century. Mr. Thomas F. Plowman, secretary of 
the Bath and West of England Society, kindly searched the 
old records of that Society, and informed us that it was not 
until 1794 that cattle were exhibited at its shows as stock, not 
as beasts of draught or burden, and no mention occurs of a 



THE HEWER AND JEFFRIES FAMILIES 83 

Hereford until 1799, when £i, 5^. was awarded to Mr. W. 
Smith for the best Hereford heifer. Mr. Plowman added that 
he found no further allusion to the breed until 18 10, when 
;^io los. was awarded to Mr. Kemp for a fat cow of the 
Hereford breed. Any of the Hewer Herefords exhibited at 
the earlier meetings of the Bath and West of England Society 
must therefore have been draught oxen. In another letter, 
Mr. J. L. Hewer said, in reference to the character of his 
father's and grandfather's cattle, that he believed they were 
principally red with white faces, and from what he had heard 
his father sa)^, they must have been in possession of the 
family for some generations, as several of their relatives in 
Gloucestershire had the red with white faces before the 
last century came in. He had also heard Mr. John Hewer 
say that his father traced his best cattle back to the bull 
called Silver 540 (calved in 1797), which impressed them 
with the red with white face character, and also with that 
massive heavy flesh and full eye which distinguished all his late 
father's stock. 

It is, of course, not improbable that the Hewer family in 
Gloucestershire had, during the eighteenth century, obtained 
from the best breeders in the county of Hereford some good 
specimens of the breed, of the old red with white face variety. 
Marshall has told us that the Gloucestershire graziers got their 
oxen from Herefordshire, and it is not likely that the transfer 
of cattle from the latter county would be confined to oxen. 
The Gloucestershire farmers would also, doubtless, have secured 
a few of the cows that produced such excellent bullocks, and it 
may be assumed the Hewers were among those who did so. 
Besides, it is evident that the Herefords had penetrated, by 
the time of William Hewer's settlement there, into the county 
of Monmouth. 

There is nothing very definite in these theories as to the 
origin of the Hewer herds, and hope of being able to discover 
a more precise explanation had almost been abandoned, when 
aid was received from an unexpected quarter. Going through 
the notes on herds contained in the appendix to the first 
volume of the Herd Book, a statement was observed in the 
notice of the stock of Mr. Yarworth, New House, Brinsop, to 
the effect that "in 18 14 he sold to Mr. Hewer a bull calf by 
Trojan 192;" while at his sale at New House in 1820, the 
one-year-old bull Alpha, by Trojan, dam Red Rose, was pur- 
chased by Mr. Hewer, Northleach. The bull calf sold in 18 14 
went to Mr. W. Hewer, Great Hardwick, but that transaction 
having occurred a good many years after he had removed to 
Monmouthshire, the fact did not help to an explanation as to 



84 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLF 

the original foundation of William Hewer's herd. But con- 
nected with this sale of a bull in 1814 is an incident that 
brought some welcome guidance. 

In the year 1821 there was a furious newspaper controversy 
between Mr. William Hewer and Mr. Yarworth. It is a 
matter of regret to have to refer to this unfortunate affair, but 
it is desirable to explain the origin of the misunderstanding. 
It appears that Mr. Yarworth, before going to Brinsop, occupied 
the farm of Troy, near Monmouth. On leaving this farm in 
1814 he had a sale, described as of "valuable Herefordshire 
cattle." William Hewer attended the sale, and purchased 
stock to the value of ;^ 145. In 1821, Hewer and Yarworth, 
probably as the result of show-yard rivalries, quarrelled, and 
Yarworth then wrote to the Glojicester Journal (February 4th, 
1822) a letter addressed to "Mr. W. Hewer, Llanellen, near 
Abergavenny," in which he referred to the cause of the mis- 
understanding between them, and, as was the custom in those 
days, challenged him for 100 guineas to show 20, 15, or 10 of 
his heifers above three years old, of his own breeding, and 
then in his possession, against the same number the property 
of Mr. White, Upleadon, which were descended from Yar- 
worth's bull Trojan. Yarworth then proceeded to write to 
William Hewer as follows : — " I beg to inform you for the first 
time how the yearling bull, bull calf, etc., which you purchased 
at my sale at Troy in the year 18 14 were bred, and from which 
bulls your stock since that time is descended. The bull calf 
was got by Trojan ; his dam (which you bought) was got by 
the late Mr. William Smith's old bull ; his granddam by a 
bull bought of Mr. Tully of the Haywood ; his great-grand- 
dam by a bull bought of Mr. Howells of Hadnock, near Mon- 
mouth ; his great-great-granddam by a cross-bred bull of little 
value, out of an old brindled Gloucestershire dairy cow (being 
an excellent milker), which was purchased by my father of my 
predecessor, Mr. Dew of Troy Farm, in the year 1797, for ;^8. 
The yearling bull was got by Trojan out of the granddam of 
the bull calf." Mr. Yarworth expressed surprise that Mr. 
Hewer had not asked for information as to the breeding of the 
stock at the time of the sale, and said, " although they were 
only culls I then sold, I assure you there were only four of 
them, but were well-bred ; three out of the four you made 
choice of— namely, the yearling bull, and the cow and her bull 
calf." Mr. Yarworth advised Mr. Hewer to part with his stock 
descended from the old brindled cow. He added : " When 
Mr. Bluck asked how your bull was bred, you answered that 
he was got by your old bull, which you bought of old Tomkins, 
and that you had let him that season to two gentlemen in 



THE HEWER AND JEFFRIES FAMILIES 85 

Breconshire for one hundred guineas, but I am sorry you for- 
got it was the bull you bought at my sale in 18 14, then a calf. 
The two heifers you showed at Tredegar your son said were 
out of the two old cows you bought of old Tomkins. Now in 
a letter I received from Miss Tomkins of the Pyon, dated the 
1 2th inst, she assures me you never bought any stock of her 
and her sisters, or, to her knowledge, of her father." 

In reply to this attack on the character of his stock, 
William Hewer wrote a long letter, in the course of which he 
said, " Mr. Yarworth's bills of sale were headed thus : — 
' Particulars of the valuable Herefordshire cattle, the property 
of Mr. James Yarworth, of Troy Farm, near Monmouth.' Mr. 
Yarworth, in reference to my purchasing a bull calf at such 
sale, observes that it was a most strange and unaccountable 
thing I did not inquire about the breed, and whether I did so 
or not, I cannot charge my memory at this distance of time, 
but it is a matter of no importance to me, as I had a stock far 
superior to any Mr. Yarworth possessed, and I had added to 
them five cows and heifers by a purchase I had made of 
Messrs. Tully of Huntington, previous to Mr. Yarworth's sale 
at Troy. And as to my old bull being the calf I purchased at 
Troy sale, it is sufficient, in contradiction, to state one fact, viz. 
my old bull was calved at least a year before Mr. Yarworth's 
came into existence. I deny having stated to Mr. Bluck that 
I ever purchased any stock of Mr. Tomkins, though I can 
prove I have descendants from some of his prime cattle. . . . 
His (Mr. Yarworth's) advice to get rid of my stock descended 
from his brindled cow comes too late by many years, as I have 
none of them left." Mr. Hewer further expressed the opinion 
that Mr. Yarworth's stock sold at Troy were, as he himself had 
publicly described them, pure-bred Herefords, and that the 
story as to the brindled cow was an invention. 

So that out of this very unfortunate squabble two most 
important facts are gleaned — that William Hewer had at a 
very early period in his career obtained five cows and heifers 
from Tully of Huntington, and that he had in his herd 
descendants from some of " Tomkins' prime cattle." This, of 
course, is not a full explanation of the foundation of the Hewer 
stock, but it shows some of its principal ingredients, and 
clearly proves its descent in part, at least, from the noted herds 
of Tomkins and Tully. It is thus apparent, as had always 
been supposed, although until the discovery of these documents 
there had been no means of verifying the impression, that the 
Hewer cattle were not a new or mysterious element imported 
into the breed, but mainly the result of a most skilful com- 
pounding of the old strains, 



86 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

In the Herd Book there are six bulls entered as having 
been bred by Mr. William Hewer, as follows : — Silver 540, of 
whom all the information given is, as we have said, that he 
was red with white face, and calved in 1797 ; Old Wellington 
507, also red with white face, calved in 1 801, by Silver 540, 
dam Primrose, bred by William Hewer ; Young Wellington 
505, red with white face, calved in 1812, by Old Wellington 
507, dam Silky by Waxy 403, granddam Silk by Silver 540 ; 
Old Favourite 442, calved in 18 19, by Young Wellington 505, 
dam Cherry by Wellington 507, granddam Old Cherry by 
Waxy 403; Waxy 403, calved in 18 11, by Wellington 507, 
dam Strawberry; Alpha the Second 457, calved in 1814, 
by Young Wellington 505, dam Silk by Young Wellington 
505, granddam Silky by Waxy 403, great-granddam Silk by 
Silver 540, 

No doubt some of these pedigrees which have been copied 
from the Herd Book are erroneous, and mistakes have also 
crept into the entries of several of Mr. John Hewer's cattle, 
arising partly from the evident desire of father and son to 
acknowledge no connection between their herds and other 
stocks. Both William and John Hewer were fond of giving 
animals the same name and not distinguishing them by 
numbers, but merely stating that they were old or young — 
an exceedingly confusing system of nomenclature. Mistakes 
of identity therefore occurred, particularly in the pre-Herd 
Book days, when records were not carefully kept. There is 
little doubt, however, that both father and son carried out a 
system of close breeding. In several of Mr. John Hewer's 
catalogues the following note is made : — " It may not be 
unworthy of remark that the celebrated and justly-admired 
bull Old Sovereign 404, the sire of Cotmore, the winner of 
the first premium for Herefords at the meeting of the English 
Royal Agricultural Society held at Oxford, July 17th, 1839, 
as well as the sire of Wormelow, the property of Sir H. 
Hoskyns, Bart, Harev/ood, and many others of equal merit, 
was bred by Mr. Hewer. His sire Favourite, grandsire 
Wellington, great-grandsire Old Wellington ; dam Countess 
by Wellington, granddam Cherry by Waxy, great-granddam 
Old Cherry. Much has been said and written by many of 
the most eminent breeders in the kingdom against the practice 
of * breeding in-and-in,' as they term it ; but by referring to 
the above pedigree it will be seen that Old Sovereign was the 
offspring of an own brother and sister, and acknowledged by 
the first judges to be the best bull ever bred in the county of 
Hereford, and the sire and grandsire of more prize cattle at 
Smithfield and elsewhere than any bull in the kingdom. Old 



THE HEWER AND JEFFRIES FAMILIES 87 

Sovereign was used by the following distinguished breeders, 
and died in his 15th year, viz. Robert Tench, Bromfield, 
Salop, three years ; Lord Sherborne, Gloucestershire ; Earl 
Ducie, ditto ; Thomas Wells, Hamnet, ditto ; Richard Kil- 
mister. The Grove, ditto ; Messrs. Hewer, Northleach, ditto ; 
Sir H. Hoskyns, Bart, Harewood ; Thomas Jeffries, The 
Grove ; Thomas Jeffries, jun., Cotmore ; Edmund Jeffries, 
The Grove ; Richard Yeomans, Howton ; John Turner, Noke ; 
Messrs. Rogers, Stansbatch ; and by the breeder." The 
pedigree, however, is not quite clear. 

The other bulls bred by the Hewers were also let out 
in many of the leading herds, and their influence was thus 
widespread. Particulars we have obtained as to weights and 
measurements of some of William Hewer's cattle will be 
interesting: — "Weight of the bull Wellington, i ton 6 cwt. 
(2912 lbs.) in the year 1815. The weight of the cow Silk, 
I ton in the year 1820. Dimensions of the fat steer — length, 
from the nose to the setting on of the tail, 1 1 feet i inch ; 
girth, 8 feet 10 inches ; across the hips, 3 feet i inch ; weight, 
I ton 6 cwt. (2912 lbs.). Hamlet, three years old and six 
months ; length, from nose to tail, 10 feet 10 inches ; girth, 

10 feet 6 inches ; across the hips, 3 feet 2 inches ; weight, 

1 ton 5 cwt. (2800 lbs.)." The document from which these 
details are taken is dated April, 1822. Another paper gives 
the dimensions of the bull Wellington as follows : — " Length, 
from the setting on of the tail to the end of the nose, 1 1 feet 
4 inches ; girth, 1 1 feet 3 inches ; across the hips, 3 feet 

2 inches ; length, from the tail to the hip-bone, 3 feet 2 inches." 
The dimensions of the bull Alpha are thus given : — " Length, 
from the setting on of the tail to the end of the nose, 10 feet 

1 1 inches ; length, from the tail to the hip-bone, 2 feet 
9 inches ; across the hips, 2 feet 9 inches ; girth, 9 feet 8 
inches." 

William Hewer conducted his operations as a breeder 
under serious difficulties, arising from the nature of the land 
he farmed. He himself says, "notwithstanding the dis- 
advantages incidental to half mountain land and a sharp, 
gravelly soil, yielding almost sapless herbage, which I have 
encountered, I have frequently successfully opposed at various 
shows some of the first Herefordshire breeders." 

John Hewer, as has been seen, assisted his father at the 
Hardwick. He had then a few cattle of his own, and had 
the benefit of his father's advice in their management. It 
has already been mentioned that early in the present century, 
John Hewer went to Purslow in Shropshire. The gentleman 
who owned the Purslow estate, Mr. Browning, bought a 



88 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

number of cattle from William Hewer. He also obtained his 
consent to John Hewer going to manage the estate and cattle. 
There is some uncertainty as to the date when John Hewer 
removed to Purslow, Mr. John L. Hewer mentioning 1817, 
while others say it was a few years later. Mr. George 
Smythies says : " I learn that the whole herd of Mr. Hewer, 
The Hardwick, near Abergavenny, was bought by Mr. 
Browning, who had purchased the farm of Purslow, near 
Craven Arms, Shropshire, and were taken there by Mr. John 
Hewer, who remained as manager of the cattle till the end 
of the year 1822, or the early part of 1823. Among the bulls 
taken to Purslow were the famous Wellington, Favourite, and 
Old Sovereign. This last bull was purchased by Mr. Tench 
of Bromfield, Shropshire, and was given by him to his son-in- 
law, Mr. Edmund Jeffries, and was the founder of his good 
herd. In 1824, Mr. Browning was obliged to sell his stock 
and let the farm, the tenant taking the cattle. They were 
subsequently sold, and Mr. John Hewer bought some of 
them." 

The more probable date of John Hewer's removal to 
Shropshire is, we think, 18 17, a view which is confirmed by 
the fact that Old Sovereign was calved at Purslow in 1820. 
The change to Shropshire, it will thus be observed, did not 
cause an interruption in his management of his father's cattle. 
It was John Hewer who was responsible for the direction of 
Mr. Browning's herd, and it is not surprising to learn that it 
became the talk of the country, people going for miles to see 
it. Mr. Lloyd Roberts, Corfton Manor, was introduced to 
Mr. Hewer at this time, and he says he never saw a grander 
lot of cattle in his life than those he brought to Purslow. It 
was also when he was at Purslow that the late Mr. Bowen, 
Corfton, became acquainted with Mr. Hewer, and he used 
bulls of his blood for about 40 years. 

When John Hewer returned to Monmouth, it would appear 
that he took with him a number of the Herefords of his father's 
strains that had sojourned for a time in Shropshire. It is a 
very important fact that John Hewer never lost his control 
over the stock, in the breeding of which he had been closely 
associated with his father. In the words of Mr. John L. 
Hewer : " It was left to my late father (John Hewer) to 
finish what his ancestors had begun — to produce a race of 
cattle which were beautiful to look at and good rent-paying 
animals of great scale and splendid quality, and he bred and 
let more bulls than any other man. There is not a single 
herd of Herefords in existence but what traces back to his 
stock, He was a great stickler for scale with quality, and 




CuTMONE 376 (T. JetYiies). 




Sir David 349 (Bred by D. Williams). 



THE HEWER AND JEFFRIES FAMILIES 89 

some of the older bulls were immense animals, often weighing 
from 25 cwt. to over 30 cwt. The General 125 1 was 32^ cwt. 
(3640 lbs.) when six years old. He was let for four seasons 
running for the sum of ^84 per season. Governor 464, the 
sire of General, was let for ;^ioo per season, and I have heard 
my father say he let Favourite for ;^200 per season, and 
Defiance 416 for ;(^200. I have known him have 35 bulls let 
out at one time about the country, and he used to let bulls to 
go into Scotland. He occasionally sold bulls at long prices to 
go abroad as far back as 1835, and one Hampton 513 was 
sold for jC^oo. He also sent a lot of cattle to Australia in 
the year 1840, and he saw afterwards, in an Australian paper 
shown him by a friend, that one of his bulls was sold out there 
for 1000 guineas. My father had what he called his four 
favourite strains — Countess, Lofty, Red Rose, and Fanny — 
and those are the ones from which his cattle are principally 
descended. Red Rose, by Chance from Rosebud, was his 
favourite cow. He kept her till she was 23 years of age, and 
I believe she bred him 20 calves. She had twins when 17 
years old — a bull and heifer — by Governor 464. The bull 
Grateful 1260 was sold to the late Mr. W. Stedman, Bedstone 
Hall. There were several cases of longevity amongst his 
bulls, especially Berrington 435, who was a stock-getter at 
2 1 years old ; Sovereign at 1 5 years old ; and a more recent 
case. Above All 2910, which was only fed in the winter of 
1883 by Mr. Jones, Preston Boats, Salop, at 17 years old." 

It would be impossible to give here the names of all the 
famous animals bred by Mr. John Hewer during his career as 
a breeder, which practically extended from about 1803 to 
1873, a period of nearly 70 years. Mr. Eyton mentions in 
Volume I. of the Herd Book that he was informed by Mr. 
Hewer that Pretty Maid, Primrose, Beauty, and Damsel were 
the four cows from which his herd was originally descended. 
Most of the following bulls bred by him were extensively used 
in the county, and have left their impress on the breed : — 
Sovereign 404, Lottery 410, Byron 440, Hope 411, Chance 
355, Defiance 416, Prince Dangerous 362, Lot 364, Lottery 
2nd 408, Young Favourite 413, Wonder 420, Fitzfavourite 441, 
Hamlet 512, Original ist 455, Young Waxy 451, Purslow 446, 
and Conqueror 412. But the list could be largely extended, 
and the difficulty is to find a single animal of note in the 
present day that does not inherit Hewer blood. The sum 
received for the letting of Sovereign 404 was £640 i8s., for 
Lottery 410 £710, for Lottery 2nd 408 £64$ lis., and for 
Defiance 416 ^525. The produce of Countess the Second 
was valued at ^^45 5 14^., and the produce of the cow Lofty 



90 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

made jCi2Sg. As illustrative of the weight of some of Mr. 
Hewer's cattle, it may be noted that the live weight of the 
cow Rosy was i ton i cwt. 3 qrs. Mr. Hewer gained the first 
prize at the R.A.S.E. Show at Oxford in 1839, for the best 
heifer (Lady Oxford), and also the following year at Cambridge 
with Duchess of Cambridge. 

The widespread influence on the breed arose very much 
from Mr. Hewer's habit of letting out his bulls, as many as 
35 having been, as Mr. J. L. Hewer has told us, let out at 
one time. In few herds was the Hewer influence more potent 
than in those of Mr. Thomas Jeffries of The Grove, who used 
Lottery, Sovereign, and Byron ; Mr. Yeomans of Howton ; 
Mr. Yeomans of Moreton ; Mr. Bowen of Corfton ; Mr. Jones 
of Breinton ; Mr. Turner, Noke ; and Sir Hungerford Hoskyns. 
But in this respect again it is impracticable to make a full list 
without giving the names of nearly all the well-known breeders. 
In Mr. Jeffries' hands, however, as* will be shown, the Hewer 
blood was most successful. The celebrated Cotmore 376, 
calved in 1836, bred by Mr. Jeffries, and winner of the first 
prize at the show of the Royal Agricultural Society at Oxford 
in 1839, ^^'^s got by Mr. Hewer's Sovereign 404, and his dam 
was by Lottery 410. Then Chance 348, the sire of the 
wonderful bull Sir David 349, was from Victoria by Lottery 410, 
the granddam being Countess by Old Sovereign. Sir David's 
dam was also by Chance. Instead of going into elaborate 
details now as to the influence of the Hewer cattle, it will be 
more convenient to allow the facts to come out when reference 
is specially made to the various herds. 

It has been somewhat positively stated that the whole of 
Mr. John Hewer's cattle, as well as those of his father, were 
white-faced. On this point Mr. John L. Hewer wrote : 
" My grandfather's herd were not all pure white faces. He 
had some ticked-faced ones ; also, I believe, a few a little 
mottled, and my father had one strain, which he prized very 
highly, of the ticked faces — the Lofty strain from which 
descended Governor 464, one of the best sires of his day ; he 
was ticked very much. Mr. Bowen (who bred mostly from 
Hewer stock) had several ticked-faced ones in his herd 
descended from Governor, of which he thought a great deal. 
They are heavily fleshed, of nice quality, and with great 
aptitude to fatten ; and, as I told you before, my father went 
in for great scale, with symmetry, weight, and quality. There 
were one or two tick faces at his last sale, but they early wore 
out from continually crossing with the white faces, although 
now and then one would crop up. It seems strange to you, 
no doubt, how my father managed to breed from his own 



THE HEWER AND JEFFRIES FAMILIES 91 

stock for such a length of time, and so successfully to keep up 
the size and character of his herd. But that was his secret. 
He used to say he had five different strains, which by judicious 
crossing kept up their stamina. Lofty, I may add, was also 
the dam of Wonder 420, used by the late Lord Berwick in his 
herd, also of a steer, winner of a first prize at the Rutland 
Show at Oakham in 1837, and first at Smithfield. Her 
produce realised ^^1289. I remember her very well ; she was 
a favourite with me when a boy." The late Mr. Bowen, 
Corfton, said : " My first remembrance of the tick-faces in 
Mr. Hewer's herd was in 1838. I have heard him say there 
was a particular strain that had these face markings, namely, 
Old Lofty and the Lady Byron families. In Governor 464 
the ticks were more blended than in any others. My old 
Lady Wiseman cow, by Cardinal Wiseman, dam a Governor 
cow, was also tick-faced ; but out of 15 calves produced by 
her, there was only one ticked-faced. That was her last, 
named Leah, now in my possession. She is strongly marked 
with the ticks, but she has produced me four calves, all with 
white faces, so that I think with a continual crossing with 
white faces the ticks will disappear." Mr. Forester, Sherlowe, 
remarked : " Mr. Hewer's stock were all what is commonly 
called red with white face. But this description is subject to 
a variety of which Mr. Hewer was rather fond, namely, a 
ticked-face — not what is usually termed a mottle face, that is 
one with spots such as could be counted, but minute ticks of 
a blueish tint. The bulls Wonder 420 and Governor 464 had 
it, and their dam Lofty by Original 455, in a marked degree ; 
also Above All 3909, and in a less degree his sire Abdel 
Kader 1837." 

But after all, the outstanding feature of Mr. Hewer's stock, 
as regards colour, was their white faces. This uniformity 
was doubtless produced by careful selection in breeding. It 
may be assumed that the animals originally obtained by 
William Hewer possessed the white face and other markings 
now so distinctly characteristic of the breed, and that in his 
case and that of his son, stock that reverted back to the other 
shades were not — except in the strain of tick faces, to which 
we have referred — retained for breeding purposes. Size and 
quality also received great attention, and the impressive 
power of the Hewer sires in all these particulars was 
remarkable. 

The influence of the Hewer strains is very clearly brought 
out in an analysis of the pedigree of the prize cow Queen of 
Hearts, which was drawn up by the Earl of Southesk. It is 
seen from it how many of the best strains trace back to the 



92 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

bull Silver 540, which Mr. Duckham, in the revised edition of 
Volume I. of the Herd Book, truly remarks, " appears to have 
laid the foundation of William Hewer's eminence as a 
breeder." 

Mr. John Hewer did not pamper his cattle. He kept 
them on plain fare, and aimed at developing robust con- 
stitutions. It is believed, indeed, that his system of manage- 
ment was of a somewhat rough description. At any rate, 
there were never any complaints as to his animals being 
delicate. Mr. John L. Hewer told us that his father's system 
of management differed very little from that of other farmers 
in the district. He tried to have most of his calves in the 
early summer. They ran with their dams in the pastures 
until they were weaned, and were then brought into the house 
and received a little cake, crushed oats, bran, and chaff, with a 
few roots. The cows were wintered in the yards on straw — 
frequently tacked out on straw. The only difference he 
made was with his young bulls. As yearlings he never liked 
to pamper them, but kept them in good growing condition, 
as he said they always lasted longer than animals that were 
pampered when young. He had some rough sheds put up in 
the orchards with thatch for covering. The bulls ran out in 
the orchards, and had those sheds for shelter from sun and 
rain. They had also an allowance of cotton cake and crushed 
oats daily. The only fault he had was that he was often 
over-stocked, and one or two of his bulls were sometimes very 
poor in condition. " But that could not be altered," remarked 
our correspondent, " as we frequently had as many as 25 to 30 
bulls let out all over the country. The consequence was that 
some of them came home in a shocking plight, and it took 
some time to get them into condition again, although I must 
give most of our customers credit for sending them home in 
good condition — indeed, some of them took a pride in sending 
them home in better condition than they received them." 

Consequent on his frequent removals and owing to other 
circumstances, Mr. Hewer had many sales of stock. The first 
of these was in 1839, at Hampton Lodge, when an average of 
about £s^ was obtained. The highest price was ^346 los. 
for the four-year-old cow Lady Byron, got by Chance, dam 
Fatrumps. The purchaser was Mr. Williams, Bristol. The 
cow Red Rose, by Chance, dam Rosebud, was sold to Mr. 
Williams, Bristol, for ;^I05. Mr. Williams also bought the 
bulls Baron 418, by Byron 440, for £120; Dangerous 419, 
by Defiance 416, for ;!^252 ; and Lot 364, by Defiance, for 
£26y i^s. Mr. Lumsden, Auchry, Aberdeenshire, purchased 
the bull Matchless 415 for ;^I05, while the bull Wonder 420 



THE HEWER AND JEFFRIES FAMILIES 93 

made the same price. Another sale was held at Hampton 
Lodge in October, 1843, when the cow Lady, sire Chance 348, 
dam Lady Byron, was sold for 100 guineas ; and the bull 
Dangerous 419, by Defiance 416, made 105 guineas. A sale 
was held at Lower Wilcroft in October, 1846, and sales also 
took place at Vern House in 1855, 1861, and 1866. 



The Jeffries Family 

It is appropriate that a notice of the Jeffries family should 
follow that of the Hewers, but it is necessary to explain that 
before the cattle bred by the Hewers had attained the great 
reputation which they ultimately possessed, members of the 
Jeffries family had taken a prominent position as breeders of 
Herefords. " The name of Jeffries," says Mr. Welles, " has 
been eminent among Hereford breeders for many years. 
Those of the latest date were Edmund and Thomas, both 
having been taken off at rather premature ages, deriving their 
stock of cattle chiefly from those of their father and uncle. 
For many of the last years of his life Mr. Thomas Jeffries had 
restricted himself to the white-faced breed solely — those of his 
brother Edmund having been more of the mottled breed." 
Mr. Welles, of course, knew that a celebrated strain of cattle 
had been in the possession of the Jeffries family for a long 
period, and he did not, as some had done, fall into the mistake 
of imagining that their success began with the victory of Cot- 
more 376 at the first show of the Royal Agricultural Society 
of England at Oxford in 1839. From the early records of the 
Herefordshire Agricultural Society, it is found that in 1803, at 
the October show, the second prize for a three-year-old heifer 
was awarded to Mr. Jeffries, Lyonshall. In 1805, Mr. Jeffries, 
Pembridge, was first for aged bulls, and in the same year Mr. 
Jeffries, The Grove, was first for two-year-old heifers. At 
most of the succeeding early shows the names of Messrs. 
Jeffries, The Grove and The Sheriffs, are to be found in the 
prize lists ; their success, indeed, being beyond comparison the 
greatest of any group of breeders, 

Mr. Haywood, it will be seen, informed us that the Jeffries 
obtained their first Herefords from the Haywoods of Clifton- 
on-Teme. This opinion is confirmed by the fact that the 
Jeffries originally came from that part of the country. But 
it is not necessary to trace the family history any further back 
than to Mr. Edward Jeffries of The Sheriffs, Lyonshall, who is 
known to have been a breeder of Herefords, and who was 
probably the winner of the prize at Hereford in 1803. As a 



94 



HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 






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THE HEWER AND JEFFRIES FAMILIES 95 

considerable amount of misconception has prevailed as to the 
exact relationship of the various members of the Jeffries family 
who were breeders of Herefords, it may be useful to introduce 
a genealogical table, for the preparation of which we were 
indebted to Mrs. Davis, Dowks Rectory, Bewdley, daughter 
of the late Mr. Thomas Jeffries of The Grove, who, with her 
brother Mr. Henry Jeffries, Guildford, most courteously lent us 
assistance in procuring information regarding the connection 
of their family with the improvement of the breed. 

There were thus, it will be observed, three generations of 
the Jeffries family who were famous breeders of Hereford 
cattle. Mr. Edv/ard Jeffries of The Sheriffs, and Mr. Thomas 
Jeffries of The Grove, sons of Mr. Edward Jeffries of The 
Sheriffs (born 1720, died 1807), were both purchasers at Mr. 
Galliers' sale atWigmore Grange in 1795, and there cannot be 
the slightest doubt that their herds were at that time, and for 
many years subsequently, among the finest in the county. 
These were the days prior to the Herd Book, and no record 
other than the prize lists exist as to the breeding or doings 
of their herds. The three brothers, Edward, Thomas, and 
Edmund Cheese, sons of Mr. Thomas Jeffries of The Grove 
(born 1759, died 1840), still further advanced the good work 
accomplished by their father and uncle, continuing to breed 
from the old strains at The Grove and The Sheriffs. Mr. 
Edward Jeffries occupied The Sheriffs, where he died prior to 
1841. Mr. Edmund Cheese Jeffries was at The Grove, and 
died in 1836. Mr. Thomas Jeffries was first at the Church 
House, Lyonshall, and then succeeded his two brothers at The 
Grove and The Sheriffs. The herds were brought to their 
highest point of perfection under the direction of Mr. Thomas 
Jeffries. The other tv/o brothers, although Mr. E. C. Jeffries 
used Hewer bulls among them the famous Sovereign, were 
not so decided in their operations as regards the promotion of 
uniformity of colour. Among the other bulls used by Mr. E. 
C. Jeffries were Fitzfavourite 441 and Noble 453, by Sovereign 
404, both from Mr. Hewer's herd ; while of the more celebrated 
animals he bred were The Sheriff 356, by Sovereign 404, a 
prize bull at Gloucester and sold to Mr. Mason at The Grove 
sale in 1836 for ^60; Portrait 372, by Lottery 410, sold in 
1836 to Mr. Rogers for ;^52 ; Grove 370, sold at the same 
sale for ;^8o ; and Conservative 270, sold for £'/0. 

Mr. Thomas Jeffries is acknowledged to have been one of 
the most successful and skilful breeders of Herefords. Begin- 
ning with the old Jeffries blood, he seems to have perceived 
that the best course for him to pursue was to infuse a large 
proportion of Hewer blood. He had on hire Mr. John 



g6 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Hewer's grand bulls Sovereign 404, Lottery 410, Byron 440, 
and Fitzfavourite 441. The cattle thus bred were of the very 
highest merit, being of large size, good form, splendid quality, 
and generally uniform in colour markings. He did more than 
any other breeder to spread abroad the fame of the Hewer 
stock, and encouraged by his success many of the best breeders 
of the day imitated his example and crossed their stock with 
the Hewer bulls. Indeed, it is not too much to say that it is 
largely owing to Mr. Hewer, Mr. Yeomans, and Mr. Thomas 
Jeffries that the uniform colour markings of the breed were 
established, but of this more anon. It is not necessary here 
to go into much detail regarding the many impressive sires 
that were distributed over the country from The Grove herd. 
In notices of other herds reference will be made to most of 
them. Cotmore 376, calved in 1836 (got by Hewer's Sovereign 
404 when he was 1 5 years), dam by Lottery 410, is considered to 
have been one of the finest Hereford bulls ever seen. Besides 
gaining first prizes at Hereford as a two-year-old, three-year-old, 
and in the aged class, he was the first prize winner at the Oxford 
Show of the R.A.S.E. in 1839; his live weight was 35 cwt. 
(3920 lbs.) ; Byron 380, calved in 1842, by Confidence 367, 
dam by Hewer's Byron 440, was sold at the Grove sale in 
1844 for £ys to Mr. Pitt, his dam going for ^^84 to Mr. Price ; 
Confidence 367, first at the Derby Show of the R.A.S.E., was 
sold for ;^ioo at The Grove sale to Mr. Smith ; Faugh-a- 
Ballagh 368 ; Regulator 360, by Sovereign 404, dam by 
Lottery 410, the latter well known in connection with the 
Monaughty herd ; and Hope 439, by Byron 440, from the 
same dam as Cotmore 376, from which many of Mr. Carpenter's 
(Eardisland) winners were descended, may be mentioned as 
intimately related to some of the best stock of the present day. 
In October, 1841, Mr. Thomas Jeffries had a large sale at 
The Sheriffs, comprising the whole stock of his brother, Mr. 
Edward Jeffries, and a portion of his own herd. Of this 
sale Mr. Henry Jeffries, Guildford, supplied us with a priced 
catalogue. Among the more noteworthy transactions were the 
following : — Damsel by Sheriff, sold to Mr. Corbett for £s^ 5 
Beauty by Young Chance, Mr. Franks, £6;^ ; Countess by 
Young Chance, Mr. Franks, ^^"50 ; Sweeting by Old Sovereign, 
Mr. Yeomans, £c^i ; two-year-old heifer by Picture, Mr. 
Yeomans, jCsS ! bull calf by Cotmore, Mr. Williams, ;^43 ; 
bull calf by Young Cotmore, Mr. Rogers, £46 ; bull Charity 
by Byron, Mr. Blissett, £'/i. The sum realised for the lot, 
comprising 16 calves, was £2i6y los., the average being about 
;^3i. Another sale was held at The Grove in 1844, when 
Mr. Edwards purchased Moss Rose by Original for £yo ; Mr. 



THE HEWER AND JEFFRIES FAMILIES 97 

Price, Lady Byron by Byron, dam by Lottery, for ^^84 ; Mr. 
Morris, Miss Grove, for ^40 ; Mr. Forester, Miss Fitz- 
favourite, for £'jo, and a three-year-old heifer by Charity 
375 for ^50; Mr. Burn, Lady Derby, for ^^50. Mr. Smith 
gave i^ioo for the bull Confidence 367 ; Mr. Harris £60 for 
The Printer; Mr. Pitt £j^ for Byron; Mr. Beddoes £'^^ 
for Conquest; and Mr. Forester and Mr. Eyton ^^135 for the 
bull calf by Confidence 367, dam Lady Grove, afterwards 
known as Faugh-a-Ballagh 368. The average for 54 head 
sold (not reckoning several animals bought in at high prices — 
such as Cotmore for £\oo, Lady Grove for £Zo, and Miss 
Chance for ^90) was about ^^"41 14J. 

Mr. Thomas Jeffries' services were not overlooked by his 
contemporaries. A subscription list, prefaced by the follow- 
ing notice, appeared in the Hereford papers in 1839 : — " Many 
admirers, as well as breeders, of Hereford cattle having viewed 
with feelings of pride the success of Mr. Jeffries of The Grove 
in obtaining at the first meeting of the English Agricultural 
Society, held at Oxford on Wednesday, the 17th day of 
July, 1839, a prize for exhibiting the best Hereford bull, 
desire to present him with a piece of plate, as an expression 
of the high estimation in which his services are held as a 
breeder of Herefords." A very handsome response was made, 
and Mr. Jeffries, at a dinner to which he was entertained at 
Kington, presided over by Sir Robert Price, was presented 
with a magnificent service of plate. The service, along with 
a large number of cups, were in the possession of Mr. Henry 
Jeffries, Guildford, who treasured them, not only as evidence 
of the skill of his father and other members of the family in 
breeding Herefords, but also as testimony of the esteem in 
which Mr. T. Jeffries was held by a wide circle of friends. 



CHAPTER V 

A GROUP OF FAMOUS BREEDERS 

The most eminent of the early improvers who come in 
chronological order next to those already mentioned, may be 
appropriately introduced by continuing the account drawn up 
by the late Mr. T. C. Yeld of The Broome, from which a 
quotation was made in a preceding chapter. 

" No one," says Mr. Yeld, " ever bred better cattle than 
the late Mr. T. A. Knight. There was no one who knew the 
principles of breeding cattle better, and he took great pains to 
try various crosses ; the only success being with Scotch heifers. 
His White Bull [entered in the Herd Book as Snowball or 
Knight's White Bull 246] was used after Mr. Turley by Mr. 
Rea of The Rock, and, I believe, by his son Mr. Rea of 
Monaughty, by his son-in-law Mr. Taylor of Eye, by Messrs. 
Hill and Trumper of Orleton, and afterwards by Mr. Yeld of 
The Broome. 

"There were very few stocks at this time fit to breed bulls 
from besides those named — Tomkins, Skyrme, Tully, Knight, 
etc. There were also Mr. William Galliers of Frogdon ; Mr. 
Proctor, Blackball ; Mr. Martin, Wistaston ; Mr. Sheward, 
Little Dilwyn ; Mr. Yarworth, Brinsop, in what may be termed 
the Pyon district ; and in Pembridge district Mr. Parry, Birley ; 
Mr. Farrer, Luntley ; Mr. J. Jones, Charbrook ; Mr. Jones, 
The Lowe, Pembridge ; Mr. Powel, Marston ; Mr. Jeffries, The 
Sheriffs ; Mr. Jeffries, The Grove ; and Mr. Turner, Aymestiy. 
On the Hereford side was, first, Mr. Weyman, Moreton ; 
succeeded by Mr. Chute Hay ton ; Mr. Clarke, Lyde ; Mr. 
Walwyn ; Sir John Cotterell ; Colonel Matthews, Belmont. I 
am speaking now of the first 20 years of the nineteenth century. 
All the above-named herds possessed form and quality. There 
was another class of Herefords which appear to have been 
bred solely for working purposes, being large in size, with very 
heavy bone. . . . There was a third class of what were 
termed Welsh Herefords, red and white faced, but that carried 
no flesh, and when grazed on the best land would never 
stretch. . , . 



A GROUP OF FAMOUS BREEDERS. 99 

"During the French revolutionary war, and up to 1821, 
the return to cash payments, everything sold high, and farmers 
could pay high rents ; but with the winter and spring of 
1820-21 Peel's Monetary Bill came into full force. Down went 
the manufacturers, down went the bank, and down went the 
farmers. At this time scores were ruined by force of circum- 
stances ; and those farmers who had not real property to fall 
back upon were bound to go to the wall. I have seen whole 
streets filled with cattle in the years 1821-22-23, and no one 
asked what they were brought for. I well remember the stock 
of Mr. John Jones of Charbrook, sold in 1822. They were as 
good as anything I ever saw ; the cows and heifers magnificent. 
Cows sold from £'j to £\2 each ; most beautiful two-year-old 
heifers from £6 to £'i each. There was as good a cart-team 
as it was possible to find; the highest price was £\i. At 
Hereford Fair, in 1822, some very splendid barren cows, bred 
by Colonel Matthews of Belmont, were bought by a neighbour 
of mine at £6 ys. 6d. each. 

" At this time graziers found they could make no profit by 
feeding, rarely making more than ^i for summer profit over 
price, and farmers began to pay more attention to breeding. 
After 1820 among the very best breeders were Mr. Hayton, 
Mr. Smythies, Mr. Monkhouse, and especially Mr. John Turner 
of Noke, who not only bred, but managed his stock in a highly 
creditable manner, and his three-year-old steers were always 
very greatly admired. I may also mention two gentlemen 
who never pushed themselves into notice, but who brought 
out some of the best steers I ever saw, viz. Mr. Richard Hill 
and Mr. Trumper of Orleton. Besides those before named, 
there were many others possessing very excellent herds, 
namely, Mr. Davis, Ladycott ; Mr. Davis, Oxhouse ; Mr. 
Joseph Edwards, Kingsland ; Mr. VV. "Wheeler, Ivington 
Park. 

"At this time (1825) several new stocks were creeping into 
notice and eventually took a leading place, viz., Mr. Roberts, 
Ivingtonbury ; Mr. James Bowen, Monkland ; Mr. Yeld, 
Broome ; Mr. John Morris, Stocktonbury ; Mr. W. Bennet, 
Stretford ; Mr. John Thomas and Mr. Vaughan, Cholstrey ; 
also Mr. William Perry ; Mr. J. Williams, Kingsland ; Mr. 
Samuel Peploe, and others. 

" Few people at this time had better stock or were better 
judges than the Rev. J. R. Smythies. He began about the year 
1820, and, regardless of price, bought the best he could find. 
He bought the remainder of Mr. William Galliers' stock. 
After retiring from business, Mr. Galliers took the Lynch 
House and a portion of the meadow land, and there took some 



100 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

of the very best of his herd, all of which were purchased by 
Mr. Smythies ; among them the celebrated bull Cupid, and 
the cows Venus and Browny, which were equal to anything 
ever bred in Herefordshire. Mr. Smythies also bought some 
of the finest of Mr. Yarworth's (of Brinsop) herd, among which 
were Countess and Larkspur. He also bought about the 
same time some of the very best of Mr. She ward's (of Little 
Dilwyn) herd, which certainly was on the whole equal to any 
other. , . ." 

In addition to the aid afforded by Mr. Yeld's statement, 
we are enabled to estimate the position of the leading herds 
during the first 20 years of the nineteenth century by analysing 
the prize lists of the shows of the Herefordshire Agricultural 
Society. These have been compiled from the advertisements 
and reports contained in the Hereford Journal, the early 
records of the Society not having been discovered, if indeed 
they are in existence. It is necessary to qualify the record by 
mentioning that, of course, there were good herds whose owners 
did not exhibit — thus on only one occasion did Mr. Benjamin 
Tomkins send an animal for competition at the show. The 
list is, however, interesting and valuable evidence as to the 
relative position of the various herds. The records relate to 
the shows commencing 1798 and concluding in 18 19. It 
appears that the largest number of first prizes for breeding 
stock was won by Mr. Galliers, Frogdon, who, as previously 
stated, secured thirteen ; Messrs. Jeffries of The Grove and The 
Sheriffs won nineteen (nine falling to Mr. Jeffries, The Grove, and 
five to Mr. Jeffries, The Sheriffs) ; Mr. T. A. Knight followed 
with nine ; Mr. Watkins, Brinsop, nine ; Mr. Yarworth, Troy 
and Brinsop, seven ; Mr. Walker, Burton, six ; Mr. Tench, 
Bromfield, five ; Mr. Walker, Westington, five ; Mr. Samuel 
TuUy, Huntington, four ; Mr. Moore, Wellington, four. Each 
of the following gained three first prizes : — Mr. Joseph TuUy, 
Haywood ; Colonel Matthews ; Mr, Yeoman, Howton ; and 
R. Wainwright, Hereford. Those who gained two first 
prizes were Messrs. John Apperley, Withington ; Skyrme, 
Stretton ; Williams, Thinghill ; Rev. J. R. Smythies, Lynch ; 
Kedward, Westhyde ; Williams, Brinsop ; Smith, Gattertop ; 
Deykin, Brierley ; Weaver, Stretton ; Hardwick, Weir ; Jones, 
Fawley ; Cooke, Wintercott. The winners of single first 
prizes were Messrs. Croose, Sugwas ; Smith, Sufton ; Powell, 
Titley ; Downes, Hinton ; Clee, Downton ; Downes, Ashford ; 
Tomkins, Wellington ; Croose, Ocle ; Davies, The Rodd ; 
Welles, Earl's Croome ; J. G. Cotterell ; Barnet, Ledbury ; 
Lowe, Gattertop ; Prichard, Eaton Mill ; Edward, Dilwyn ; 
Oakes, Leinthall ; Downes, Mansell ; Green, Stoke ; Hughes 



A GROUP OF FAMOUS BREEDERS loi 

Marcle ; Stevens, Cotmore ; Hewer, Abergavenny ; Woolaston, 
Lynch ; Sahvey, Ashley Moor ; Proctor, Orleton ; Harris, The 
Marsh ; Wood, Bury-hill ; Mason, Wooferton ; Hanbury, 
Shobdon ; Stevens, Brinsop ; Rev. W. Bayley, Wormesley 
Grange ; Bannet, Netherton ; Turner, Bockleton ; E. Jones, 
King's Caple ; Preece, Leyecourt ; Mrs. Berrow, The Green, 
Devvchurch ; Symonds, Yatton ; E. Wahvyn Gravenor, The 
Parks ; J. Purchas, Fownhope ; Price, Norton Grounds ; T. 
Barnaby, Brockhampton ; Tomkins, Dippers Moor ; Parry, 
Birley ; Wood, Burghill, etc. 

All the gentlemen whose names have been given, and 
many more, were noted breeders during the first 20 years of 
the nineteenth century. Their number demonstrates that the 
Hereford breed can claim a broad and solid foundation. It 
would be manifestly impossible to give an adequate notice of 
these many herds. It is, indeed, inadvisable to attempt to do 
so, as many of them have not exercised a recognisable or 
known influence on the modern character of the breed. Our 
remarks will, therefore, be confined to those old herds that 
may be regarded as forming connecting links with the present. 
As to the herds of Tomkins, Galliers, Tully, Skyrme, Hewer, 
and Jeffries, which are referred to in the list, all the material 
facts in our possession have already been given. It seems 
necessary to explain that the number of prizes won at the 
Herefordshire show is not alone a reliable indication of the 
relative positions of the herds exhibited, inasmuch as some of 
them — notably those of Galliers, Tully, and Skyrme — were 
dispersed a considerable time before the meeting in 18 19, to 
which the list extends ; while others were represented at the 
shows during the whole period. 

Mr. Thomas Andrew Knight of Downton was one of 
the most successful exhibitors at the early shows of the Here- 
ford Agricultural Society. Mr. Yeld has told us of the 
estimation in which his herd was held by his contemporaries, 
and in a former chapter reference has been made to the 
investigations carried out by Mr. Knight as to the history of 
the breed. Born at Wormesley Grange on August 12th, 1759, 
Mr. Knight, after studying at Oxford, retired to his country 
seat, and devoted himself to the improvement of the leading 
industries of the county. Prior to 1806 he had become well 
known as a practical agriculturist and an improver of Hereford 
cattle. He was instrumental in founding the Agricultural 
Society of the county, and to the end of his life he was almost 
invariably present at its meetings. In the letter written by Mr. 
Knight in 1836, which Mr. Yeld has preserved, and which 
we h^ve now before us, there is an account of the breeding of 



102 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

the bull Snowball 246, otherwise known as Knight's White 
Bull. From this it appears that Mr. Knight's herd was 
descended from the stocks of Mr. Skyrme, Stretton ; Mr. 
Tully, Huntington ; Mr. Isaac Martin, and Mr. Benjamin 
Tomkins. Mr. Knight evidently preferred the first-named 
to all the others, remarking that Mr. Skyrme "at that time 
possessed, in his opinion, by far the best breed of cattle in 
the county." 

In an article on the Ashley Moor herd of Mr. Theophilus 
Salwcy, which appeared in Bell's Weekly Messenger in 1873, 
Mr. Housman remarked : " The reader acquainted with 
more than the merest rudiments of Hereford history need not 
be reminded that the animals of Mr. Salwey were descended 
from those of Mr. Andrew Knight. In describing the Ashley 
Moor stock, we therefore shall have occasion to make frequent 
allusion to the old Downton Castle tribes. And here a tribute 
is due to the memory of a public benefactor, who was far 
in advance of his generation in perception of the principles 
of animal and vegetable reproduction, and of hereditary 
recurrences, and ever ready to inform and encourage the 
seekers of knowledge. His views upon stock-breeding are 
less widely known than his contributions to the stores of 
horticultural science ; yet upon the subject of which we now 
treat, he could speak as one who had made himself its master 
so far as patient observation, with long practical experience, 
could give an insight to its mysteries. 

" Sometime about the commencement of the latter half of 
the eighteenth century Mr. Knight had determined to form a 
herd that should be well adapted to a somewhat poor and 
uneven locality, and for that purpose he visited all the best 
herds of the county, and selected from them according to the 
best of his judgment — without much regard to size, but keeping 
in view symmetry and good quality. He soon discovered that 
some very noble cattle of the larger sorts were not suited to 
his purpose on account of their inability to stand and walk as 
he knew animals should stand and walk. The setting of the 
legs, their shape, and the way of using them were great points 
with him, and often did he repeat to eager listeners, who 
availed themselves of his counsel, the avowal of his strong 
aversion to ' lambs' knees and sickle hocks,' which he said 
were * quite unfitted to move upon Bringewood Chase ' (near 
Downton Castle), where his Herefords were kept. The result 
of this antipathy necessarily was that animals characterised by 
the unpardonable similitudes were mercilessly weeded out, and 
after various sifting processes, the final selection fell upon a 
few animals from the herds of Mr. Tully of Huntington, near 



A GROUP OF FAMOUS BREEDERS 103 

Hereford, Mr. George Tomkins, and Mr. Skyrme — the grey 
element of the stock (afterwards celebrated as * The Knight's 
Greys,') deriving their blood solely from the Tully strain, the 
dark red from the Tomkins, and the pale red from the Skyrme 
tribes. None of these varieties contributed remarkably large 
animals, but the Herefords thus retained were invariably very 
thick, and stood particularly well on their legs, so that they 
could easily move up and down the steep pastures they 
occasionally had to live upon. So fastidious was Mr. Knight 
upon this point, that he would not choose a bull calf to rear 
for use as a sire until he had not only made him walk, but even 
trot ; a practice which drew down upon him sometimes from 
the old neighbouring farmers remarks of contemptuous merri- 
ment, which Mr. Knight most completely disregarded. The 
issue turned the laugh upon his side, as the progeny of his 
' trotting bulls ' proved clever and free in their action to the 
very last stage of fattening. ' I well remember,' says a corre- 
spondent who in early life knew that original thinker and 
successful breeder, ' most of the leading points which Mr. 
Knight endeavoured to obtain were the following : broad 
nostrils, small from the nostrils to the eyes, and fine ; large 
eyes ; broad bash [scope, or forehead down to the line of the 
eyes] ; open and well-developed horns, a little dipping in the 
first instance, and then gradually rising. Large measurement 
of girth was always a sine qiid noii, and likewise that the 
shoulder should not be an upright one, but well lying back 
from the neck, the blade being very oblique, but l^'ing open 
towards the chine. He would have his animals thick through 
the heart, with the fore-legs going straight down like two pegs 
(the opposite of " lambs' knees ") ; ribs broad and well arched, 
especially the last ribs at the joining of the quarters ; the 
table-bones of the sirloin long, flat, and well developed, 
particularly the one adjoining the ribs, thus making a strong, 
well-form.ed back, and joining the quarters. Hips were always 
considered to be secondary in importance, though he never 
wished to see them prominent, but so formed and placed as to 
stand tolerably even with the sirloin and ribs. The catch [pen- 
ends, pin-ends or Fools' point] he wished to see well developed, 
with not the slightest prominence of frame between the catch 
and the hips [i.e., the packing of hind-quarters], nor anything 
in that region which might come under the denomination of 
gaudy. Indeed, his ambition was to see an animal as true in 
its formation and level as possible from the catch all the way 
over the back, loin, chine, shoulders, and as far up the neck as 
possible ; thighs true, deep, and thick ; purse full and very well 
spread over the abdominal region, with indeed a disposition to 



104 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

fatten all the way up to the brisket (lengthwise under the 
body) ; thick, mellow skin, and long, soft hair.' " 

Mr. Welles has placed it on record that the variety called 
grey or roan would obviously arise from an intermixture of 
the red with those possessing a large proportion of white. 
They obtained their greatest celebrity from their being favour- 
ites with Mr. Andrew Knight, much of whose stock were of 
that colour ; one of the earliest being a white cow from which 
he bred one or two celebrated bulls. " That he pursued his 
object with judgment as well as ardour," says Mr. Welles, 
" has been evinced by prizes having been awarded of late 
years to many descendants of his stock, among others, the ox 
bred by Mr. Hill, Orleton, which obtained the gold medal at 
Smithfield in 1839, for the best beast in the yard." 

Few of Mr. Knight's cattle have been registered. Of these 
Snowball 246 has already been referred to. Lawton 223 was 
also bred by Mr. Knight, and used by Mr. Downes, Aston 
Hall, in 181 1. Stretford 264 is entered as having been from 
Mr. Knight's "celebrated white cow," and The Gatley Bull 501 
was of his breeding. Among those who obtained stock from 
him were Mr. Rea, Monaughty ; Mr. Turner, Aymestry ; and 
Mr. Salwey, Ashley Moor. Through all these herds the 
Knight blood is still represented. Mr. Salwey purchased 
from Mr. Knight four heifers, from which a valuable progeny 
descended. Lord Berwick and Mr. Evans, Sv/anstone, obtained 
animals of this line at the Ashley Moor sale, and the Knight 
blood has thus been somewhat widely disseminated. They 
constituted the principal material in Mr. John Hill's fine large 
herd at Felhampton Court, and were also represented in 
Mr. Evans' herd at The Hill, in Lord Coventry's herd at 
Croome Court, as well as in others in this country and the 
United States. Mr. Boughton Knight of Downton Castle, 
some years ago, attempted to found a herd of the old Knight 
grey colour, but finding the red with white faces were more 
easily disposed of, he abandoned the strain. Mr. J. A. Rolls, 
The Hendre, Monmouth (now Lord Llangattock), was one 
of the few gentlemen who kept the stock of the old colour. 
In other herds possessing the Knight blood, the markings 
have not been retained, although the fine quality and true 
shapes, for which the sort was celebrated, are as conspicuous 
as ever, the heads being true to the old type. 

Mr. Duncumb, in drawing up his report on the agriculture 
of Hereford for the Board of Agriculture in 1805, relied 
almost exclusively on Mr. Knight's information for his descrip- 
tion of the management of cattle. In his observations on 
this subject, Mr. Knight said the Herefordshire breeder had 



A GROUP OF FAMOUS BREEDERS 105 

"sacrificed the qualities of his cow to those of the ox. He 
does not value the cow according to the price which the 
grazier would give for it, but in proportion as it possesses 
that form and character which experience has taught him 
to be conducive to the excellence of the future ox. Hence 
the cow of Herefordshire is comparatively small, extremely 
delicate, and very feminine in its character. It is light fleshed 
when in common condition, but is capable of extending itself 
universally in a short space of time when fattening. Experience 
seems fully to have proved that these qualities in the cow are 
necessary to perfection in the ox ; and that when the cow is 
large and masculine in its character, and heavily loaded with 
flesh, the ox will be coarse and brawny, and consequently 
unkind and tedious in the process of fattening. It may here 
be remarked that there is an extraordinaiy difference between 
the weight of a Herefordshire cow and the ox bred from her. 
Perhaps other sorts, eminent for producing fine oxen, are 
similarly distinguished, but it is a fact that the Herefordshire 
cow will not unfrequently be the mother of an ox of nearly 
three times her own weight." Mr. Knight, in fact, was convinced 
that the true function of the Hereford breed was to produce 
first-class beef. He did not believe in attempting to develop 
the milking properties of the race ; considering that it was 
sufficient if a cow gave enough milk to keep its calf fat, and 
unless it could do so, it was disqualified for breeding a good 
ox. What he says descriptive of the cows bred in Hereford- 
shire, appears to mean simply that preference should be given 
to neat, small-sized animals, and it may certainly be assumed 
that the word delicate applied to the cows was not used in 
the ordinary sense, for the robustness of the breed has always 
been proverbial. The system in Leicestershire of bestowing 
most of the attention on the improvement of the cow, and 
making her an excellent animal for the purpose of the grazier, 
was in his view unsound. We do not know if he succeeded 
in accurately conveying his meaning on this subject. It 
would seem he did not, if one is to judge from the exaggerated 
representation of his statements which is contained in Youatt's 
book on Cattle. 

In 1802 a Mr. Davidson was sent to England by order of 
the Emperor of Russia to procure some of the improved breeds 
of cattle and sheep for the Imperial farm. He was recom- 
mended by Sir Joseph Banks to Mr. Knight, through whose 
means a selection was made of stock of other celebrated 
breeders as well as his own. This commission was executed 
so much to the satisfaction of the Emperor, that on Mr. 
Davidson's return to St. Petersburg a letter was received by 



io6 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Mr. Knight, signed N. Novossilzoff, in which reference was 
made to the very handsome way in which he had parted with 
a lieifer and several of his valuable flock of sheep. In I799> 
Mr. Knight received a gift from George III. of a merino ram. 
Mr. Knight died in May, 1838. 

James Yarworth, Brinsop. — Mr. James Yarworth, first 
at Troy Farm, near Abergavenny, and subsequently at New 
House Farm, Brinsop, Hereford, distinguished himself as a 
breeder of Herefords. Mr. Eyton stated, on Mr. Yarworth's 
authority, that he commenced breeding in 1802, and that his 
final sale took place in 1820. During the time he was a 
breeder he sold upwards of 120 bulls and bull calves. In 18 14 
he sold a bull calf by Trojan 192 to Mr. Hewer; in 1816 a 
Tomkins bull, out of Margaret, the dam of Trojan, to Mr. 
Yeomans of Howton ; and also in the same year to Mr. 
Knight a yearling bull by Trojan. He likewise sold bulls to 
Mr. White, Upleadon (who had a somewhat celebrated herd), 
and to Mr. Joseph Hill, Red Martley. The bull sold to Mr. 
Hill became the property of Mr. Rayer, who refused ^^"260 
for him. The most celebrated animal bred by Mr. Yarworth 
was Trojan 192. This bull was calved in 181 1, and was got 
by Smith's Old Bull 322, dam Margaret, bred by Mr. B. 
Tomkins, by the Silver Bull 41. Smith's Old Bull was out of 
a cow bred by Mr. B. Tomkins, and was either brother or half 
brother to Mr. Walker's famous bull Crickneck 175. Trojan 
was exhibited at the Hereford show in 1816, when the com- 
mittee for deciding the merits of the cattle reported that he 
was the finest animal ever shown before the Society. It is 
stated that he weighed 28 stone per quarter, although he 
never had any other food than grass, hay, and turnips. 

Mr. Yarworth's stock appears to have been chiefly of the 
Tomkins blood, some of the Tully strain having also been 
introduced. It is evident that he bred from near affinities, yet 
he was not afraid to infuse fresh blood. We have seen that 
some of the animals sold by him at Troy in 18 14 had a far-off 
strain of Gloucestershire blood. The bull Hector 197, bred 
by Mr. Yarworth, got by Trojan 192, had for dam Pink, which 
is entered by Mr. Eyton in Volume I. of the Herd Book as bred 
by Mr. Yarworth by a bull bred by Mr. Tully of Haywood, 
" out of a very splendid cow, Mr. Yarworth informs me, between 
the Devon and Hereford breed." It is uncertain what was the 
exact date of this slight infusion of the Devon blood which 
originally, as we have attempted to show, was very similar] in 
its composition to that of the Hereford. Hector must have 
been calved some years before 18 14, and his dam Pink, which 
was out of a " cow between the Devon and Hereford breed," 



A GROUP OF FAMOUS BREEDERS 107 

would have been born either before the close of the eighteenth 
century or at the beginning of the nineteenth. Hector was 
used by Mr, Downes in 18 14, and he was the sire of Crab- 
stock 303, well known in connection with Mr. Rea's herd at 
Monaughty. Mr. Yarworth was fond of trying experiments 
in breeding, and no great harm resulted in these early days 
when the lines of breeds were less sharply drawn than at 
present. Although he seems to have retained too long the 
information as to the breeding of some of the animals pur- 
chased from him by Mr. William Hewer in 18 14, he candidly 
informed Mr. Eyton as to the outside strain of Trojan. 

Mr. W. Walker, Burton, and his son, Mr. J. Walker, 
Lulsley Court, Worcester, have been mentioned by Mr. Yeld 
as successful breeders. Mr. Eyton obtained from Mr. J. 
Walker a memoir of the late Mr. Walker, Burton, which we 
reproduce from the appendix to Volume I. of the Herd Book : 
" The estate of Burton, lying near Clifton-upon-Teme, in 
Worcestershire, Mr. Walker took in 1780, at ^s. per acre. The 
land, being of inferior quality, was not adapted for feeding 
cattle, and Mr. Walker therefore turned his attention to breed- 
ing Herefords ; and may fairly be said to have been one of 
those who began breeding on his own foundation. He had 
no one to look to for assistance in bulls to improve his herd, 
but was obliged to rely on his own judgment and perseverance. 
He did not allow any opportunity to slip whenever he saw an 
animal likely to do him good, and never left it on account of 
price ; so that in a few years he had a very good herd of cattle. 

" The Burton breed was soon allowed to be the best in the 
county, and was in great demand. Mr. Walker reared several 
bulls every year, and generally disposed of them as yearlings 
at from ^^30 to £60, and sometimes ;!^ioo each. This plan he 
pursued until his death in 18 17. He never had any public 
sale. His draught cows were sold as barrens. 

" The following notices will show in some degree the 
estimation in which his breed was held : — Mr. Smith of Little 
Shellesley once gave Mr. Walker ;{^20 each for 20 barren 
cows ; the same gentleman at another time gave him ^^35 for 
a barren cow. Mr. Walker was in the habit of working oxen, 
and often sold them out of the team at £^0 each. He was 
not very easily tempted to sell what he did not himself feel 
inclined to dispose of. Mr. J. Price (then of Earl's Croome) 
offered Mr. Walker 200 guineas for two yearling heifers, twin 
sisters ; Mr. T. Day, the exhibitor of the Durham Ox, offered 
him £^0 for a four-year-old working ox, and Mr. Hornyold 
£2t^o for a cow with a small bull calf at her foot. All these 
offers, with many more of the like kind, were refused. 



io8 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

" Mr. Walker was not much in the habit of showing stock at 
the agricultural meetings, but when he did show he was very 
successful. On Feburary 12th, 1818, his stock was sold by 
auction, and brought very high prices, being dispersed ex- 
tensively over the kingdom. It is not, perhaps, generally 
known (at least, not generally acknowledged) that many first- 
rate stocks in the county of Hereford, too, have to date their 
origin from the Burton breed." 

Mr. J. Walker, Lulsley Court, acquired some of his father's 
stock, and introduced a frequent cross of Mr. Price's blood. 
One of the best-known animals bred by Mr. Walker was 
Crickneck 175, so named from having sustained an injury in the 
neck by falling into a stone quarry when nine months old ; he 
was so "cricked " in the neck and injured in the back that he 
did not stand for months. Crickneck was got by a dark brown 
bull bred by Mr. W. Walker, and out of a cow bred by Mr. B. 
Tomkins. He was never shown for any premium, but received 
100 guineas forfeit at Lichfield, " and was allowed to be at that 
time the best in the kingdom." Among other bulls owned by 
Mr. J. Walker was Wellington 4, bred by Mr. B. Tomkins. 
The cattle belonging to Mr. W. Walker were of a darker 
colour than was generally found among Herefords, and Mr. 
Welles points out that a feature of the bulls belonging to him 
was that their throats had as little loose flesh as possible 
depending from them. In Mr. J. Walker's hands these 
characteristics were removed, and the appearance of his stock 
was brought more into conformity with that of Mr. Price. 

The Yeomans Family. — The family of Yeomans has 
long been closely identified with the breeding of Here- 
fords, and it is gratifying to find that this connection is 
still maintained, Mr. John H. Yeomans, Mr. Henry Yeomans, 
and Mr. Arthur Yeomans having taken a very active part in 
the extension of the breed in the United States and in the 
Argentine. As to the early work of the Yeomans family, 
there is little reliable information. At the Herefordshire 
Society's Show in 1805, Mr. John Yeomans of Howton gained 
the first prize for yearling bulls, and this honour was obtained 
by his brother Richard in 1807, while in 18 19 he was again 
first for yearling bulls. Mr. Richard Yeomans purchased 
a bull in 18 16 from Mr. Yarworth of Brinsop, the animal 
having been out of Margaret, the dam of Trojan. Mr. 
Yeomans is mentioned by Mr. Welles, with Mr. Tully and 
Mr. Skyrme, as one of the earliest breeders of the red with 
white face variety. Mr. Duckham, in his Cirencester lecture, 
states that he understands the sire of one of Westcar's famous 
Tully oxen was bred by Mr. Yeomans, and was red with 



A GROUP OF FAMOUS BREEDERS 109 

white face. Many of the calves got by him were grey, a 
fact that so annoyed Mr. Tully that he sent some to the 
butcher, and complained of the circumstance to the breeder, 
who fortunately induced him to rear those he had not 
sold, and Mr. Duckham remarks that this was the origin 
of the Tully greys. Mr. John Yeomans of Moreton, son of 
the gentleman just named, was also a very successful breeder. 
His greatest victory was gained with the cow Countess, bred 
by Mr. Turner of The Noke, and her son Royal 331, by 
Cotmore 376. Countess was purchased by Mr. Yeomans at 
Mr. Kedward's sale at "VVesthyde. Countess 3rd, the dam 
of Royal, was got by Sir Charles 1388, her dam being 
Sovereign 404. The sire of Royal was, of course, full of 
Hewer blood. At the Bristol Show of the Royal Agricultural 
Society in 1842, Mr. Yeomans' Royal and his dam Countess 
were awarded the first prizes in the classes for aged bulls and 
cows, an honour that rarely falls to one exhibitor. Countess 
was known as the Short-tail cow, and Mr. T. Duckham, had 
a portrait of her at Baysham Court. In 1843, ^r. Yeomans' 
herd was sold after his death at Moreton. Mr. Duckham 
gave us a priced catalogue of the sale, at which the highest 
price for cows was ^^56 for Countess, whose bull calf, eleven 
months old, made;^46. The bull Royal 331 was sold for £'j^, 
and Reliance 278, out of Mr. Hewer's Sylph by Chance 365, 
fetched £^0. 

A letter received from Mr. John Yeomans stated : " M>' 
great grandfather went from Thinghill to Howton Court in 
1785. His name was John Yeomans. His son John succeeded 
him in the farm and stock sometime just previous to 1800, 
when the old man died. My grandfather, Richard Yeomans, 
succeeded his brother John in 1807, ^"d continued in Howton 
Court till 1827, when he moved to Llanrothal. The stock 
seems to have been handed down from the one to the other. 
The cattle were red with white face, very big, some dark reds 
and others light ; these latter were the favourites of their 
breeder, but the dark reds were then the most fashionable. 
An aunt of mine, who was nearly ninety years old, said she 
did not see such cattle then." 

It may be added that there is little doubt that the influence 
of the Yeomans cattle on the foundation of the red with white 
face Herefords is much greater than would appear from the 
Herd Book records. In fact, it is believed by those whose 
memory reaches back to a very early period in the last 
century, that, more than any other strains, they contributed to 
the building up of the now predominant variety. An interview 
with a very old breeder, Mr. J. Y. Cooke, formerly of Moreton 



no HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

House, confirmed this impression. Mr. Cooke's opinion is 
endorsed by the incident related by Mr. Duckham as to the 
sale of a bull of Yeomans' breeding to Mr. Tully. In a 
catalogue of the sale of " genuine-bred white-faced cattle " 
belonging to Mr. Cooke, it is remarked that " the proprietor 
has spared neither pains nor expense to possess some of the 
very best blood in the world, and has kept in its original 
purity that breed which lineally descended to him from the 
late Mr. Yeomans of Howton Court, and from whose stock 
nearly, if not all, the best herds of white-faced Herefords in 
this kingdom have descended." 

Sir J. R. G. Cotterell sends a catalogue of the herd of 
his great-grandfather, SiR J. G. COTTERELL of Garnons, which 
was sold in 1832. The purchasers included the names of 
most of the chief breeders of Hereford cattle of that day. The 
herd was an old-established one in 1800 — indeed, it was 
from this herd that the first pedigree animals introduced into 
the United States of America were exported. He was a 
frequent exhibitor at the early meetings of the Herefordshire 
Agricultural Society, showing in 1801, and he also won the 
prize for best two-year-old bull in 1803 — the cup Sir J. R. G. 
Cotterell has in his possession. In the first edition of the 
"History of Hereford Cattle," 1886, p. 307, Mr. Duckham 
states, on the authority of Mr. Sandford Howard, that Sir 
J. G. Cotterell's stock were from Mr. Yarworth ; this is in- 
correct, except in so far as he bought a bull of Mr. Yarworth 
in 1820. Mr. Yarworth, however, only began breeding Here- 
ford cattle in 1802. It will be interesting to give the prices of 
the sale held in 1832. The auctioneer, Mr. Thomes Cooke, 
described the sale as that of Herefordshire oxen and steers, 
well-bred bulls, in-calf cows, ditto heifers two or three-year-old, 
bred on the farms, the sale taking place at Byford Farm, 
Herefordshire, on October iSth, 1832, The cattle were stated 
to be of the best and most approved sorts in the county, 
surpassed by none in the kingdom for weight and symmetry. 
He added that " he considered any encomium on the merits 
of the stock unnecessary, as Sir John Cotterell has for so 
many years been ranked as one of the first breeders of pure 
Herefordshire cattle, and his present show will prove the 
correct opinion so justly expressed by the admirers of those 
of this county." The prices were as follows : — 

Barren cow Tidy — Mr. Haynes, ^^13 15^-. ; Ditto Cherry — Mr. Hewer, 
;^l6 ; In-calf cows : Silk — Mr. Potter, ^19; Strawberry— Mr. Wilson, 
£i() loj. ; Prettymaid — Mr. P. Williams, ^20; Countess — Mr. Lane, 
;^i8 5^-. ; Lovely— Mr. Williams, ^15 ; Storrell— Bought in, ^18 ; Pigeon 
— Mr. Davis, Preston, ^18 105-. ; Damsel — Mr. Higginson, Saltmarsh,224; 



A GROUP OF FAMOUS BREEDERS in 

Stately — Mr. Williams, Cowarne, £2$ ; Charmer — Mr. J. Barneby, £22 ; 
Pink — Mr. Monkhouse, £17 los. ; Rose— Mr. Haycock, ;^20 qj-. ; Young 
Blossom— Mr. Higginson, £2$; Wanton — Bought in, £17; Rose 
Blossom — Bought in, ^19 ; Primrose — Mr. Phillips, Bryngwyn, ^28 ; 
Three-year-old Heifers : Fairmaid — Mr. Haycock, ;^i6 5^. ; Fillpail, 
— Mr. Williams, Cowarne, ;!^2o ; Young Cherry— Mr. Williams, Leas 
Court, ;!^i8; Young Flora — Mr. Haycock, ^16 ; Dainty — Mr. Haycock, 
£21 10s.; Sweeting — Mr. Higginson, Saltmarsh, ;!{^29 ; Fairmaid — 
Bought in, ^21 ; Browny— Mr. Haycock, /30 10s. ; Silver — Mr. Higgin- 
son, Saltmarsh, ^40 ; Beauty— Mr. P. Williams, £27 ; Young Primrose 
— Mr. Smythies, ^20 ; In-calf Heifer, two-year-old — Mr. Williams, 
£14 los. ; Two-year-old heifers— Mr. Todd, ^22 ; Mr. Todd, £2$ ; 
Mr. Mason, Tarrington, ^20 ; Mr. Chamberlain, ^18 ; Mr. Haycock, 
;^i8 loj. ; Mr. Todd, ^39; Mr. Haycock, ^22; Mr. Harris, ^55; 
Fair Flora— Bought in, ^20 ; Superior bull calf, by Young Radical — • 
Mr. Haycock, ^50; Pair of five-year-old fat oxen — Mr. Senior, £S7 ; 
Ditto, ditto — Mr. Codrington, ^60; Ditto, ditto— Mr. Senior, /60 ; 
Ditto, ditto— Bought in, ;^6i 10s. ; Ditto, ditto — Mr. Codrington, ^60 ; 
One fat three-year-old steer — Mr. Senior, ^17 los. ; Pairs of four- 
year-old working oxen, Mr. Jones, Breinton, ^53 lo^-. ; Mr. Price 
;^5i ; Bought in, ^48 ; Bought in, ^49 ; Bought in, ^45 ; Bought in, 
£41 ; Pairs of three-year-old steers — Mr. Senior, ^46 ; Mr. Mayberry, 
^44 ; Mr. Chamberlain, ^42 ; One steer and Marten heifer — Mr. May- 
berry, ^35 ; Ditto, ditto— Mr. Mayberry,^35 ; Ditto, ditto— Mr. Arnold, 
;^33 ; Pairs of two-year-old steers— Mr. Potter, ^30 los. ; Mr. Arnold, 
^27 10^. ; Mr. Arnold, ^28 ; Mr. Chamberlain, ^29 ; Mr. Farmer, 
^27 los. ; Bought in, ^11 1$^- > Two spayed heifers, Mr. Codrington, 
£2$; Pairsof yearling steers— Bought in, ^20 ; Mr. Chamberlain, ^24 ; 
Mr. Taylor, Stoke, ^22 10s. ; Mr. Williams, ;^20 ; Yearling heifers— Mr. 
Haycock, j/^12 8s. ; Mr. Haycock, ^12 5^-. ; Mr. Penoyre, ^15; Mr. 
Harris, ;^24 ; Mr. Penoyre, .^^23 ; Mr. Haycock, ^16 10s. ; Mr. J. Dew, 
;^2i ; Bought in,^32; Mr. Haycock, /20 ; Mr. Lane,^i7 ; Mr. Penoyre, 
£2$ ; Mr. J. Dew, ^^24. Altogether eighty-two lots were catalogued. 

Mr. Tench, Bromfield. — The only animal bred by Mr. 
Tench, Bromfield, entered in Volume I. of the Herd Book, is 
Colombus 443, got by Mr. John Hewer's Fitzfavourite 443. 
Mr. Tench was, however, a very successful breeder, and at the 
early shows of the Herefordshire Society gained five prizes, 
having been first with yearling bulls at the Leominster meet- 
ing in 1808. He was also, as has been seen, the owner of 
the bull Prizefighter, and with him in 1800 he won the bet 
with Mr. Knovvles of Nailstone, Leicestershire, for 100 guineas, 
Mr. Knowles' bull being doubtless of the Longhorn breed. 
It is interesting to notice the relationship, by marriage, between 
the Tench and Jeffries families. Mr. Tench's herd was sold 
in October, 1809. It consisted of seventy-five head. Included 
were five bulls, Stamford, Nobleman, Blind Ben, Prizefighter, 
and Brilliant. Stamford was described on the sale bill as having 
been purchased by Messrs. Ashdown and Tench from Mr. 
Harris, Stamford, at a higher price than was known to have 
been given for any Herefordshire bull. Nobleman and Blind 



112 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Ben are stated to have been purchased for Mr. T. A. Knight, 
Elton, and of these the former was ncv^er shown for a 
premium ; while the latter won the yearling prize at the Here- 
ford show in 1804. Brilliant was awarded the yearling bull 
premium at Leominster in 1808. 

Rev. J. R. Smythies, Lynch Court. — Few of the old 
breeders did more to extend the reputation of the Herefords 
than the late Rev. J. R. Smythies, Lynch Court. His son, 
Mr. George Smythies, Marlow Lodge, informed us that he was 
unable to furnish us with any trustworthy account of the 
commencement of his father's stock, but he believed that he 
first bought Herefords in 1806. After a few years he left 
the county, retaining only a few of his cows, but in 1820 he 
returned, and then established a permanent herd, which he 
selected from the best breeders. Mr. Smythies added : " When 
my father came into Herefordshire, he hailed from Essex, and 
consequently knew nothing of Herefords. He was, however, 
totally unprejudiced as to the different breeds, and made up 
his mind to select the mottle faces as being the most fleshy. 
Being no judge then of Hereford cows in store condition, his 
plan was to attend the fat stock markets and buy the best fat 
cows he could find." As in the principal sources of Mr. 
Smythies' herd, Mr. Yeld gives some interesting notes, which 
will be found in the quotation from his account of the early 
breeders. The catalogues of his stock show that he owned 
cows bred by Mr. B. Tomkins, Miss Tomkins, Mr. Price, 
Ryall ; Mr. Skyrme, Stretton ; Mr. Yarworth, Brinsop ; Mr. 
Tully, Huntington ; Mr. Walker, Burton ; Mr. Sheward, Little 
Dilwyn ; Mr. Moore, Wellington ; and many others. Mr. 
Welles remarks that " to the Rev. J. R. Smythies the county is 
indebted for a long continued and successful attempt to amend 
the breed, which was aided most effectually by bulls he used of 
Tomkins and Price blood ; and the large lot of two-year-old 
steers exhibited by him in 1842, at Hereford October Fair, will 
long be remembered by those who saw them." Among the 
bulls he had maybe mentioned Proctor's Bull 316, bred by 
Mr. B. Tomkins out of his favourite cow Old Pink ; Cupid 
260, bred by Mr. Galliers, Lynch Court ; Young Cupid 259, 
bred by Mr. Smythies, got by Cupid 260, dam Countess, bred 
by Mr. Yarworth ; Caesar 196, by Mr. Yarworth's Soldier 193, 
dam Mr. Yarworth's Larkspur; Cupid 198, bred by Mr. 
Smythies, by Proctor's Bull 316 ; Forester 112, by Mr. Price's 
Woodman 12 ; Goliah 37, bred by Mr. Price, by Young True- 
boy 32 ; Soldier 193, bred by Mr. Yarworth, etc. Mr. Smythies, 
as is stated elsewhere, gained the first prize at the first show of 
the Royal Agricultural Society in 1839 at Oxford, for the best 



A GROUP OF FAMOUS BREEDERS 113 

cow for dairy purposes, as well as other prizes. His name 
was coupled with the toast of the " Successful Competitors " 
at the dinner held in connection with the show. 

]Mr. Grasett of Wetmore has shown us the first private herd 
book which Mr. Smythies kept, in which he records that he 
sold a barren cow, 17 years old, for £6-^, and several younr^ 
bulls at from ^^40 to ^.^60 each. Mr. Smythies had unbounded 
confidence in the merits of the breed. In 1849 he offered to 
show four Hereford steers whose ages should not exceed two 
years and three months, and four whose ages should not exceed 
one year and three months, at the Smithfield Show, against 
eight Shorthorns and eight Devons, of similar ages, for sweep- 
stakes of 100 guineas for each lot. Nothing seems to have 
come of this challenge. The herd of Mr. Smythies was con- 
tinued by his son, who was for some time in partnership with 
Mr. Grasett, Wetmore, who, after the retirement of Mr. 
Smythies, kept on the herd for some years. 

Messrs. Williams, Thinghill and Brinsop. — The stock 
of Mr. H. Williams, Thinghill Court, were of light red colour 
inclining to yellow, with faintly ticked or speckled faces. At 
his sale in 18 14, 52 breeding animals, including young calves, 
sold at an average of £T)2. The highest price was £^6 for the 
cow Prettymaid and heifer calf The cow Fillpail and her 
heifer calf made £^6, and a bull was sold for ^^65, while a 
yearling heifer fetched £$2. Mr. John Williams of Brinsop 
and Credenhill had also a good herd with which he was 
successful at the Hereford County Shows early in the century, 
and which were probably of the same strain as that of his 
brother Mr. H. Williams, Mr. John Williams, who died in 
18 1 5, was married to a sister of Mr. Benjamin Tomkins, the 
Younger. 

Messrs. Turner, Aymestry and Noke Court. — It has 
been seen that Mr. James Turner, Aymestry Court, was a 
purchaser at Mr. Galliers' sale at Wigmore Grange in 1795. 
He began breeding in 1780, when he entered the farm of 
Aymestry Court. In 1803 he offered to show for 100 guineas, 
against any other in the county, a six-year-old ox, " for weight 
and lea.st coarse meat." Mr. Turner's herd was carried on by 
his son Mr. Philip Turner, who used bulls from Mr. Knight ; 
Messrs. Jeffries ; Mr. J. Turner, Noke ; Mr. Parry, Old Court ; 
and Mr. Child, Wigmore Grange. In 1839 this gentleman's 
son, Mr. Philip Turner, commenced farming at Westhyde, near 
Hereford, removing subsequently to The Leen. He obtained 
a portion of his father's herd, and his success as a breeder was 
proved by the remarkable sale that took place at The Leen in 
1883, as well as by his previous show-yard victories. But a 

I 



114 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATLLE 

more detailed account of his career must be reserved for 
another chapter, Mr. J. Turner, Noke, bred the Hewer bull 
Chance 348. The dam of this animal, Victoria, by Mr. 
Hewer's Lottery 410, broke loose to several young bulls, and it 
was not ascertained which of them was the sire of the bull 
calf, which was therefore appropriately named Chance. Some 
of the bull calves were by Lottery, and the probability is that 
he was thus doubly the grandsire of Chance. Chance was 
bought at Mr. Turner's sale in 1838 by Mr. D. Williams, 
Brecon, and became the sire of the celebrated bull Sir David 
349, whose dam was also by Chance. 

Other Breeders. — Mr. Jones, Breinton, built up his 
fine herd between 181 1 and 1828, by mixing the old Breinton 
strain with the blood of Skyrme of Stretton and Tully of 
Huntington. After using bulls of his own breeding, he, in 
1836, resorted to the Hewer stock for sires ; among those so 
employed being Conqueror, Hope, Laurel 409, Lottery 2nd 
408, and Young Breinton. His herd was sold in 1847. Mr. 
Jones gained second prize for yearling bulls at the Hereford- 
shire Society's Show in 1803. 

Mr. Weyman, first of Moreton and then of Stockton, was a 
very careful and able breeder, and his stock was closely con- 
nected with that of Mr. Morris. His herd, Mr. Welles 
remarks, was remarkable for size and depth of flesh, and his 
cattle, as well as that at Dayhouse and Stocktonbury with 
which they were blended, were found well adapted for crossing 
with the finer and more closely bred varieties. Mr. Weyman's 
bull Stockton 237, a white face, was evidently a very fine 
animal, as with him Mr. Weyman challenged all England for 
500 guineas. The challenge, it is stated, was accepted by a 
member of the Tomkins family, w^ho, however, afterwards 
drew back, leaving Stockton the winner. The bull Noble 
238, bred by Mr. Weyman, was got by a son of Stockton ; 
his dam Curley having been by a bull bred by Mr. Yeomans 
of Howton. He was the sire of prize stock belonging to 
Mr. Turner, one of them having been Countess, the first prize 
cow at the R.A.S.E. Show at Bristol. 

The herd of Mr. JOHN Morris, Stocktonbury, was bred 
from the stocks of Messrs. Walker, Burton ; Clarke, Ivington ; 
Hewer ; Turner, Noke ; Weyman ; Jeffries ; and Edwards of 
Dayhouse. The bull Dayhouse 299 was a noted animal. 
He was bred by Mr. Edwards, Dayhouse, and is referred to 
as having been brother to Mr. Hodge's fat cow, which took 
the prize at Leominster for the best fat cow in 1838. " He was 
the sire of more prize cattle than any bull in his day." 

Mr. W. C. Hayton, Moreton Court, was one of the first 



A GROUP OF FAMOUS BREEDERS 115 

breeders who introduced Mr. John Price's (Ryall) stock into 
the county of Hereford, and the result of his first trial of it 
was that he bred three oxen which in one year gained the 
three first prizes at the Smithfield Show. Mr. Monkhouse, 
The Stow, acquired some of his first cows from Mr. Hayton. 
In 1829 he was presented with a public testimonial in recogni- 
tion of "the meritorious services he had rendered by his 
indefatigable and praiseworthy exertions in effecting the im- 
provement of the breed of cattle of the county." 

Mr. S. BLUCK,Bromfield, began breeding in 1809, previous 
to which date his father had been using bulls from Tully, 
Huntington, and Williams, Brinsop. He himself used bulls 
from Messrs. Jeffries, The Grove ; Yarworth, Tomkins, and 
Hewer. Mr. Bluck informed Mr. Eyton that all the bulls 
used by him were white-faced, except the one he had in 18 17, 
and that his cows were mostly white-faced, with a red mark 
round the eye. 

The stock of Mr. W. Perry, Monkland and Cholstrey, was 
derived from the herds of Messrs. Turner, Noke ; T. Jeffries, 
Hewer, G. Tomkins, Smythies, and Tully. He had sales 
in 1843 and 1847, and was breeder of Derby 209, first prize 
aged bull at the Royal at Southampton in 1844. 

Mr. Parry of Old Court was the breeder of the famous 
bull Old Court 306, described as mottle-faced, and got by a 
bull bred by Mr. Tully, Clirow, his dam being by Mr. G. 
Tomkins' Radical 265. Old Court was the sire of the Earl of 
Oxford's prize steers at Hereford in 1842, and was one of the 
early sires used by Mr. Rea, Monaughty. 

Mr. Kedward, Westhyde, had been breeding for only 
about five or six years when his herd was sold in February, 
1859. Seventy-four head, including 21 young calves, which 
were sold separately, averaged nearly £2^. A bull calf was 
sold for £%0, and three cows with calves averaged ;^8o. 
Mr. Philip Turner was one of the purchasers, and he retained 
the blood in the Leen herd. 

The herd of Mr, JOHN ROCKE, Clungunford House, which 
was sold in 1849, was mostly descended from the stocks of 
Mr. Yeomans, Moreton ; Mr. Williams, Brecon ; Mr. Stephens, 
The Sheep House ; and the Rev. John Rocke, the last named 
having bred some good animals. 

Sir Hungerford Hoskyns, Bart., Harewood Grange, 
did much to improve and extend the breed. His herd was 
very well bred, among the animals he possessed being some 
tracing from the herds of Mr. T. Tully, Mr. G. Tomkins, Mr. 
John Price, etc. His cow Fatrumps, got by Old Sovereign, 
dam Blossom, was a frequent winner, having been first as the 



ii6 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

best cow in milk at the Royal Show at Cambridge. Sir 
Hungerford used no fewer than 14 bulls bred by Mr. John 
Hewer, among them being Sovereign, Byron, Chance, Favourite, 
Dangerous, Jupiter, and Hope. He also used bulls bred 
by Mr. J. Yeomans, etc. The Harewood stock supplied some 
of the foundation animals in the herd at Hampton Court. 

As has already been indicated, Mr. Theophilus SAL^YEY, 
Ashley Moor, obtained the nucleus of his herd from Mr. 
T. A. Knight. Early in the last century Mr. Knight presented 
Mr. Salwey with a bull calf, in colour, says Mr. Housman, 
a broken or slightly grizzled red, not a violent grey. In the 
following year Mr. Salwey purchased from Mr. Knight four 
heifers, bred at Wormesley Grange, then in Mr. Knight's 
occupation. These heifers were selected by Mr. Knight as 
being well adapted to mate with the bull calf previously given. 
We quote from Mr. Housman's account : " Two of the heifers 
were red, two grey. All had a considerable dash of the Tully 
blood ; two some of Skyrme's strain, and the other two dashed 
with the Tomkins element to no small extent. All the finally 
sanctioned Downton Castle sorts were thus included. One 
heifer, in whose veins the Tomkins blood predominated, had 
peculiar brown eyes, and was called by the herdsman ' the 
cherry-eyed one' ; by Mr. Salwey distinguished as Cherry. 
This was the representative dam of the Cherrj.' family, and 
amongst her immediate produce by the bull already mentioned 
was Andrew, the famous winner of the Herefordshire Cup in 
1807. From Andrew and his seraglio issued a tribe which 
soon began to figure prominently : and Mr. Knight, who often 
inspected the herd, declared many of the animals to be im- 
provements upon his own. He was even known to declare 
that, according to his ideas and fancy, Andrew was the best 
bull he had ever seen. The bull Andrew succeeded his father 
as stock sire at Ashley Moor, and doubtless there was, during 
the term of his reign, some amount of in-breeding of the 
Knight blood. The red and the grey elements were pretty 
fairly balanced, but the red, whether from selection or from 
predominance of hue, ultimately prevailed over the grey, and 
the Tully strain became less frequently represented in colour 
than the Skyrme and Tomkins varieties. Andrew was red, 
his sire, as already stated, not exactly grey but broken red, 
that is to say, the main body of colour was red with a mealy 
grizzle about the flanks, elbows, and twist. The father and 
son were used as long as they properly could be used in the 
herd, and the selection of their successor was a matter of some 
anxiety." Mr. Housman, who gave these facts in Bell's 
Weekly Messenger, from notes supplied by a member of the 



A GROUP OF FAMOUS BREEDERS 117 

late Mr. Salwey's family, explained that the choice fell on a bull 
that had been given by Mr. Knight to a solicitor in Ludlow. 
This bull was by old Andrew, out of a pure George Tomkins 
cow. He was named Chancellor and was never entered in the 
Herd Book. In a letter to Mr. Housman, Mr. H. Salwey said 
that Chancellor was by a bull bred by Mr. Henry Lloyd of 
Broadgate, Ludlow, on his farm at Weobley, which bull was 
by a pure Knight bull from a pure Tomkins cow. Mr. Salwey 
tried another cross, but it did not fulfil his expectations, and 
he then determined to keep the blood as nearly pure Knight 
as seemed consistent with wholesome principles. Therefore, 
avoiding as much as he could the mating of the nearest 
relations, he bred back into the sort whenever the opportunity 
offered, and would at any time use his own bulls rather than 
risk the effect of an untried mixture. Several of the sires 
used within the last 30 years, before the dispersion of the herd 
in i8zj4, were bred at Ashley Moor, and Mr. Salwey had 
access to two bulls bred by Mr. Knight, one of them purchased 
by the late Mr. Coleman of Orleton, and the other bred by 
Mr. Green, Orleton. The Ashley Moor herd was sold on 
February 14th and 15 th, 1844. From the catalogue, it appeared 
that most of the animals traced from cows called Old Cherry 
and Old Betsy, described as a pure Knight breed. A few were 
also descended from a cow called Old Tomkins. Among other 
bulls that had been used were Cholstrey, bred by Mr. J. 
Thomas of Cholstrey, a grandson of Mr. Wey man's Stockton ; 
Young Trueboy, by Mr. John Walker's Trueboy from a prize 
cow bred by Mr. Price ; Stormer, bred by Mr. Tench, Brom- 
field ; Sir Andrew, bred by Mr. Hemmings, Kingsland, and 
others. From Mr. Salwey's herd a number of animals went to 
Lord Berwick and Mr. Evans, Swanstone. The sort has been 
carefully preserved, and as has been mentioned elsewhere, the 
strain was found in the herds of Mr. Hill, Felhampton Court ; 
Mrs. Evans, The Hill ; Mr. Fenn, Stonebrook House ; Lord 
Coventry, and others both at home and abroad. 

Mr. Clarke, Lyde, near Hereford, had a large herd 
entirely self coloured. He sold a bull to Mr. Germaine for 

;^200. 

During the later part of the period now under notice, no 
herd was more successful in the show-yard than that of Mr. 
T. C. Yeld, The Broome. From 1829 to 1849, Mr. Yeld 
gained no fewer than 25 prizes at shows of the Herefordshire 
Agricultural Society ; this number being exceeded only by 
that won by Mr. Roberts, Ivingtonbury, whose herd will be 
referred to subsequently, and who carried off as many as 30 
prizes. Mr. Yeld, in the valuable paper from which extracts 



ii8 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

have already been freely taken, thus describes his training as 
a breeder of Herefords : " My father occupying a large 
grazing farm, and attending all the fairs in the county, to 
which I accompanied him, I had a rare opportunity of making 
the acquaintance of Herefordshire men as well as of Hereford 
cattle, which I have found a great advantage through a long 
business life. I had not only the privilege of visiting and 
associating with the first farmers in the county, but I had a 
further privilege — that of being brought up to work. My 
father, when he bought a lot of stock at a fair, always made 
me drive it home. To be sure I had a good nag, but the 
advantage was that I had a good opportunity of observing our 
bargains, comparing one with the other, and a most essential 
thing I found it to know in after years, how cattle should be 
driven to most advantage." Mr. Yeld informed Mr. Eyton 
that his herd originated in 1820-21 by the purchase of cows 
and heifers from the stock of the late Viscount Hereford, Mr. 
Sheward of Little Dilwyn, Mr. Proctor of King's Pyon, and 
Mr. Wheeler of Ivington Park. Among the bulls used were 
Snowball 246, Warrior 262, Red Robin 263, Young Cupid 
259, Tobias 487, Trump 490, Claret 253, Big Ben 248, The 
Knight 185, Napier 250. Snowball, of Mr. Knight's breeding, 
and of which an account has already been given, was one of 
the best stock-getters of his day ; Red Robin was sire of 
several prize steers at Hereford and Smithfield ; Young Cupid 
was winner of the yearling and all aged prizes at Hereford, 
and sire of many prize animals ; Tobias obtained two prizes 
at Hereford, and was sire of Mr. William Perry's Goldfinder 
383, and " of more prize animals than any other bull that has 
ever been in the county." Trump was twice a winner at the 
Hereford Show for bull, cow, and offspring. He was sire of 
Napoleon, sold to the Duke of Bedford by Mr. Yeld, and 
which obtained the first prize at Cambridge R.A.S.E. meeting, 
and of the two bulls which obtained the first and second 
yearling prizes at the Hereford Candlemas Meeting, 1837, of 
the yearling which 'won the same prize, 1848, of many prize 
steers, and was himself highly commended when shown 
against Cotmore at the Hereford Candlemas Meeting. Claret 
was sire of several prize animals. Napier won the prize for 
the best bull calf at Leominster, 1850, beating 16 others, and 
was accidentally burnt when travelling by rail to Northampton. 
Big Ben was the sire of many prize animals, among which 
were the steers exhibited by Mr. Yeld at Hereford Candlemas 
Meeting, 1849, also Candlemas and October, 1850. "The 
steers have been invariably sold at Hereford for the last 20 
years, and, with two exceptions, have made the highest price 



A GROUP OF FAMOUS BREEDERS 119 

of any steers sold at the same age in the fair at which they 
were sold. The cows and heifers possess one uniform character, 
are of good size, blood-red colour with white faces, and of first- 
rate quality," Mr. Yeld had a large sale in 1852. 

A very fine herd was that of Mr. THOMAS LoNGMORE, 
Walford, near Ludlow. Mr. Longmore, who, along with 
other members of his family, bred some excellent cattle, is best 
known to the present generation as the breeder of the cele- 
brated bull Walford 871, which was winner of the first prize at 
the Royal Agricultural Society's Show at Windsor in 185 1, 
and of the first prize and gold medal as best bull of any breed 
at the Paris Exhibition in 1855. The lineage of this famous 
animal, which became the property of Lord Berwick, may 
throw some light on the strains possessed by Mr. Longmore. 
The pedigree is imperfecdy given in the first edition of 
Volume II. of the Herd Book, but in Mr. Duckham's revised 
edition the necessary information is supplied. Walford was 
got by Clungunford 869A, bred by Mr. Howells, Clungunford ; 
Clungunford being by Dinedor 395, bred by Mr. Fluck and 
owned by Mr. Stedman, Bedstone, and Mr. Meire. The dam 
of Walford was by Albert 2nd 867 A, bred by Mr. Morris, 
Stocktonbury, and half brother to Albert 330, which was by 
Dayhouse 299. The granddam was by Brunslow 870, bred 
by Mr. Beddoes, Brunslow, and the great-granddam was by 
Broome 866a, bred by Mr. Yeld, his dam having been bred 
by Mr. Knight, Downton. 

Mr. Carpenter, Eardisland, founded his herd mainly on 
the stock of Mr. Jeffries, The Grove, having obtained a 
selection of cows and the bull Hope 439, by Byron 440, out of 
the dam of Cotmore 376, from that gentleman. Mr. Carpenter 
was very successful at the early shows of the Royal Agricul- 
tural Society of England. He bred the first prize cow at 
York in 1848 and Norwich in 1849, while he was the owner of 
the first prize cow at Exeter in 1850. He was also the breeder 
of the bulls Henry 350, The Count 351, Sir Walter 352, and 
Quicksilver 353 ; all by Hope 439. Quicksilver was first prize 
yearling at Southampton in 1844, and Henry was sold in 1845 
to Mons. Le St. Marie for the King of the French. Mr. 
Carpenter bred the first prize winners at other shows of the 
Royal. For example, he was the breeder of the first prize 
bull at York in 1848— namely, Coningsby 718, by Quicksilver 
353. Mr. Carpenter was for some time owner of the famous 
bull Sir David 349. 



CHAPTER VI 

PROGRESS OF THE BREED 

While the breeders whose operations have been described 
were steadily improving the breed and extending its reputa- 
tion, other influences were acting in similar directions. It was 
the appearance of the Herefordshire oxen at the Hereford 
October Fair and in the county of Gloucester that first attracted 
Marshall's favourable attention to the merits of the breed. 
There were few shows in those early days, and if the fame of 
a variety were to be carried beyond its native districts, it had 
to be done by other means than a successful display in the 
show-yard, and the subsequent publicity given to the perform- 
ance by notices in the press. As already indicated, a favourite 
method adopted by breeders who wished to attract attention 
to their stock was to issue challenges. 



In the Hands of the Graziers 

But before there- are any records of these challenges, the 
Hereford cattle were pushing themselves in public notice in 
another way. A number of the leading graziers took up the 
cause of the breed with great spirit, finding nothing to surpass 
it for profitable feeding upon a simple grass ration. In this 
connection reference has already been made to Mr. J. H. 
Campbell of Charlton, Kent. In the year 1779, Mr. Camp- 
bell exhibited at Greenwich an ox of the " true Herefordshire 
breed on account of the fineness of his flesh, beauty of his 
shape, symmetry of his parts, impartial distribution of his 
weight, and the regular fatting of all parts, fore and aft." A 
detailed account of this animal is given in the "Annals of 
Agriculture," and as it is one of the first examples of a Here- 
ford being exhibited to the public, it may be interesting to 
quote a few of the facts regarding him. The ox was about 
seven years old, and the following are the figures as to his 
size and weight. 



PROGRESS OF THE BREED i2] 



Measurements. 

Length from poll to end of rump 

Height 

Girth round the first rib 

Phimbed to the outside of each first rib.. 

Girth behind the shoulders 

Phimbed across the hips ... 

Ditto the shoulders 

Ditto the end rump or tutts 

Round the leg below the knee ... 
Round the leg below hock ... 



Weight. 
Live weight 30 cwt. {3360 lbs. 
The carcase dressed, fore-quarters ... 



ft. 


ins. 


8 


3 


5 


2 


10 


6 


3 


3f 


9 





2 


9i 


2 


8^ 


I 


4i 



127 o 

hind-quarters 56 4 

55 6 



Total fore and hind-quarters of 8 lbs. to the stone ... 239 2 

Fore-quarters weighed 14 stone 8 lbs. more than the hind-quarters. 

Tallow 36 stone 4 lbs. 

The hide was not weighed, but Mr. Cowldry (the butcher 
who killed the ox) supposed it to be 1 5 stone ; the tongue 
12 lbs.; heart 9 lbs.; the neck pieces 2 stone 4 lbs.; leg 
pieces 2 stone 2 lbs. 

Mr. Cowldry further declared that the blade bone was not 
thicker or of more weight than one of a beast of only 80 st. 
weight ; but the entrails were much less than what was 
commonly found in beasts of small size, and the liver was less 
than any he had ever met with in a full-grown beast. 

Middle sirloin 62 lbs. 

Ditto after roasting 48 ,, 

Decrease ... ... ... ... 14 lbs. 

♦- 

The ox was sold for £'J0. 

Mr. Campbell, in a controversy which took place in the 
" Annals of Agriculture," disclaimed the idea that his ox was 
exhibited on account of size ; nothing exceptional being 
claimed for him in that respect. But Mr. Campbell said it 
was the opinion of many who viewed the ox alive, that they 
never saw " so much beef under a hide of the size, and upon 
so small a proportion of bone." Many butchers, when looking 



122 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

at the ox, remarked that there was not one ounce of coarse 
flesh on the whole carcase ; and Mr. Cowldry, when the car- 
case was in his shop, pointed out that " even the neck was 
marbled." 

Mr. Westcar of Creslow, Bucks, another eminent grazier, 
identified himself with the breed. He regularly attended the 
Hereford Fair from 1779 to 18 19, and the high prices at 
which he sold Hereford bullocks doubtless convinced many 
of their adaptability for grazing purposes. Mr. George 
Smythies favoured us with a letter addressed to his father many 
years ago ; it was in the following terms : — " Chenies, near 
Rickmansworth, Herts, December 5, 1825. Dear Sir, — When 
at Creslow, a few days since, on a visit to my friend Westcar, 
speaking of the extraordinary prices made of oxen grazed by 
him at various periods, at my request he allowed me to make 
the subjoined extracts from his books, and well knowing your 
predilection for Hereford cattle, and thinking it might be 
agreeable to you, I have taken the liberty to send you a copy. 
I have confined myself to such only as sold for i^ioo and 
upwards ; had I descended to i^8o I know not to what extent 
in number of animals my list would have run. — (Signed) 
George Dodd." 

1799. December 16. — Two oxen to Mr. Chapman 

1800. „ 4. — One ditto to ditto 

,, ,, 13. — One ditto to Mr. Harrington 

1801. November 26. — Six ditto to Messrs. Giblett & Co. 

1802. ,, 26. — One ditto to ditto 

,, ,, 31. — One ditto to Mr. Chapman 
,, December 4. — Two ditto to Mr. Horwood 

1803. ,, 4. — One ditto to Mr. Chapman 
,, „ 19. — One ditto to Mr. Reynolds 
,, ,, 19. — One ditto to Messrs. Giblett 

1804. „ 5. — One ditto to ditto 

1805. „ 4. — One ditto to ditto 

181 1. November 28.— One ditto to Mr. Chandler... 

It will be seen that the 20 oxen realised £212^, being 
an average of :^io6 6s. each. Mr. Smythies tells us that he 
has understood that six of the bullocks were greys, but he 
does not know which of the animals were of this colour. 
Mr. Duckham states that Mr. Westcar not only made many 
purchases of Herefords, but he also induced the Duke of 
Bedford and many other noble lords to adopt the same plan, 
and thus did much to bring the breed into public notice. 

The following are particulars of one of Mr. Westcar's 
light grey steers : — A six-year-old ox, bred by Mr. Tully, 
Huntington, fed by Mr. Westcar ; carcase 268 stone 6 lbs. 
(8 lbs. per stone), hide 13 stone 7 lbs., head, 8 stone, entrails 
7 stone 5 lbs., pluck 6 stone i^ lbs., fat 34 stone 3 lbs. (total 



i 


s. 


d. 


200 








147 








100 








630 








100 








126 








200 








I03 








los 








105 








105 








lOO 








105 









PROGRESS OF THE BREED 123 

2700^ lbs.). Sir Brandreth Gibbs, in his "History of the 
Smithfield Club," gives the weight of Mr. Westcar's stall-fed 
ox in 1802: — Carcase 274 stone 6 lbs. (2198 lbs,), and his 
grass-fed ox that year, 225 stone 6 lbs. (1806 lbs.). 

Mr. Samuel Arnsby, writing in 1857 to the Farmers' 
Magazine, from King Street, Smithfield, said : " The trans- 
cendant prices which fat Hereford oxen made in Smithfield 
about 50 years back struck vast quantities of spectators with 
admiration and astonishment. If memory serves me right, in 
the year 18 12 or 18 13 I saw sold in Smithfield Christmas 
Market, 50 Hereford oxen belonging to the high-famed Mr. 
Westcar, living in the vale of Aylesbury, that averaged 
50 guineas each, making 2500 guineas. At the same time, 
in Smithfield, Mr. Richard Kightley of Castlethorpe, Bucks, 
sold 30 Hereford oxen that averaged £'^'j each, making 
^^1710. Mr. Kightley's oxen were sold by himself, and Mr. 
Westcar's oxen were sold by Mr. Thomas Potter. Mr. Westcar 
was heard to say, in Smithfield, that of the heaviest Hereford 
ox he ever fed, the carcase when dead weighed 157 stone 2 lbs. 
of 14 lbs. to the stone — 2200 lbs., a weight not reached now. 
The old and famous breed of Herefords are not so large in 
frame as they were 50 years back, but are more complete and 
mature at an earlier age. Nearly all the above-named high- 
priced gigantic oxen had been worked, and had earned home 
money at the plough and other labour before they were fed. 
At that time it was well known that Mr Westcar had a large 
close that kept, the whole of the summer, 200 large oxen, and, 
with the 200 oxen, he fed 300 ewes and their lambs, and all 
went to market the same year," It is impossible, we think, 
to overrate the value of the services rendered to the breed by 
the old graziers. 

Challenges 

Allusion has been made to the many challenges by which 
it was sought to draw attention to the breed or to the in- 
dividual herds. A few of these early challenges may be 
noted here, although most of them are referred to in our 
remarks on individual breeders. One of the first was that of 
Benjamin Tomkins, the Younger, who drove 20 of his cows to 
Hereford on the day of the Agricultural Show, and offered 
100 guineas to any one who would show an equal number 
superior to them, but the challenge was not accepted. In 
1 8 10, Mr. Meek of Lichfield gave a challenge to show his 
Longhorn Bull against any Hereford for 100 guineas. His 
challenge was accepted by Mr, Walker, Burton Court, who 



124 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

sent his bull Crickneck 175 to Lichfield; but when he got 
there it appeared that Mr. Meek had made himself acquainted 
with the superiority of Mr, Walker's bull, and rather than 
submit to defeat, allowed judgment to go by default in 
favour of the Hereford. As has been stated, Mr. Haywood 
of Blakemere and Mr. Hill, Felhampton Court, had portraits 
of the Hereford bull Prizefighter, bred by Mr. Samuel Hay- 
wood, Clifton-on-Teme. The inscription on the painting 
states that he was " Shown at Shifnal, 29th December, 1800, 
by Mr. Tench of Bromfield against Mr. Knowles of Nailston, 
Leicester (whose nomination would, doubtless, have been 
a Longhorn), to decide a bet of 100 guineas ; determined in 
favour of the Herefordshire by Mr. Pester, Somersetshire." 
Mr. Price of Ryall, as we have already mentioned, issued two 
challenges. In 18 12 he gave a challenge to be decided at 
the Lichfield Agricultural Meeting, to show 20 of his cows in 
milk against 20 Longhorn cows for 100 guineas, which was 
accepted by Mr. Meek, and was decided in Mr. Price's favour. 
In 1839 Mr. Price sent forth a public challenge to show 20 
cows and a bull of his own breeding against the same number 
of any other person's breeding, of any breed, open to all 
England, but no one came forward to accept it. Mr. Wey- 
man of Stockton challenged all England with his bull 
Stockton 237 for 500 guineas, which was accepted by one of 
the Tomkins family, who, however, afterwards withdrew, 
leaving Mr. Weyman the victor. Mr. Turner of Aymestry 
in 1803 offered to show a six-year-old Herefordshire ox, 
of his own breeding, against any breeder in the county of 
Hereford, or any adjoining county, for 100 guineas, for 
"weight and least coarse meat." Mr. Walker of Burton was 
offered 60 guineas by Mr, T. Day, the exhibitor of the 
Durham ox, for a four-year-old working ox. In 1825, at the 
Smithfield Club, there was a sweepstakes between three 
Herefords belonging to the Duke of Bedford and three 
Durhams belonging to the Right Hon. Charles Arbuthnot, 
which was won by the Herefords. 

In the Show-yards 

The preparation of an account of what the Herefords have 
done in the show-yard specially engaged the attention of 
Mr. William Housman, whose intimate acquaintance with 
everything connected with the breed was well known. His 
valuable contribution will be found elsewhere. In order, 
however, to trace the progress of the breed, it is desirable to 
briefly refer here to some of their early achievements at 



PROGRESS OF THE BREED 125 

shows. The Smithfield Club and the Agricultural Society of 
Hereford were founded almost about the same time, the latter 
having the start by one year. The Smithfield Club was 
instituted under the title of the Smithfield Cattle and Sheep 
Society, at a meeting held in December, 1798, the name by 
which it is now so widely and favourably known having 
been adopted in 1802. The history of the Club was written 
by the late Sir Brandreth T. Gibbs.* From this valuable 
little book we learn many interesting details regarding 
the position taken by the Herefords at the early shows. At 
the first show held in 1799, Mr. Westcar's first prize bullock, 
which sold for 100 guineas, was 8 ft. 11 ins. long, 6 ft. 
7 ins. high, and 10 ft, 4 ins. girth. In his Circencester 
lecture, from which we have already quoted, Mr. Duckham 
said that from the dimensions given upon a coloured print 
which he then exhibited, together with the names of the 
feeder and purchaser, all corresponding with the figures given 
by Sir Brandreth T. Gibbs, he had no doubt it was intended 
to represent this prize animal of Mr. Westcar's. If so, says 
Mr. Duckham, he was bred by Mr. Tully, Huntington, near 
Hereford ; his weight was 247 stone ; and he bore the 
distinctive marks of the red with white face, with the exception 
of the white stripe which now extends along the back, and 
just over the shoulders, being shown in the picture as far as 
the hip bones, and it also differed from the modern markings 
by the lower part of the legs being red instead of white. We 
may add that the drawing in Garrard's book removes any doubt 
as to the identity of this animal, which was unquestionably 
bred by Mr. Tully. At the show in 1799 it is also stated 
that Mr. Grace of Buckinghamshire exhibited a Hereford ox, 
7 ft. high, which weighed upwards of 260 stone, and 
measured in girth 12 ft. 4 ins. Among the other winners 
at this inaugural show of the Smithfield Club were the Duke 
of Bedford and Mr. John Ellman, both of whom were 
breeders of Herefords ; the latter had the prize for " the best 
ox fattened with grass and hay only in the shortest time from 
the yoke." It is thus apparent that the Herefords constituted 
a very important feature of the inaugural show of the 
Smithfield Club. Among other curious details mentioned 
by Sir Brandreth T. Gibbs, in connection with the meeting in 
18 12, were the following : — "a Hereford with a red ring round 
his eye," and " a smooth-coated Hereford." Mr. Duckham 
points out that these apparently trivial circumstances go far to 

* " History of the Smithfield Club." Third edition. By Sir B. T. Gibbs, 
Honorary Secretary. 1881. Also " History of Smithfield Club from 
1798 to 1900." By E. J. Powell, Secretary. Published 1902. 



126 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

prove that at that time it was expected that Herefords should 
have white faces and rough coats. Moreover, the " red ring 
round the eye" has been recently sought for in Herefords 
exported to South America, this break in the white helping 
the cattle exposed to the strong rays of the sun. 

From the establishment of the Smithfield Club to the year 
1851, all the different breeds and cross-breeds of cattle were 
exhibited at its shows in competition with each other, except 
during the period from 1807 to 1815, when there was a classifi- 
cation of breeds, separate classes being assigned for Herefords, 
Longhorns, Shorthorns, Sussex or Kent, Devons, and mixed 
breeds. Some of the records of the early shows are incom- 
plete, but Sir Brandreth T. Gibbs stated that during the time 
the breeds competed together — that is, before the new classifi- 
cation in 1852 — the general prizes were thus distributed. 

The Hereford Oxen won I S5 prizes /^'Z'j^Z 2 o 

,, Cows ,, 22 ,, 231 o o 



£2<)^ 2 o 



The Shorthorn Oxen won 82 prizes , £^2,99 5 o 

„ Cows „ 92 ,, 1132 15 o 

£.2S2,2 o o 



The result, said Sir Brandreth S. Gibbs, showed that the 
number and amount of general money prizes was vastly in 
favour of the Herefords, their principal winnings being in the 
oxen and steer classes. The Shorthorns owed the fact of 
their approaching the Herefords in total amount of winnings 
to the success of the Shorthorn cows. 

The Agricultural Society of Hereford, still, we are glad to 
say, under the name of the Herefordshire and Worcestershire 
Agricultural Society, conducted with vigour and success, was 
established in 1797 ; one of its objects being "to carry the 
breed of cattle and sheep as to carcase and fleece to the 
greatest points of perfection." The first secretary was Mr. 
John Duncumb, already referred to as the Herefordshire 
historian. The old minute-books of the Society have not 
been found, and for notices of the early shows we are indebted 
to contemporary newspapers. At the show in June, 1799, the 
first prize for best bull not exceeding 20 months old was 
awarded to John Apperley, Withington ; and that for the best 
bull not exceeding three years and seven months old to Samuel 
Tully, Huntington. At the show in June, 1800, it is reported 
that there v/as an exhibition of cattle of very superior form 
and beauty. " Great praise," says the Hereford Journal of 



PROGRESS OF THE BREED 127 

that date, " is due to those gentlemen who so warmly 
patronise this institution, which, whilst it ultimately promotes 
the interest and advantage of the farmers and breeders, 
will extend and perpetuate the fame of the county for a 
species of stock already high in reputation with competent 
judges." The first prize for best bull was awarded to George 
Croose, Lyre Ocle, for a bull bred by Mr. Jones, Fawley ; for 
best yearling bull to Joseph Tully, Haywood ; and for best 
heifer to John Skyrme of Stretton. At the show in March, 
1 80 1, it was announced that the following gentlemen and 
farmers intended exhibiting bulls : — Mr. Weyman, Moreton ; 
C. Bodenham, Rotherwas ; H. Moore, Wellington ; J. G. Cot- 
terell, Garnons ; E. Waring, Lyonshall ; T. A. Knight, 
Wormesley Grange (2) ; S. Tully, Huntington (2). Thirteen 
bulls were presented for the two premiums, and the most 
successful exhibitors were Mr. Smith of Sutton and Mr. H. 
Moore, Wellington, Another show was held in June, i8of, 
when the prize-winners were Mr. J. Tully, Haywood, and Mr. 
Williams, Thinghill. The report on the show in March, 1 802, 
states that it seemed to be the general opinion that so many 
fine animals of the sort were never seen together before. The 
successful exhibitors were the two Messrs. Tully of Huntington 
and Haywood, Mr. Powell of Titley, Mr. W. Galliers of King's 
Pyon, and Mr. Apperley, of Withington. The bulls of Lord 
Essex, Colonel Cotterell, Mr. Croose of Ocle, Mr. Lowe of 
Gattertop, Mr. Lewis of Burghill, and Mr. Moore of Barton- 
sham were also, it is added, much admired. Certificates were 
received from nearly all the candidates that their animals had 
not been fed with corn or with straw imperfectly threshed 
during the last six months ; and in future, says the chronicler, 
this is to be made an express condition, without which no 
animal is to be entitled to a premium. 

Through the research of the late Mr. Thomas W. Garrold 
many additional particulars regarding the premiums awarded 
at the early shows of the Herefordshire Agricultural Society 
were ascertained. The results of his investigations were pub- 
lished in the Hereford Times in 1898, and subsequently in 
pamphlet form at the request of the Society. The awards at 
the first few shows in so far as Hereford cattle are con- 
cerned are given above, and some further prize-winners may 
be indicated. In June, 1802, the premium for the best heifer 
fell to Mr. John Skyrme, Stretton, and for the second best 
to Mr. Wm. Downes, Hinton. At the spring meeting in 
March, 1803, the best bull of any age was shown by Mr. 
Edmund Jones, Fawley ; the best three-year-old bull by 
Mr. T. A. Knight, and the second best by Mr. Williams, 



128 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Thinghill, while the best yeading bull belonged to Mr. J. G. 
Cotterell, Garnons, and the second best to Mr. Jones, Breinton. 
At the summer show in June, 1803, Mr. John Skyrme, Stretton, 
won for the best lean ox worked that summer. Mr. T. A. 
Knight was first for heifers, and Mr. Williams, Thinghill, 
second. At the spring meeting in March, 1804, there were 
seven entries in the aged bull class, viz. those of Mr. Brierlat, 
The Thorne ; Mr. T. A. Knight ; Mr. Skyrme, Dewsall ; Mr. 
Pantall, Staunton ; Mr. Barnett, Ledbury ; Mr. Jeffries, jun., 
Lyonshall, and Mr. Weyman, Moreton. The prize was won 
by Mr, Barnett. The two-year-old bulls were sent by eight 
competitors, viz. Mr. Lowe, Gattertop ; Mr. Williams, Brinsop ; 
Mr. Skyrme, Stretton ; Mr. Barneby, Brockhampton ; Mr. 
Joseph Tully, Heywood ; Mr. J. G. Cotterell, Garnons ; Mr. 
Lewis, Burlton, and Mr. S. Tully, Huntington. The first 
prize was taken by Mr. Samuel Tully, and the second by Mr. 
Joseph Tully. Eighteen yearling bulls were entered by the 
following :— Mr. T. A. Knight (2) ; Mr. Lowe, Gattertop ; 
Mr. Watkins, Brinsop ; Mr. Brierlat, The Thorn ; Mr. J. G. 
Cotterell, Garnons ; Mr. Williams, Brinsop ; Mr. Weaver, 
Bunshill ; Mr. Galliers, Norton Canon ; Mr. William Treillo, 
Norton Canon ; Mr. Samuel Tully, Huntington ; and Mr. 
Cooke, Capel. The first prize was awarded to Blind Ben, 
entered by Mr. Knight, and the second prize was taken by 
Mr. Weaver. As usual, at this meeting, a sale by auction, 
under the management of the Society, took place. Among 
the animals offered was Mr. Jones's bull, winner in 1803 ; and 
Mr. J. G. Cotterell's bull, which won in 1804. At the summer 
meeting in 1804, held in June, there were 23 yearling 
heifers, entered by Mr. Downes, Hinton ; Mr. Mason, Wel- 
lington ; Mr. S. Tully, Huntington ; Mr. Williams, Brinsop ; 
Colonel Cotterell ; Mr. Cooke, Caple ; Mr. Skyrme, Stretton ; 
Mr. Jones, Fawley ; Mr. Joseph Tully : Mr. J. A. Apperley, 
and Mr. Kedward. Mr. S. Tully won the first prize, and Mr. 
Kedward the second. At the meeting held at Leominster in 
June, 1804, Mr. Lowe, Gattertop, was first for yearling bull; 
Mr. Fencott, Brome, for three-year-old bull ; Mr. S. Pritchard, 
Eyton, for yearling heifer, and Mr. Williams, Brinsop, for 
three-year-old heifer. At the October show the prize-winners 
were Mr. E. Walwyn, Hellens, Much Marcle, and Mr. T. A. 
Knight. In 1805 and 1806 the prize-winners were Mr. T. 
Jeffries, Pembridge ; Mr. Galliers, King's Pyon ; Mr. Edward 
Jeffries, The Sheriffs ; Mr. Watkins, Brinsop ; Mr. Weaver, 
Stretton ; Mr. Williams, Thinghill ; Mr. Theophilus Salwey, 
Ashley Moor ; Mr. Proctor, Orleton ; Mr. Deykin, Brierley ; 
Mr. T. A. Knight, Elton ; Mr. Tully, Huntington ; Mr. Moore, 



PROGRESS OF THE BREED 129 

Wellington ; Mr. Thomas, Clee, Downton ; Mr Stevens, Cot- 
more ; and Mr. Kedward, Westhide. Other names appear- 
ing as prize-winners prior to 18 10 are those of Mr. Hewer, 
Abergavenny (1807); Mr. Yeomans, Howton : Mr. Oakes, 
Leinthall ; Mr. Green, Stoke ; Mr. Davis, Mansell ; Mr. 
Hudson, Holm Lacy ; Mr. Tench, Bromfield ; Mr. Jones, 
Fawley ; Mr. Walker, Westington ; Mr. Walker, Wormsley ; 
Mr. Bennett, Netherton ; Mr. Hardwick, The Weir ; Mr. Yar- 
worth, Troy, Monmouth ; Mr. Preece, Ludgwardine ; Mr. E. 
Jones, King's Caple ; and Mr. Uvedale Price, Foxley. These 
names will further help to call attention to some of those 
who were actively engaged in improving the breed from 1797 
to 1 8 10, and many of them have already been referred to 
in the History. 

At the first show of the R.A.S.E. at Oxford in 1839, the 
Herefords made a very good appearance, and the Rev. J. R. 
Smythies of Lynch Court replied for the successful com- 
petitors, he having won the first prize for the best cow in 
milk, " which shall, in the opinion of the judges, be best calcu- 
lated for dairy purposes." Mr. T. Jeffries of The Grove was 
first for Hereford bulls with Cotmore 376, full of Hewer blood. 
Mr. Walker, Northleach, was first for cows ; Mr. J. Hewer first 
for yearling bulls ; Mr. J. Walker, Burton, first for bull calves ; 
and Mr. E. West first for heifer calves. 



Extension of the Breed 

These circumstances — the favour in which it was held by 
graziers, the numerous challenges, most of them resulting 
successfully for the Herefords, the victories at Smithfield, and 
the spirit exhibited at the meetings of the County Society — all 
tend to show that the breed was improving ; that the farmers 
of Herefordshire were proud of their cattle, and that their 
merits were attracting widespread attention. As a natural 
result the breed began to extend outside the district. Allusion 
has already been made to Youatt's inadequate notice of the 
Hereford cattle. But it must be confessed that Youatt treated 
the Herefords no worse than some other varieties. And if the 
account of the breed under its several proper heading is brief 
and imperfect, Hereford admirers owe a good deal to Youatt 
for so clearly marking out the districts into which the Herefords 
had been introduced, at the time when he wrote in 1835. No 
writer of the time has performed this duty so exhaustively, 
and in seeking to ascertain where the breed was then reared 
recourse must be made to Youatt's book on " Cattle." 

From this it is learned that throughout the whole of 

K 



130 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Gloucestershire the Herefords were preferred for working and 
for fattening. In the notice of the Sussex cattle, Youatt tells 
us that it cannot be denied that the Herefords carry their 
fat on the best places, "and it is on this account that the 
prize is so often adjudged to them at the cattle shows and 
particularly at Smithfield " ; an observation which proves that 
Youatt was well aware of the success of the Herefords, 
although he did not mention the fact in his account of the 
breed. He also here quotes a remark by Arthur Young, that 
both in quality of flesh, thriving disposition, etc., both the 
Sussex and Devons exceeded the Staffordshire Longhorns, and 
the Hereford left them far behind. In Dorset some farmers 
were, with every probability of success, engrafting the Here- 
ford on the Devon stock. Three points of superiority were 
said to be gained by the Hereford over the Devon cross — 
larger size, more hardiness, and a disposition to yield a greater 
quantity of better milk. In Somerset some of the dairy 
cows were red with a white face, which marked the Hereford 
cross. In some parts of Glamorganshire the pure Herefords 
were cultivated in preference to any mixture with the native 
breed. In Radnorshire the farmers had principally had 
recourse to the Herefords as a cross with their own cattle. 
The Herefords, and crosses from them, might be considered as 
some of the established breeds through the whole of the vale 
of Monmouth. The Herefords were found suitable to the 
"soil and climate of the grazing districts of Montgomeryshire, 
and were found to be much better feeders than the Devons. 
Through the whole of Shropshire they v/ere established and 
were also occasionally seen in the dairy, while they occupied 
the greater part of the grazing grounds. In Brecknockshire, 
recourse had of late years been had to the Devon and 
Hereford with evident advantage, both for work and grazing. 
The cattle on the side of Brecon that was nearest to 
Herefordshire were, in a particular manner, becoming very 
strongly mixed with the Herefords. A cross with the 
Hereford had been, with evident advantage, attempted by the 
graziers in Carmarthenshire, In Bedford the Duke of Bedford 
had given an impetus to the rearing of Herefords. In 
Hampshire the Norman crossed with the Hereford was not 
injured as a milker, while she was improved in size and 
disposition to fatten. In Worcestershire the Herefords and 
Shorthorns were struggling for superiority on the grazing 
grounds. The pure Herefords were nowhere superior to 
what were found in the pastures of Worcestershire ; the most 
valuable cross was between the Hereford and the Shorthorn, 
and the produce was equally good for the dairy and for grazing. 



PROGRESS OF THE BREED 131 

The Hereford was here supposed to bear off the palm as a 
grazing beast, and always obtained a greater price than either 
the Durham or Staffordshire, or any cross between them. In 
Staffordshire they had, on inferior food, decidedly beaten the 
Longhorns in condition, while the latter were not at all equal 
to the Herefords in pace or in capability of enduring fatigue 
when used as work bullocks. 

Thus, before 1835, in fifteen English and Welsh counties, 
the Herefords had established themselves. 



A Feeding Experiment 

Youatt also records several experiments in feeding Herefords 
and other breeds. One of these was conducted by the Duke 
of Bedford, whose brother Francis, Duke of Bedford, was 
Chairman at the meeting at which the Smithfield Club was 
instituted and who was its first President. Youatt tells us 
that there were few breeds of cattle whose relative qualities 
and value were not put fairly to the test at Woburn, and one 
breed after another was abandoned, until at the time of the 
Duke's decease in 1802 he was balancing between the North 
Devons and the Herefords. His brother gave the preference 
to the Herefords, and they, with the exception of a few 
Ayrshire and Yorkshire cows, to provide milk for the calves 
and the house, and always a succession of West Highlanders, 
constituted the whole of his stock in 1833. The Duke 
selected Herefords having in them much of the blood of 
the Tully, Tomkins, and Price stock, " they being not so large 
as those which were principally met with in their native soil." 
In the winter of 1828-29 a very interesting trial was made 
by the Duke between the Herefords and the improved Short- 
horns in the ordinary mode of feeding without forcing by 
artificial food of any description, and the result, says Youatt, 
seemed to be much to the advantage of the Herefords, con- 
sidering their original weight and the quantity of food 
consumed. Three Herefords and three Shorthorns were 
selected ; they were put together in a straw-yard on December 
20th, 1827, and were fed in the open yard at the rate of one 
bushel of turnips per beast per day, with straw only, until 
May 2nd, 1828, when their weights were taken, and they 
were sent to grass. The following are the details : — 





cwt. 


qrs. 


lbs. 




cwt. qrs. lbs. 


No. I Hereford ... 


... 8 


3 





No. I Shorthorn ... 


... 9 2 


>> 2 ,, 


... 7 


3 





[ „ 2 „ 


... 8 2 


„ 3 


... 7 








! „ 3 ,. 


... 9 



132 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

On November 3rd, they were taken from grass and put 
into the stall, when their weight was as follows : — 

No. I Hereford ... 
„ 2 ,, 
„ 3 

From that time to March 25th, 1829, they consumed the 
following quantities of Swedish turnips and hay. 



cwt. 


qrs. 


lbs. 


t 


cwt. 


qrs. lbs. 


II 


3 





No, 1 Shorthorn... 


... 12 


3 14 


10 


2 


° i 


., 2 „ 


... 12 


2 


10 


3 


' 


» 3 


... 12 


3 



The Herefords 
The Shorthorns ... 





Turnips. 

lbs. 

... 46,65s ... 

... 59.430 ... 


Hay. 

lbs. 

... 5065 

... 6779 


They then weighed : 


— 






cwt. 
No. I Hereford 13 


qrs. lbs. | 
14 ■ 


No. I Shorthorn... 


cwt. qrs. lb.s. 
... 14 2 


„ 2 „ 12 

.. 3 M 12 






>. 2 ,, 

„ 3 


... 14 I 14 
... 14 2 14 



being an increase in weight in favour of the Herefords of 
13 cwt. 2 qrs. 14 lbs.; and in favour of the Shorthorns of 
17 cwt. 2 qrs. ; and making a difference in favour of the 
Shorthorns of 3 cwt. 3 qrs. 14 lbs. ; but then the Shorthorns 
had consumed 12,775 lbs. more of turnips, and 17 14 lbs. more 
of hay. When they were all sold together at Smithfield on 
March 30th, "the heavier Shorthorns fetched £c)'], and the 
lighter Herefords ^96, being an overplus of only £\ to pay 
for the enormous difference in the food consumed, and the 
greater price given on account of the heavier weight of the 
Shorthorns at the commencement of the experiment." 

Division in the Ranks 

The Herefords were thus making steady headway. The 
breed was being successfully exhibited, and what was of even 
greater importance, it was being taken up by influential 
agriculturists in other counties. At this juncture an unfortu- 
nate split occurred, or, rather, the division begun by the 
pioneer breeders, who each aimed at the establishment of a 
distinct " breed," became more marked. We have seen that 
those who had adopted the breed in other counties than Here- 
ford had obtained animals almost solely of Tomkins blood, 
chiefly from Mr. John Price of Ryall. Although both Tom- 
kins and Price evidently disregarded the question of colour in 
breeding, and had in their herds red with white faces, mottles, 
and greys, etc., the prevailing feature in the cattle as latterly 
bred by Price was the mottle face. On the other hand, the 



PROGRESS OF THE BREED 133 

bulls that were then being so largely distributed throughout 
Herefordshire by Messrs. Hewer, Yarworth, Yeomans, and 
Jeffries were principally white faces ; while the greys, first 
associated with the name of Tully, and afterwards with that 
of Knight, had another influential following. The situation 
is well described by Mr. George Smythies in a letter to the 
authors, as follows : — " There were several breeders about that 
time (1820) who carried out their own ideas of form and 
quality, and bred very much in-and-in and so established 
a great many types differing much from each other in 
appearance. The Tullys had many beautiful greys among 
them, with the purest white faces I have ever seen, with fine 
long horns and being good milkers. Yarworth's were a rich 
dark colour, with thick mossy coats and splendid flesh. The 
Hewers and Jeffries were much of the type we see now, but 
rather light in colour, and the Tomkins breed were dis- 
tinguished by their broad hips, white; backs, and narrow 
fore-quarters," 

The conflict for supremacy among these varieties raged 
mainly on this matter of colour, but of course that was not the 
only ground of contention. Tomkins' cattle were smaller than 
the variety bred by Hewer, Yarworth, and others, and this 
may have been intensified by the system of in-and-in breeding 
which nearly all Tomkins' adherents pursued, many of them 
^parently with little judgment. Some of the best of Tomkins' 
stock were, after his death, in the possession of breeders out- 
side the county, a circumstance in itself not calculated to 
disarm opposition ; while Hewer's bulls, established all over 
Herefordshire, were more uniform in colour, of the old tradi- 
tional description for which the breed had long been famous, 
and were of larger size and also of good symmetry and quality. 
Mr. Forester of Sherlowein 1885 informed us : " Some 50 years 
ago there were strong opinions held by the two opposite 
parties — one party maintaining that John Price was all right 
and the others all wrong ; and the other party pooh-poohing 
Price's breed, and holding firmly to the red with white face 
and white mane. The white mane seems now not to be 
thought so essential, though when I first started as a breeder 
that distinctive mark was strongly insisted upon by all who 
were kind enough to tender me their advice." 

The controversy waxed stronger, and in November, 1839, 
Mr. E. F. Welles was induced to send to the Hereford Journal 
a letter expressing his views regarding the dispute. Through 
the courtesy of the proprietor of that journal we are permitted 
to reproduce Mr. Welles' communication, which, although 
rather long, forms such an interesting contribution, not only 



134 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

to the elucidation of this special subject, but also to the history 
of the breed, that we give it in full. 

The communication is entitled *' On the Rival Pretensions 
of the two breeds of Hereford Cattle — the white face and the 
mottled," and proceeds as follows : — 

" It seems we must have party opposition in the breeding 
of cattle as well as in more important matters, and if it should 
tend to establish just and reasonable principles, it is not to be 
deprecated. A short historical account of the two competitors 
will be required prior to an examination of their respective 
merits. 

" From the evidence of several breeders of Herefords, who 
would now be octogenarians or more, I incline to the opinion 
that about and antecedent to the utmost extent of their recol- 
lections, the race of Herefords was chiefly characterised by 
brown faces like the Devons, It may be fairly assumed that 
from some accidental variation from the usual colour, the 
white face may have made its appearance, and might from its 
rarity have been encouraged, and possibly soon became dis- 
tinguished for some important essential combined with it — • 
from that era we may suppose the new distinctive mark 
obtained notoriety and became the fashion. From some such 
an origin about the time referred to, the white faces were pro- 
bably permanently established, and the old breed and colour 
gradually disappeared ; within a very few years of the present 
period many of the old breed still remained, though now 
become rare. Before, however, it was generally superseded 
by the new breed, it would be natural enough that many 
would be induced to try the effect of a cross between them, 
whence I conceive the origin of the mottle faces. It might 
happen, too, that the cross being made it was found that in 
some essential there was in consequence an improvement — it 
might be that of hardiness. 

" Of the most distinguished breeders 50 years ago were 
the names of Skyrme and Tully, both of whose breeds had 
the characteristic of white faces, and in that of the latter a 
great predominance of white in different parts of the body 
had shown itself — a few being pure white, excepting the ears, 
and others grey or grizzled. This increase of white on the 
body generally might, satisfactorily I think, be accounted for 
by an analogy with other breeds, nature appearing to have a 
tendency to increase the white colour once it has appeared. 
We should find that occurring in most domesticated animals ; 
but to adduce the nearest case in point, I will only refer to the 
breed of Highland Scots, which are in general self-coloured, 
but in an instance I am well acquainted with, in the stock of 



PROGRESS OF THE BREED 135 

a gentleman who breeds them, and in which a white mark or 
two having appeared in some of the cows, it very soon spread 
in their descendants over different parts of the body, and 
individuals with both the marks and tendencies strong would 
probably in a few years bring a produce nearly white. 

" About this time, or earlier, many small breeders had 
adopted, perhaps from fancy motives, the greys exclusively. 
There being, too, at this period, many breeders of eminence 
and many sources of good blood, it seemed a fair opportunity 
for a person unfettered by prejudice to try the result of a 
selection from the best animals he could find. Such a person 
appeared in Mr. Benjamin Tomkins, whose discerning judg- 
ment enabled him soon to raise a breed, making colour quite 
an inferior consideration, but scrupulously desirous of obtain- 
ing the best flesh upon the truest form. And though perhaps 
unacquainted with Bakewell, even by name, yet pursuing 
very much his principles, Mr. Tomkins' breed of Herefords 
soon obtained great celebrity, and being adopted on an ex- 
tensive scale by Mr. John Price, was soon in great repute and 
fetching higher prices than Herefordshire had ever known for 
breeding stock. The prices referred to it can hardly be ex- 
pected will again be realised, so much of the particular blood 
is now diffused through the breeding counties. 

" Of late there has appeared a disposition, principally con- 
fined to the county, to underrate the qualifications of this 
particular breed, or rather, perhaps, to maintain that it is 
deficient in one leading essential — size. It must be admitted 
that in extent of frame the present most noted breeds of white- 
faces have the advantage ; but as that size is not generally 
accompanied by the best form, and as true form is gene- 
rally the basis of good constitutional properties, and as we 
generally find that the best oxen were bred from rather small, 
well-shaped cows, it may fairly be doubted whether they are 
on the whole as profitable for a breeding stock ; and if the 
opinion generally prevailed 50 years ago that the best oxen 
were obtained from small-sized cows, and from the custom 
then of working them they had more time to mature, and 
were not killed till their full form was developed, how much 
better at the present period would such an opinion be sup- 
ported when working them is so much discontinued, and they 
are universally brought to the shambles at a much earlier 
period, when the fullest and most perfect maturity they are 
capable of at an early age is in consequence sought after, 
and for the attainment of which object the most experienced 
breeders will, I think, agree in considering a moderate-sized 
breed the best. Besides, the large-sized individuals that will 



136 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

occasionally appear are more likely to be well-formed than 
those arising more obviously and frequently from a large 
breed. On the subject of general form I shall hazard an 
opinion that greater attention has for some years been paid 
to it in the breed of Hereford cattle out of the county ; and 
among those breeders in the Midland counties who are the 
greatest sticklers for true form, the Tomkins blood has gene- 
rally been adopted. With many advocates of the white-faced 
breed it seems to be, however, a secondary consideration, but 
which would be equally attainable if it were considered by 
them a desideratum of the first importance ; that is, provided 
they are satisfied with the possession of moderate size. As 
regards sheep, the standard of form established by Bakewell 
is still adhered to as the best, and the fine-woolled breeds are 
now successfully adapting their forms to the same mould. In 
cattle, too, there is but one form recognised as the best ; it 
does not appear, however, so generally appreciated or so well 
understood as in the breeds of sheep, probably from opportu- 
nities of comparison being less frequent, and it requiring a 
longer time to effect important changes. The Hereford breed 
of cattle having been so long established, it is not likely that 
any very extensive intermixture of bad blood pervades the 
general stocks, which, being admitted, we may infer that it 
only requires judicious selection in any individual with a talent 
for so doing to secure the materials for a valuable stock ; and 
though it may be possible from either breed, the white-faced 
or mottled, to obtain valuable animals, yet the safest and most 
certain course would be to avoid being too fanciful about 
colour, a quality that may most properly be placed amongst 
the non-essentials ; and although I allow it to be more 
gratifying to the eye to have cattle somewhat approaching to 
uniformity of colour, yet in the adoption of it as an unvarying 
rule much loss and disappointment will ensue, and many 
sacrifices of good animals will be unavoidable." 

Mr. Welles' use of the word " breed " is somewhat mis- 
leading if judged by the meaning that is now attached to the 
term. When he talks about " the Tomkins breed," " the 
mottle-face breed," and " the white-face breed," he evidently 
merely intends to convey the idea that these were branches 
or different types of the same race, and not separate breeds in 
the sense in which we now understand the word. Many of 
the earlier writers fell into a similar error. The vagueness 
of language then prevalent on the subject is very well 
illustrated by a report presented in 1834 by a committee of 
the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland, in which 
it was stated that " a primary question is the particular classes 



PROGRESS OF THE BREED 137 

of stock, or breeds as they are called, which the Society will 
recognise and encourage." 

It will be observed that Mr. Welles did not attempt to 
compose the differences that had unfortunately arisen among 
Hereford breeders, his aim being rather to demonstrate the 
superiority of the mottle-face variety. The quarrel was not 
soon settled. It evidently attracted the attention of outsiders, 
for we find a writer in the "Quarterly Review" for 1849 
making this remark : — " A split has arisen in the Herefords 
of which we cannot explain the origin, but which we regret 
although we cannot say it has produced any deterioration. 
The difference, though small, is decided, and the respective 
parties are of course very positive. The general Hereford is 
an animal with a white face, upward horns, and a tawny side. 
The animal of the offset has a speckled face, generally abroad 
white stripe down his back, shorter legs and more horizontal 
horns than his relative. Of the speckled-faced Herefords, the 
late Mr. Price, Earl Talbot, and Sir F. Lawley have been the 
most distinguished breeders. The contest between speckled 
face and white face is not worth carrying on." 

We were told by Mr. Duckham that the antagonism between 
the two parties was an obstacle to the establishment of the 
Herd Book. The breeders of the mottle-face type, he said, 
felt that their sort was the best, and should therefore have 
a Herd Book of its own ; and so strongly was this feeling 
entertained, that at one time a decided determination of having 
a separate publication was expressed. The only way in which 
the dissatisfaction could be appeased was by giving precedence 
in the first volume to their class of animals, a concession which 
not only disarranged the work, but also gave offence to 
many of the red with white face breeders. The Hereford 
Agricultural Society also had to intervene in the dispute, and, 
as we learn from the minute books, in February, 1848, it was 
resolved to instruct the judges not to show " preference in cattle 
prizes to colour either of face or body." 

It would be tedious to trace the struggle through all its 
phases. By injudicious breeding several of the mottle-face 
herds were allowed to deteriorate in quality, and their owners 
were not supported by many of the county breeders. Mean- 
while the influence of Mr. Hewer's stock was largely extending, 
and, as has been already mentioned, there was in his case a 
distinct aim at breeding for red with white face markings. Mr. 
Forester of Sherlowe, in a note to the authors, refers to one 
element in the contest when he says : — " Mr. Hewer's influence 
arose veiy much from the fact that he had always a number 
of bulls on hire — some probably purchased, but all more or 



138 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

less connected with his original stock, and his judgment was 
beyond all question." It is evident that the Tomkins cattle 
retained in the county and introduced into other herds in the 
end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth century 
were not of fixed character as to colour, and in cases in which 
they had mottle faces they did not generally reproduce that 
peculiarity when used in herds of white-face or grey cattle, 
although they decidedly left the impress of their true form and 
early maturing properties. 

The quarrel which was brought to an end by the general 
adoption of the white face, being thus really a reversion to the 
old colour markings by which it first became widely known, 
was probably inevitable, but while it lasted it was not helpful. 
It engendered bad feeling, led to a waste of energy, and 
resulted in much misconception as to the true character and 
history of the breed, while it unfortunately appears to have been 
the cause of alienating the support of agriculturists who would 
have helped to distribute the Herefords in other counties. It 
may, therefore, be considered by some to be unfortunate that 
the older and the younger Benjamin Tomkins did not devote 
more care to the cultivation of uniform colour. But, on the other 
hand, they themselves had evidently excellent specimens of the 
different classes, though many of the later supporters adhered 
to one type. Their valuable cattle of varied markings have 
been absorbed in the breed as it now exists. Their great 
widespread influence is unquestionable, as a careful examina- 
tion of the composition of existing herds vvill show, and in 
the early stages of improvement they probably did more than 
any other to mould the character of the breed in more im- 
portant particulars than the colour of the face or body, but 
the restoration of uniformity of shape and colour, by which 
the breed is now characterised, is chiefly due to John Hewer, 
whose stock, however, was partly descended from what his 
father appreciatively called " Tomkins' prime cattle," and that 
it had also a strong dash of the Tully blood. 



Establishment of the Herd Book 

Until 1846 there was no Herd Book of Hereford cattle, and 
breeders were, therefore, working very much in the dark. Of 
the old breeders none, with the exception of Mr. Price of Ryall, 
kept a careful record of pedigrees, so that when the Herd Book 
was started great difficulty was experienced in ascertaining 
particulars as to the breeding of many of the animals. The 
credit of having commenced the Herd Book belongs to the late 



PROGRESS OF THE BREED 139 

Mr. T. C. Eyton, Donnerville, near Wellington, Salop. In his 
preface to the first volume, Mr. Eyton says : — " Having always 
been an admirer of Hereford cattle and anxious to possess a 
herd of them, I proceeded into Herefordshire with the view of 
purchasing some, but found so much confusion among the 
pedigrees that I at once determined to compile a Herd Book, 
in the first instance for my own use ; but afterwards, having 
been promised the assistance of some eminent breeders, who 
all agreed in the utility of the work, I undertook it with a 
view to publication." Mr. Forester of Sherlowe informs us 
that it was under the roof of the late Mr. Monkhouse, The 
Stow, that Mr. Eyton first conceived the idea of publishing 
the Herd Book, but this referred more to the stock of Mr. 
Price of Ryall than to the general breed, for Mr. Monkhouse 
thought Mr. Price was about the only breeder who, up to that 
period — 1845 — had kept a systematic record of his breeding 
transactions. Although, therefore, Mr. Eyton's original inten- 
tion was to compile a Herd Book merely for his own private 
use ; and although, after he had resolved to make it public, it 
was at first intended to confine it to a single variety, the 
scheme ultimately became one for a general record of the 
breed. Some of Mr. Eyton's difficulties have already been 
indicated and a few others may be mentioned. The majority 
of the breeders were quite unacquainted with the value of such 
a record ; some, says Mr. Duckham, looked upon it with a 
degree of jealousy, fearing that, if carried out, it would show 
too much of the system they pursued in breeding, and others 
were sceptical of its value. But the greatest drawback, apart 
from the absence of exact records, was the rivalry of adherents 
of the different strains, or "breeds" as they were called. 
However, Mr. Eyton surmounted all these obstacles, and 
Volume I., which was published in July, 1846, comprised the 
pedigrees of 551 bulls. Mr. Eyton explained that many of the 
pedigrees were derived from the catalogues of sales which, 
along with other information, were printed as an appendix. 
The book was really a list of bulls, no pedigrees of cows being 
given. Mr. Eyton stated that it had been several times suggested 
to him that he ought to give the pedigrees of all the cows as 
well as those of the bulls, in order to render the Herd Book 
perfect. This, he said, was true, but it would have rendered 
the work large and expensive, and it was his opinion that by 
giving the pedigrees of bulls that he had been able to collect, 
and those of the cows from which they were descended, he 
would include all the best cows and make the work sufficiently 
comprehensive for all practical purposes. It may have been 
difficult to trace back the pedigrees of the females when Mr. 



140 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Eyton commenced the Herd Book, but every year that elapsed 
rendered the work more formidable, and the result is that 
many connecting links have been completely lost. 

In Volume I. the pedigrees were divided into four classes, 
as follows : — Mottle face, white face, grey, and light grey, but 
in a good many cases the colour markings were not specified. 
The book also contained four plates executed by Mr. Welles, 
and coloured by Mr. Bayfield, illustrative of these shades ; the 
animals selected for representation having been Mr. Tomkins' 
Wellington 4 (mottle face), Mr. Price's Victory 33 (grey), 
Mr. T. Jeffries' Cotmore 376 (white face), and Mr. J. Rickets' 
Broxwood 485 (light grey). 

Imperfect as the work was, it had an important influence 
in letting breeders know more fully the materials they were 
using, and also in inducing them to exercise more care in 
keeping herd records. The first Volume gave much valuable 
information as to the more prominent sires ; and the appendix, 
containing notices of herds and catalogues of sales, has proved 
invaluable to every one who has required to look up the early 
history of the breed. Our own obligations to it have been 
repeatedly acknowledged, and we can only regret that the record 
was so much devoted to one strain of blood — the Tomkins and 
Price. That Mr. Eyton's services were also appreciated, by a 
few breeders at any rate, is evident from the fact that in 
February, 1849, the committee of the Hereford Agricultural 
Society resolved to present their thanks to him "for the 
benefit he has conferred upon the farmers and breeders 
of the county, and especially on the members of the Society, 
by the publication of his Herd Book of Hereford Cattle, and 
the Committee desire strongly to recommend to every person 
interested in this breed of cattle to support this useful publi- 
cation." 

After an interval of fully six years, the second Volume 
made its appearance. It contained the pedigrees of only 350 
bulls, and in the preface Mr. Eyton stated that it was a 
subject of congratulation to him that the work had been 
found of great use to those who had duly entered their bulls, 
they having obtained the highest prizes. He also mentioned 
that several copies had gone abroad. But, on the other hand, 
he had to regret that many breeders had neglected to forward 
any accounts of their stocks or pedigrees of their bulls, which 
rendered the work not so perfect as he could wish. " Under 
these circumstances," he added, " it is not my intention to 
carry the work on further than the present part, unless the 
breeders generally come forward to assist me more than they 
have done up to the present time. I would willingly give my 



PROGRESS OF THE BREED 141 

own time and trouble if I thought that all would join in 
working out the truth, and afford the work sufficient patronage 
to cover its expenses," 

This declaration was received with much regret by those 
who had all along supported Mr. Eyton in his labours, and at 
a meeting of the Herefordshire Agricultural Society on April 
27th, 1853, Mr. Monkhouse proposed that a memorial should 
be drawn up and signed, and forwarded to Mr. Eyton, 
requesting him to continue the publication of the Herd Book. 
The following memorial was then adopted : " We the under- 
signed members of the Hereford Agricultural Society and 
others believing that breeders of Hereford cattle generally 
are greatly indebted to Mr. Eyton for the publication of his 
Herd Book, which is calculated to raise the character of the 
breed as well as to enhance its value, regret to learn that he 
should have expressed his intention of discontinuing the pub- 
lication for want of sufficient support, and we pledge ourselves, 
if he should consent to go on with it, to afford him assistance 
for the future by transmitting to him a list of the bulls in our 
possession not already entered, and our bull calves as soon after 
birth as may be convenient, with their names and pedigrees, 
as well as by purchasing the numbers upon their publication, 
but venture to recommend that the work be published in as 
cheap a form as possible consistent with utility, and that the 
prints be henceforward omitted." 

The promised help came too late to change Mr. Eyton's 
determination, and Mr. Duckham states that he has no doubt 
the work would have ceased to exist had not the late Mr. 
W. Styles Powell, Hereford, yielded to the solicitations of a 
few breeders, who felt its continuance to be of importance, 
and therefore urged him to undertake it. In 1856 he pur- 
chased the copyright, and in the autumn of that year published 
the first part of a third Volume, containing 236 pedigrees. He 
then announced his intention of publishing another part the 
following year, and expressed a wish to add the pedigrees of 
cows with their produce to that volume, if he could induce 
the breeders to supply him with the requisite information ; 
but although then in the full health and vigour of manhood, 
only a few short months elapsed before he died, and the 
existence of the work again appeared to be in jeopardy. 

At the meeting of the Herefordshire Agricultural Society 
on July 15th, 1857, a letter was read from Mr. Underwood, 
agent and solicitor to the Rev. W. Powell, uncle of Mr. W. S. 
Powell, stating that although the cost of the Herd Book to his 
late nephew was upwards of £2,0, yet he was willing to place 
the work as it then stood in the hands of any gentleman 



142 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

recommended by the Society on payment of ^lo, and he 
hoped the Society would provide for the efficient conduct and 
publication of the work at proper periods. Mr. Powell's offer 
was accepted by the Society, and the sum of £io ordered to 
be paid to the executors of the late Mr. W. S. Powell for the 
sole copyright and property of the Hereford Herd Book. On 
the motion of Mr. J. B. Vevers, seconded by Mr. Monkhouse, 
it was resolved that Mr. Thomas Duckham of Baysham Court 
be requested to carry on the publication of the Herd Book on 
repayment of ^lo; that he should publish it annually; and 
that an entrance fee of one shilling be paid for each head of 
stock entered. 

Thus commenced Mr. Duckham's long and honourable 
official connection with the Hereford breed, during which he 
was enabled to contribute materially to its improvement and 
extension. Mr. Duckham at once proceeded to revise and 
reprint the portion of Volume HI. arranged by Mr. Powell, 
adding a second part for bulls and a third part for cows with 
their produce. Volume HI., published by Mr. Duckham in 
September, 1858, was therefore the first complete volume of 
the Herd Book, and it appeared under the patronage of the 
late Prince Consort. In this Volume the bulls and cows were 
arranged alphabetically, the previously existing division by 
colour being abandoned. It is also worthy of note that from 
it mottle faces almost completely disappeared, the whole of the 
animals, with a few exceptions, being returned as red with white 
face. The only pity was that Mr. Duckham did not assign 
numbers to the cows entered in the Herd Book. Had he done 
so the work would have been perfect. Mr. Duckham further 
widened the interest in the work by obtaining a list of 187 
subscribers to the Volume. In the following year a fourth 
Volume, with a list of 247 subscribers, was published. The 
fifth Volume was brought out in 1862, with a list of 317 sub- 
scribers. Subsequently the Volumes appeared more frequently, 
and their bulk increased every year. 

Volume X. contains a preface, inserted by the Hereford 
Herd Book Society, which explains the further progress of the 
work : — " For the revision and republication of Volumes I., II., 
and Part I. of Volume III., of Eyton's Hereford Herd Book, 
and for the continuance of that work from the year 1857 till 
1878, we are indebted to Mr. Thomas Duckham. The value 
of his exertions to breeders of Hereford stock can be in part 
estimated by a comparison of the pedigrees furnished to Mr. 
Eyton in the first and second original volumes, and those which 
we are now enabled to give. The amount of labour involved 
in thus working up the pedigrees from a large number of 



PROGRESS OF THE BREED 143 

herds, can be judged only by those who have had experience 
of such matters." 

After the publication of Volume IX., Mr. Duckham retired 
from the position of editor. A society of persons interested in 
the breeding of Hereford cattle was incorporated on the 5th 
of March, 1878, under the title of "The Hereford Herd Book 
Society," the objects of the Society being declared by their 
memorandum of association to be : — (i) To purchase the copy- 
right and continue the publication of the Hereford Herd 
Book ; (2) to collect, verify, and publish information relating 
to the pedigrees of Hereford cattle ; (3) to investigate cases 
of doubtful and suspected pedigrees ; (4) to undertake the 
arbitration upon and settlement of dispute, and questions 
relating to or connected with Hereford cattle and the breeding 
thereof; and (5) for other subsidiary purposes. The patroness 
of the Society was Her Majesty the late Queen Victoria. His 
Majesty the King has been Patron since 1901. 

The first President was Mr. J. H. Arkwright; Vice-President 
the Earl of Coventry. Mr. S. W. Urwick was appointed Secre- 
tary, and held the office until he died in October 1898, in his 
seventy-seventh year. He was born at Beckjay, a place noted 
for its pedigree herd of Hereford cattle, and farmed at Leint- 
hall for about thirty years. It was pointed out after the 
Herefordshire and Worcestershire show in 1898 that Mr. 
George Pitt, late of Chadnor, and Mr. Urwick were the only 
two breeders then living who had entered in Volume I. of the 
Hereford Herd Book, Mr. Urwick having entered Van Tromp 
655, calved 1846, by Alfred 588, dam Lady Jane, which he 
purchased at The Grove in 1844. 

On the death of Mr. Urwick, Mr. W. E. Britten was 
appointed secretary of the Hereford Herd Book Society. He 
had himself been a breeder of Hereford cattle, at Stapleton 
Castle, succeeding to the herd founded by his father, the late 
Mr. Charles Britten. His herd was dispersed in 1882, when he 
removed to Elsdon. He gave up farming in order to devote 
more time to land agency, and in 1894 he became secretary 
of the Hereford Cattle Breeders' Association. He exported 
some thousands of Herefords, principally to the United States 
and South America. Mr. Britten died in August, 1905, and 
his son, Mr. W. G. C. Britten, was then appointed secretary 
of the Hereford Herd Book Society, a position which he 
continues to occupy. 

The list on the next page gives the names of the Presidents 
and Vice-Presidents of the Hereford Herd Book Society since 
its establishment in 1878. 



144 



HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 



HEREFORD HERD BOOK SOCIETY. 



Presidents 



1878-79. 
1879-80. 
1880-81. 
1881-82. 
1882-83. 
1883-84. 
1884-85. 
1885-86. 
1886-87. 
1887-88. 



1888-89. 
1889-90. 
1890-91. 
1891-92. 
1892-93. 
1893-94. 



J. H. Arkwright. 

The Earl of Coventry. 

Sir J. R. Bailey, Bart.,M.P. 

SirJ.R. Bailey, Bart.,M.P. 

J. H. Arkwright. 

Sir J. R. Bailey, Bart.,M.P. 

SirJ.R. Bailey, Bart.,M. P. 

SirJ.R. Bailey, Bart.,M.P. 

J. H. Arkwright. 

J. Rankin, M.P. (after- 
wards Sir James Ran- 
kin, Bart.). 

J. Rankin, M.P. 

The Earl of Coventry. 

S. Robinson. 

The Earl of Coventry. 

J. Rankin, M.P. 

Sir J. R. Bailey, Bart. 



1894-95. 
1895-96. 
1896-97. 
1897-98. 
1898-99. 
1899-00. 

1900-01. 

1901-02. 
1902-03. 
1903-04. 
1904-05. 
1905-06. 
1906-07. 
1907-08. 
1908-09. 



J. H. Yeomans. 

Sir J. R. Bailey, Bart. 

Sir J. R. Bailey, Bart. 

J. H. Arkwright. 

H. J. Bailey. 

Sir James Rankin, Bart., 

M.P. 
Sir James Rankin, Bart., 

M.P. 
Stephen Robinson. 
Stephen Robinson. 
J. W. Smith. 

SirJ.R. G.Cotterell, Bart. 
SirJ.R.G.Cotterell,Bart. 
A. P. Turner. 
Captain E. L. A. Heygate. 
The Earl of Coventry. 



Vice-Presidents 



1879-80. 
1880-81. 
1881-82. 
1882-83. 
1883-84. 
1884-85. 
1885-86. 
1886-87. 



1889-90. 
1890-91. 
1891-92. 
1892-93. 
1893-94. 



The Earl of Coventry. 

SirJ.R. Bailey, Bart.jM. P. 

J. H. Arkwright. 

Sir J. R. Bailey, Bart. 

J. H. Arkwright. 

J. H. Arkwright. 

J. H. Arkwright. 

Sir J. R. Bailey, Bart.,M.P. 

J. H. Arkwright. 

The Earl of Coventry. 

H. Haywood. 

Stephen Robinson. 

H. Haywood. 

Thomas Fenn. 

A. P. Turner. 



1894-95. 
1895-96. 
1896-97. 
1897-98. 
1898-99. 
1 899-00. 
1900-01. 
1901-02. 
1902-03. 
1903-04. 
1904-05. 
1905-06. 
1906-07. 
1907-08. 
1908-09. 



J. W. Smith. 
J. W. Smith. 
J. \V. Smith. 
H. F. Russell. 
H. F. Russell. 
H. F. Russell. 
H. F. Russell. 
J. W. Smith. 
J. \V. Smith. 
A. P. Turner. 
A. P. Turner. 
A. P. Turner. 
H. W. Taylor. 
W. Tudge. 
D. Edwards. 



There have been altogether thirty-nine volumes of the 
Herd Book published, the number of bulls registered being 
26,582. 

At the meeting of the Council of the Hereford Herd Book 
Society in October, 1905, the following paragraph was given in 
the report of the Finance and Editing Committee : " That the 
secretary of this society has been in communication with the 
secretary of the Argentine Rural Society with reference to 
their new rule which came into force on April 13th last, 
governing the entry of Hereford cattle in their Herd Book. 
In order to make the matter perfectly clear two pedigrees 
were sent as tests, and from the reply received it appears that 
animals whose pedigrees trace back on the dam's side to 




Sir John R. G. Cotterell. 
Captain E. L. A. Heygate. 
Allen E. Hughes. 



The Earl of Coventry. 
Arthur P. Turner. 
W. G. C. Britten. 



PROGRESS OF THE BREED 145 

any of the first thirteen volumes, and have their sires entered 
in any volume of the English Hereford Herd Book are eligible 
for entry in the Argentine Herd Book." 

The Council of the Herd Book Society at a meeting in 
October, 1906, resolved on the motion of Mr. A. P. Turner : 
*' That in view of the fact that the English Hereford Herd 
Book has been closed since the year 1886 to any animal 
whose sire and dam had not been entered previous to that 
date, the Council of the Hereford Herd Book Society in the 
interests of the Hereford breed, invites and recommends the 
American Hereford Cattle Breeders' Association, the Argentine 
Rural Society, and the Uruguayan Rural Society, to alter their 
rules prohibiting the entry of English-bred Hereford cattle 
whose pedigrees do not trace to the thirteenth or previous 
volumes of the English Hereford Herd Book, and to accept 
the entry of any cattle which have been entered or are eligible 
for entry in the English Hereford Herd Book." It was re- 
ported at a meeting of the Council in 1907, that the American 
Hereford Cattle Breeders' Association were unable to adopt 
the recommendation of the Society with reference to the regu- 
lations for entry in their Herd Book, so as to modify their rule 
as to length of recorded descent. They stated that they would 
not admit entries to their Record unless they traced their 
pedigrees on both sides to Volume XHI. of the English 
Hereford Herd Book. 

The Hereford Cattle Breeders' Association was formed in 
1884, for promoting the extension of the breed, and to hold 
shows and sales, it being considered at the time of its institu- 
tion that the Herd Book Society should confine its attention 
to the registration of pedigrees and the publication of the 
Herd Book. Gradually, however, it was seen that there was 
a waste of effort in having two organisations, and in 1901 the 
Herd Book Society by agreement absorbed the Cattle Breeders' 
Association, and continued to perform its duties as well as 
those connected with registration of pedigrees and the publica- 
tion of the Herd Book, the amalgamation being a great advan- 
tage to the breed as well as a profitable arrangement for the 
Society. 

Since the absorption of the Cattle Breeders' Association, 
the shows and sales of Herefords, now held under the auspices 
of the Hereford Herd Book Society, have increased in import- 
ance, and are found highly convenient by breeders, while buyers 
and exporters attend from all parts of the country. The Society 
has also increased the amount of prizes offered at the leading 
shows. It was resolved in 1908 to vote a sum of ;^300 annually 
for giving extra prizes, etc., to the various agricultural societies, 

L 



146 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

and for furthering the interests of the Hereford breed both in 
this country and abroad. 

It may be added that the American Hereford Record, 
Kansas City, Mo., U.S.A., was established in 1880 ; 31 volumes 
have been published, and the number of cattle registered 
is 285,000. 

The Canadian Hereford Herd Book (Ottawa) was founded 
in 1890 ; three Volumes have been published, and 7500 cattle 
registered. 

The New Zealand Hereford Herd Book (Masterton, N.Z.) 
was established in 1899 ; ten Volumes have been published, 
and 2155 cattle registered. 

The South African Herd Book and Stud Book (Parker's 
Building, Cape Town) is a semi-Government publication 
covering the registration of all herds in the various colonies 
in different sections of one Stud Book. It was commenced 
in 1903, and two Volumes have been published. So far, 48 
Herefords have been registered. 

As regards Australia, great difficulty has been met in found- 
ing a successful system of registration owing to the distances 
breeders are from each other. At one time each colony pub- 
lished a Herd Book of its own, and the New South Wales 
Agricultural Society published the first volume as far back 
as 1873, containing 62 bulls and 90 cows with their produce. 
In 1890 the various Australian Herd Books were merged into 
one, published in Sydney by the Australian Herd Book Society. 

In South America Herefords are registered, so far as 
Uruguay is concerned, in the Government publication of the 
Associacion Rural del Uruguay, which comprises all pedigree 
live stock, but it is impossible to give the number registered 
as the animals do not receive a registered number. There are, 
however, a great many Herefords in Uruguay, as that country 
has been the best customer for several j-ears. 

In the Argentine the interests of breeders are looked after 
in a similar way by the Sociedad Rural Argentina. There are 
also large numbers of Herefords in Argentina, and they are 
of very excellent quality, as for several years breeders have 
taken the best sires obtainable in England. The Herd Book 
was commenced in 1891, and three volumes have been 
published containing pedigrees of 2300 bulls and 3500 cows. 

Here may also be mentioned other publications on behalf 
of the breed. Mr. Duckham for some years published a 
" Record of Transactions," and Mr. Thomas Rogers also 
published a " Record of Transactions," which was continued 
by Messrs. Rogers and Hamar. To both these publications 
the authors were indebted for assistance, that of Messrs. 



PROGRESS OF THE BREED 147 

Rogers and Ilamar, which contains short historical accounts 
of leading herds, having proved particularly serviceable. 

In 1902 Mr. T. F. B. Sotham, Chillicothe, Missouri, pub- 
lished a " History of Hereford Cattle." This comprised the 
History written by Mr. T. L. Miller, and also the History 
of Herefords in America by Mr. Wm. H. Sotham. The 
volume extends to about 600 pages, and is profusely illus- 
trated with portraits of celebrated breeders, noted animals, and 
famous farms associated with the breed. It gives a great 
deal of interesting information with reference'to Hereford 
cattle and their breeders, both in this country and in the 
United States. 



CHAPTER VII 

LATER I IMPROVE ME NT, AND PROMINENT BREEDERS 

After the controversy regarding colour had terminated, the 
breed progressed without any serious disturbing influence. 
The withdrawal of the outside support that had been extended 
chiefly to the mottle-face variety was a temporary cause of 
weakness, and for a time tended to restrict the breed within the 
county and contiguous districts. A stronger hold was, how- 
ever, gradually got of Ireland, where Herefords have become 
still more popular, which is only what might be expected when 
it is remembered how well adapted they are for grass feeding. 
A few supporters were also obtained in Scotland, and the 
formation of the Hereford colony in Cornwall may be traced 
to that date. Although there are now (1909) no registered 
herds in Cornwall, numerous Hereford sires have been pur- 
chased for crossing purposes in Devon and Cornwall, notably 
from Mr. White's milking herd at Zeal in Wiltshire. The 
breed was also at an early period introduced into the United 
States and several of the Colonies. Yet it must be said that the 
record of the Herefords during the period from the settlement 
of the colour question until the great and widespread extension 
of the American trade was chiefly made in Herefordshire and 
in the adjoining counties. Since that time the breed has pro- 
gressed wonderfully throughout the world, and its merits have 
been universally recognised. A feature of the early portion of 
the period in question was the quiet, steady, and persistent 
work of several breeders of unquestionable ability, who 
diligently and successfully cultivated the type that is now 
almost universally prevalent. 

In tracing the operations of the later improvers it will not 
be necessary, except in a few cases, to enter into much detail. 
The aim will be to indicate the character of the materials they 
possessed, and establish, where that is possible, a connection 
between their herds and those of the pioneers and early 
improvers. It should be added here that in consequence of 
the plan adopted in the preparation of the History, it has been 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 149 

found impossible wholly to prevent information overlapping. 
Thus the long-sustained influence of John Hewer's stock 
extended over two or three periods, while among notices of 
some of the leading existing herds which will follow must be 
included particulars of several breeders whose operations date 
from an early part of the nineteenth century. It may further 
be added that the order in which breeders are referred to in 
this chapter is not fixed by the relative importance of their 
herds. 

Lord Berwick.— The following sketch of Lord Berwick's 
career as a breeder and account of his herd at Cronkhill are 
from the pen of Mr. Forester of Sherlowe : — 

Lord Ber^vick, as most Hereford breeders know, began his 
career as a breeder in 1844 from purchases made at the sale 
of Mr. Salwey of Ashley Moor, near Ludlow. These were 
greys, and were said to be purely descended from the herd of 
Mr. Knight of Downton Castle. He also bought about the 
same time a grey bull Tom Thumb 243, bred by Mr. John 
Thomas of Cholstrey, being likewise of the Knight blood on 
the dam's side. Lord Berwick had a strong predilection for 
the Knight blood, and frequent success in the show-yard 
seemed to justify his taste. The specimens he produced were 
symmetrical in form, with rare quality of flesh, if somewhat 
deficient in scale. But he found after a while that the public 
did not go with him. However perfect his cattle might be in 
form and touch, his bulls did not attract the attention of the 
best class of customers, and we find him after the first year 
or two gradually changing his tactics. 

In October, 1844, Lord Berwick (then the Honourable R. 
Noel Hill) was present at the dispersion of the herd of Mr. 
Thomas Jeffries of The Grove, near Pembridge, then recently 
deceased. These were red with white faces, and were con- 
sidered at that time the crack herd of Herefordshire. He 
was much impressed by their appearance ; but so were a good 
many more, and Lord Berwick, always clear-headed and 
cautious, was not to be led away by the popular excitement of 
that day's sale. He bought nothing there, but shortly after- 
wards ventured upon purchasing two heifers and the young 
bull The Count 351 from Mr. Carpenter, Eardisland. Mr. 
Carpenter's stock was near akin to The Grove herd, he having 
acquired therefrom a choice selection of cows and the bull 
Hope 439 through his wife, a relative of Mr. Jeffries. 

In the autumn of 1846, Lord Berwick bought the red with 
white face bull Wonder 420 from Mr. John Hewer, and about 
the same time Mr. Carpenter's prize cow Victoria by Hope 
439. This cow became, by Wonder, the dam of Albert 



150 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Edward 859, winner of the second prize in his class at Lewes 
R.A.S.E. Show in 1852, and first prize at Gloucester in 1853. 
Albert Edward, in a report of the show at Gloucester, was 
described as being the best Hereford in the yard. He was 
sire of, among others. Polyanthus, the Hon. and Rev. Henry 
Hill's favourite cow, and of Canning 1522, who was considered 
by the herdsman at Cronkhill to be the best stock bull there 
at the great sale after Lord Berwick's death. Lord Berwick 
used Wonder three years, and to succeed him in 1849 he 
bought his famous bull Walford 871, There is an error in 
the account given of Walford in Volume H. of the Herd Book. 
It is there stated that " Walford with four of his offspring 
were winners of the first prize in their class at the meeting of 
the Ludlow Agricultural Society, 1849 ; he also won the 
challenge sweepstakes open to all breeds and all England at 
the same meeting." The fact is he did not compete for the 
challenge sweepstakes ; it was won by Sir David 349 two 
years in succession, 1848 and 1849. Walford v/ith four of his 
offspring did indeed win the first prize in their class at Ludlow 
in 1849, ^"cl had he competed for the sweepstakes he might 
possibly have snatched a feather from Sir David's cap. Lord 
Berwick was of that opinion, for he remarked at the time that 
in that case the judges would have been puzzled. Shortly 
after the Ludlow meeting Lord Berwick went to Mr. Thomas 
Longmore and bought the bull. ;^ioo was said to be the 
price ; not a high figure considering that his lordship would 
not let him serve a cow at a less fee than £^. 

Besides Walford's great success as a sire, and besides his 
success at Ludlow in 1849, he was first in his class at 
Windsor in 185 1, and first at the Paris International Show in 
1855, together with a gold medal for the best stock bull of 
any breed or age. The sire of Walford is entered twice in the 
Herd Book — in Volume H. 869A, where he is called Clungun- 
ford, and in Volume V. 1954A, where he is called Dawes Grey 
Bull. By the latter entry it seems his sire and granddam on 
the sire's side were both greys. It is not clear that Lord 
Berwick was aware of this fact, for Volume V. was not published 
till after his death, and it is singular that Walford should 
have left no grey produce except a very few from the original 
Ashley Moor stock — essentially of grey blood. Though Lord 
Berwick seemed in 1849 to prefer Walford to Sir David as 
a stock bull, he was by no means blind to the merits of 
the latter, and some years later he bought him to succeed 
Walford. 

As regards Sir David, so full an account is given of him in 
Volume II. of the Herd Book that there is no need to say 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 151 

much about him here ; except that when he ended his days at 
Cronkhill he left behind him, besides other produce, the bull 
Conqueror 1929, sire of Young Conqueror 3612, out of Poly- 
anthus by Albert Edward 839, shown by the Hon. and Rev. 
H. Hill at Manchester in 1869, where he took the second 
prize in his class, Mr. Arkwright's Sir Hungerford 3447 being 
first. The breeder of Sir David — Mr. D. Williams, Newton, 
near Brecon — was, moreover, abreeder of horses, and there was 
a story current 40 years ago of a party of officers going over 
there from the barracks at Brecon to look at a horse, when their 
attention was so taken up by the splendid appearance of the 
herd of cattle that they forgot all about the horse, and were 
going away without seeing him till reminded of the object of 
their visit by Mr. Williams himself. At the dispersion of 
that noble herd about 1852, Lord Berwick made several 
purchases ; among them was the noted cow Rebecca, by Mr. 
John Hewer's Governor 464. This cow, with her descendants, 
and Silver, with her descendants, were the main features at the 
final sale of Lord Berwick's herd in 1861. 

The history of Silver is rather curious. Lord Berwick used 
to get from Mr. Carwardine of Leominster each spring a drove 
of barrens to graze the lawns at Attingham. Among them on 
one occasion was a cow that attracted Lord Berwick's atten- 
tion. Mr. Carwardine said he believed her to be well bred, 
but could give no pedigree. However, so impressed was Lord 
Berwick with her merits that, though she had a nose as black 
as coal, he determined to breed from her. That cow was 
Silver. The result was a great success. Her first calf, a bull, 
was castrated, but after that she brought a succession of heifers 
— Carlisle, Beauty, Ada, Agnes, Adelaide, Agatha, Alberta — 
all show animals. Below are some of the achievements of 
Silver's produce : Carlisle, first at Carlisle, Chelmsford, and 
Salisbury. Beauty, second at Salisbury, i860; disqualified 
as a non-breeder at Leeds, July, 1861, but brought the bull 
Avenger 1855 December 9th of the same year. Ada, second 
at Warwick, 1859 ; third at Battersea, 1862. Agnes, third at 
Canterbury, i860; her daughter Adela, first at Leeds, i86r, 
and first at Battersea, 1862 ; and her daughter Adelina, first 
at Battersea, first at Evesham, and second at Exeter Bath and 
West, 1863. Adelaide went to Ireland, 1863, dam of Sir 
Valentine 3463. Agatha went to Wales, dam of Clansman 
3024. After Lord Berwick's death Silver brought a bull, 
Albert 2380, purchased when a few days old with his dam, 
who was then 13, at the Cronkhill sale for 72 guineas by Mr. 
Elsmere of Berrington. After this she bred Mr. Elsmere four 
or five calves and was never one year barren. Some attempts 



152 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

have been made of late to furnish Silver with a pedigree. 
Lord Berwick never described her otherwise than as Silver by- 
Emperor 221. Besides this cow Silver, Lord Ber^vick was in 
the habit of replenishing his herd by occasional purchases 
when he met with an animal that took his fancy. At the sale 
of Mr. Styles Powell of Hinton, near Hereford, he bought a 
cow bred by Mr. Thomas IVferris of Therrow, near Hay, called 
Princess Royal, in calf to Mr. John Hewer's General. The 
stock of Mr. Morris was closely allied to that of Mr. D. 
Williams of Newton. Both of them dated back to the herds 
of Mr. Tully of Clyro and Mr. W. Hewer of Hardwicke, in 
the bulls Whitenob 345 and Young Wellington 505. Both 
were in the frequent habit of using the bulls of Mr. John 
Hewer, while several bulls bred at Newton were in use 
among the Therrow herd. Mr. Morris was a successful 
exhibitor at the local shows of Breconshire and Hereford- 
shire. He was also a successful competitor at the Paris 
International Show in 1855 with his cow Sophia by Mr. D. 
Williams' Prior 1554. 

A note with reference to Mr. David Williams, of Newton, 
the breeder of Sir David 349, may be introduced here. Mr. 
Williams was born in 1788 and died in 1854. The third son 
of Mr. David Williams (1748-1825), his ancestors went from 
Wiltshire and settled at Gludy, near the town of Brecon, about 
the end of the sixteenth century. After the death of Mr. 
Richard Williams, of Gludy (1691), the family removed to 
Newton, where their name became associated with the develop- 
ment of agriculture in all its branches, not only in Breconshire, 
but in South Wales and on the borders. 

To revert to the Newton herd it may not be uninteresting 
to note how Sir David 349 claims descent from two bulls that 
were very famous in their day, namely, Sovereign 404 and 
Lottery 410. The former, like Sir David, was in-and-in-bred, 
his sire and dam being own brother and sister. Sovereign is 
said to have done wonders for every herd in which he was used, 
and the cross between him and Lottery is said to have been 
still more effective. Those who can remember the herds of 
Mr. Thomas Jeffries of The Grove, and his neighbour Mr. John 
Turner of Noke, can very well believe this. The subjoined 
genealogical table will show the nature and extent of their 
relationship with Sir David. By this it appears that Sir David 
was by Chance 348 out of his own daughter Duchess 2nd, and 
further that Chance himself was by a son of Lottery 410 and 
out of a daughter of Lottery, while Sovereign was by Favourite 
out of his sister Countess. Sir David, it will be seen, was a 
grandson of Lottery and a great grandson of Sovereign ; — 




Lord Berwick. 
Thomas Duckham. 
Stethkn Robinson. 



Wm. TrDGE (Adfortoii). 
Hexrv Haywood. 
Philip Turner. 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 153 

Waxy 403. = Cherry. ^ jj 



Favourite 442. = Countess. 



Sovereign 404. = A Noke Cow. 
Conqueror 412 (Hewer). = Red Rose. 

Lottery 410, = Countess 2nd. 



I I 

Bull Calf (?) = Victoria. / 

I Whitenob 345 = A Newton Cow.\ 

I I 



Chance 348. = | 

I Duchess. 

Chance 348. = Duchess 2nd. 
Sir David 349. 



To this memoir by Mr. Forester it may be added that Lord 
Berwick had a sale in September, 1858. Mr. Preece, the 
auctioneer, in his prefatory note to the catalogue alluded to 
the fact that in the space of nine years, with a total of 33 
animals exhibited, his lordship had obtained 27 Royal prizes, 
and four high commendations. None of the females, however, 
made high prices, the best being 40 guineas for the prize cow 
Carlisle. The bull Albert Edward, by Wonder 420, dam 
Victoria by Hope, sold for 39 guineas. Napoleon 3rd, first 
at the Royal at Chelmsford, was sold for 90 guineas. Marrow- 
fat, by Napoleon 3rd, fetched 80 guineas. Cronkhill, by 
Attingham, 5 1 guineas. The Cronkhill herd was dispersed on 
September 17th and i8th, 1861, after Lord Berwick's death. 
Mr. Fetherstonhaugh, Rock view, Ireland, gave 40 guineas for 
the cow Newton, by Gratitude 1261, dam Duchess 2nd by 
Chance 348 ; Mr. Hewer 43 guineas for Beauty, by Attingham 
911, dam Silver ; Mr. Shirley, Ireland, 43 guineas for Young 
Peggy, by Young Walford 1820; Mr. Kitson 66 guineas for 
Ada, by Attingham, dam Silver ; Mr. Bodwin 5 1 guineas for 
Agnes, by Attingham, dam Silver ; Mr. Fetherstonhaugh 48 
guineas for Adelaide, by Attingham, dam Silver ; Mr. Bennett 
40 guineas for Blue Pigeon, by Walford, dam Wood Pigeon ; 
Mr. Kitson 60 guineas for Blossom, by Walford, dam Becky ; 
Hon. and Rev. H. N. Hill 31 guineas for Polyanthus, by 
Albert Edward 859, dam Primrose, and 16 guineas for Rosina, 
by Attingham, dam Phillis (these two heifers were the foun- 
dresses of the well-known Polyanthus and Rarity families at 
Felhampton Court, tracing from Mr. Knight's Old Betsy and 



154 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Cherry ist respectively). Of the 142 lots sold, 41 traced to 
Cherry ist, bred by Mr. Knight, Downton Castle ; 5 to Silver ; 
and 3 to Old Betsy, bred by Mr. Knight. The Silvers realised 
the highest prices at the sale. 

In " Saddle and Sirloin," Mr. H. H. Dixon writes : " We 
could not pass Shrewsbury without seeing Lord Berwick's 
Hereford herd. At any other time we should have delighted 
to linger in those rich pastures to which Walford, Attingham, 
Albert Edward, and Severn had lent so much renown ; but the 
shadow of death was on the house and the agonies of an 
illness such as few have borne were about to receive their 
grand relief at last. . . . Farming was not his only delight 
when in health. He loved to rear the choicest fowls and 
drive the best American trotters, and he made a rifle at 
his forge which one of our first makers, in ignorance as to its 
origin, pronounced to be nearly faultless. He had succeeded 
to an encumbered estate, and knowing how to ' scorn delight, 
and live laborious days,' he had the courage to be content 
with his little home at Cronkhill instead of his stately hall at 
Attingham, and accomplish the purpose of his life, to leave a 
clear inheritance for those who were to come after." 

Mr. W. Tudge, Adforton. — For the whole of our account 
of Mr. Tudge's career we are indebted to his son Mr. William 
Tudge (formerly of Leinthall, and now of Summer Court, 
Kington), who kindly supplied the following interesting 
notes : — 

My father, William Tudge, late of Adforton, was born in 
the year 1805, and began farming in 1832 at the Great 
House, Llangunllo, near Knighton. He commenced breeding 
Herefords almost at once by purchasing some heifers from 
Mr. Weyman of Stocktonbury, then one of the great breeders 
of the day, who challenged all England for the best bull for 
;^500 with his bull Stockton 237, bred by himself, but no 
one would meet him ; and I have heard my father say that at 
another time he challenged all England for the best bull and 
20 cows, but again no one accepted the challenge. Mr. 
Weyman was my father's uncle and godfather, and after the 
bargain for the heifers at rather a stiff price, he said he had 
made up his mind to take no less for them, but that he would 
make him a present of the best bull calf he could find in his 
herd, which he did, and that no doubt materially helped to 
found the future Adforton herd. It is a remarkable coinci- 
dence that more than 50 years afterwards one of the last 
bulls my father ever bred was at the head of the herd at that 
same Stocktonbury, and that he should have been the champion 
bull of all England, as his predecessors had been before him. 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 155 

The first of the bulls that I recollect with any degree of 
accuracy was Turpin 300, bred at Stocktonbury by Mr. J. 
Morris, and bought at his sale in 1842 by Mr. T. C. Eyton 
(the editor of the first two volumes of the Herd Book). He 
was acquired from him by my father for 100 guineas about 
two years later, but after the purchase Mr. Eyton wanted my 
father to take another bull instead of Turpin. This he 
declined to do, and thereby offended Mr. Eyton very much. 
Turpin seems to have been rather in-bred, but he came of a 
prize-winning family, and gained several prizes himself He 
was very thick and deep, with a capital broad back and very 
curly, glossy coat of a dark rich colour. In his first year at 
Llangunllo there were 16, and in the next year 14, heifer 
calves by him, and almost every one resembled their sire in 
their broad backs and curly coats. My father always said 
that these heifers were the making of his herd. He kept 
them for breeding purposes, and drafted all his other cows. 
The next sire used was Nelson 102 1, bred by Mr. Thomas 
Longmore (the breeder of Walford 871, Lord Berwick's 
famous bull). His stock had excellent backs, curly coats, 
and splendid touch, like their sire, but some of them had, 
perhaps, just a trifle too much white on their backs to please 
the present fancy. 

In 1852 my father left Llangunllo and went to live at 
Ashford, near Ludlow, but for some years before he removed 
from the Great House he had been a very successful exhibitor 
at the agricultural meetings. He and his friend and neigh- 
bour, Mr. James Rea of Monaughty, used to say that they 
broke up one show (the Radnorshire and West Herefordshire) 
by winning nearly all the prizes that were given. They were 
in the habit of consulting together, not to meet frequently in 
the show-yard, but to try and sweep the whole of the prizes 
between them. At Ludlow, in 1852, my father's first appear- 
ance there, he was very successful, taking nearly all he showed 
for in the cattle and the hunter classes ; for, at that time, he 
was nearly as fond of a good hunter as he was of a good 
Hereford, having been a very keen sportsman all his life. 

Orleton 901 was the first sire used in the herd at Ashford, 
and he got very nice stock, not big but very thick and com- 
pact, one son of his, Ashford 1499, out of Old Spot by 
Turpin 300, taking the first prize at Ludlow, Leominster, and 
Hereford in 1854. For some years Ludlow, Leominster, 
and Hereford saw the Ashford herd pretty fortunate in prizes 
and regularly represented, particularly in the young classes of 
fours and sixes, Mr. Pitt being a very constant opponent in 
those classes also. The steers were for three years sold to the 



156 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Earl of Aylesford, and each year he took the prize with one 
of them at Birmingham, the last year winning the extra prize 
as well for best Hereford in the yard. It was not until i860 
that my father began exhibiting at the larger shows. Then 
Carbonel 1525 was sent to the Royal at Canterbury in that year, 
and Victoria (own sister to Ashford) to the Birmingham and 
London Shows. Carbonel, like Sir Benjamin 1387, was passed 
over at Canterbury, but at Hereford three months after they 
were first and second, and in two first-class bulls a greater 
contrast was rarely seen — Sir Benjamin with his wonderful 
scale, depth, and weight of natural flesh, but not equal to his 
rival over the blades and chine, and general neatness, for 
Carbonel was a perfect model of a bull as far as he went, but 
lacked the size of Sir Benjamin ; and I remember the remark 
being made at the time, " What a splendid animal could be made 
out of the two," an observation which is well verified in Lord 
Wilton 4740, for he possessed their blood twice over combined. 
Victoria's case has often been quoted to show the difference 
of opinion in judging. At Ludlow the order was Mr. Pitt first, 
Mr. Tudge second ; at Hereford Mr. Tudge first, Mr. Hill second, 
Mr. Pitt third ; at Birmingham Mr. Pitt first and gold medal, 
Mr. Hill second, and Mr. Tudge third ; then at London Mr. 
Hill first and gold medal, Mr. Tudge second, and Mr. Pitt 
third ; there being different judges every time. At London 
that year there were four animals drawn up for the gold medals, 
two of which came from Ashford, for the judges could not 
agree which of the two Hereford cows was to have the prize, 
the other judges deciding that whichever had it would have 
the gold medal, and one of them helping to give the final 
decision ; whilst for the best male, a steer fed by Mr. Bettridge 
and bred by my father, was drawn up against the Shorthorn, 
but did not obtain the prize. Ashford 1499 ^"d Stanage 1741, 
both bred from Old Spot, the one by Orleton and the other 
by Nelson, were the next sires; then Young Walford 1820, 
bred by Mr. Thomas Longmore ; these followed Orleton ; and 
in 1855 The Doctor 1083 was purchased from Mr. James Rea, 
Monaughty. He was by Mr. Rea's Regent 891 (at that time 
a very successful animal) ; his dam Lady, one of Mr. Rea's 
favourites, was by a Longmore bull Brampton 917 (by Old 
Court 306), out of Lady by Monarch 219, an extraordinarily 
big cow. The Doctor, like Turpin, was the sire of a capital 
lot of heifers that made grand cows and wonderfully helped 
the herd. His steers were very good, but, except Carbonel, 
there was not a first-class bull, although there were several 
fairly good specimens, one of which was Titterstone 1775, 
from which Mr, Carwardine's Helena, Anxiety, etc., start their 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 15; 

pedigrees ; whilst The Grove 1764 on the contrary was a 
much better bull-getter then a heifer-getter at Ashford. He 
was a son of Sir David 349, and bred by Mr. B. Rogers, from 
whom he was hired one season. Adforton 1839, Harold 2029, 
and Pilot 2156 were three wonderfully good bull calves by 
him, besides one or two other pretty good ones in that rear. 
Adforton, sold to Mr. Edwards, Wintercott, well kept his 
name up in his herd, taking amongst other prizes first at the 
Royal at Worcester in one of the largest and best shows of 
Herefords ever seen at that time at a Royal meeting. Lady 
Ashford was the only other representative there of the 
Adforton herd, and she also won first prize in her class. 

The Adforton herd it may now be known as (and will no 
doubt continue to be for many years to come), for in 1861, on 
the death of my uncle, Mr. Longmore, my father left Ashford 
and went to Adforton, my mother's birthplace, where the 
Longmores had lived for over 300 years, and bred many good 
Herefords, one of them having brought back to Adforton the 
gold medal from the London Show of 1851, and a true type 
of a Hereford ox he was, as can be seen by his portrait, which 
bears the inscription "The Champion of 185 1." 

Lady Ashford, at the Worcester R.A.S.E. Meeting, was in 
calf to Pilot 2156, the offspring being Lady Adforton. Pilot 
was a particular fancy of my father's, being one of his old 
Beauty tribe, and he would not part with him for several 
seasons. He was the sire of Stanway 2790, the first prize 
Royal winner at Oxford, and I think generally acknowledged 
to be the best bull of any breed in the show-yard. Stanway's 
daughter Silver Star won wherever she went, taking three 
Royal prizes in succession, viz. Leicester, Manchester, and 
Oxford, and at the Bath and West of England, first at 
Southampton and Taunton, and many other prizes elsewhere. 
At the Oxford Meeting she was sold to go to Australia, 
where I understand she well maintained her reputation as 
a winner. 

The year 1 869 may be considered to have been my father's 
most fortunate season, as he took nearly every prize for 
which he competed. At the Manchester R.A.S.E. in 1867, he 
showed for five prizes and gained four first prizes and one 
second prize, being beaten by Queen of the Lilies there and at 
Southampton, whilst Silver Star and Diadem (the latter of the 
Darling family) were first at each place, and at Manchester 
the bull calf Ostorius 3925 and the heifer calf Lady Brandon, 
a daughter of Lady Adforton, were each first in their class. 
They were both by Brandon 2972, one of old Darling's Royal 
winning sons. She only bred three bull calves, viz. Stanway, 



158 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Brandon, and Landseer, and each of them took a first prize at 
the Royal. Ostorius and Diadem were sold at the Manchester 
Show to the Earl of Southesk. Diadem, a daughter of 
Chieftain 4th and Deborah (a daughter of Pilot and old 
Darling), was then in calf to Orleans 2661, and she afterwards 
produced to him a daughter, Desdemona, that took the first 
prize at the Hull Meeting of the R.A.S.E. At the Leicester 
Meeting of the R.A.S.E. my father was nearly as fortunate as 
he was at Manchester, showing there for four prizes, and 
gaining three first prizes and one third prize. It was a 
favourite saying of his when complimented on his success, 
that it was a great deal easier to get to the top of the tree 
than to stick there. 

It was in 1 874 that he brought out his wonderful pair of 
bull calves Regulator 4898 and Lord Wilton 4740, Regulator 
winning the first prize at the Bath and West of England 
Society's Meeting at Bristol, the R.A.S.E. at Bedford, and 
the Herefordshire Agricultural Society's Show at Hereford, 
and then at Leominster and Ludlow he had to give way to 
Lord Wilton, although he had beaten him at Hereford. 
Regulator v/as then sold to go to New Zealand. 

The sire of these two bulls. Sir Roger 4133, a son of Sir 
Thomas 2228, and bred by Mr. B. Rogers, came to Adforton 
in 1870. Another of Mr. Rogers' bulls. Patentee 4003, had 
been bought at a rather high figure at the Herefordshire Show, 
then held in October, but he caught cold there and died about 
nine days after coming to his new home. To divide the loss 
Mr. Rogers kindly offered Sir Roger in his place, as he con- 
sidered him about half the value of the other, but had he 
done doubly as well he must have been a wonder. Sir Roger 
was a nice dark red with capital hind-quarters and heavy flesh, 
very much resembling his sire Sir Thomas in markings and 
character. Previous to Sir Roger, Orleans 2661, a son of 
Magnum Bonum 2097 and Maud by the Doctor 1083, one of 
the old Cherry tribe, had been the sire for two seasons. He 
was a very big bull and his stock followed very much after 
him in that respect. They were too big to come out as show 
animals, but did wonderfully well in the next generation, as 
Sultan 4163 at Beckjay and Ivington Boy 4612 at Hampton 
Court proved, as well as many of his daughters at Adforton, 
Belladonna, the dam of Regulator, being one. After 
Regulator's departure to New Zealand, Lord Wilton had 
nothing else to fear, and took first at the Bath and West at 
Croydon, the R.A.S.E. at Taunton, and the II.A.S. at Hereford 
in 1875, and then went to Mr. Lewis Lloyd at Monks Orchard, 
having been sold by telegram at the Croydon Meeting. It is 



LATER IMPROVEMENT I59 

a singular thing that the only times Lord Wilton was ever 
beaten in his class (when fit to show) was by Regulator and 
Regulus, both nearly related to himself, being by Sir Roger 
and of the favourite Beauty blood, as was also Marmion 3242, 
the sire of his dam Lady Claire. In 1876 (my father having 
had a paralytic stroke in the spring of that year), Rosebud was 
the only representative at the Birmingham Royal, where she 
took first prize, as she also did at the B. and W. E. at Hereford 
that year. In 1877 she again won first at the Royal at 
Liverpool, Beatrice, a daughter of old Darling, also getting a 
Royal prize. Both went on to the Worcestershire at Kidder- 
minster, where they took two first prizes and the champion, 
and at the Herefordshire Meeting at Hereford that year they 
assisted to win the prize for breeding cows, being considered 
four of the best cows that ever gained it. Lord Hythe 3937 
succeeded his father. Sir Roger, as sire at Adforton, assisted 
by Sir Cupis Ball 2761 (by Sir Benjamin 1387) and his son 
Cannon Ball 4399. Lord Hythe's dam Lady Flavia was by 
Stanway from Lady Adforton, and the only one of her daughters 
that remained in England ; Lady Brandon going to Australia 
as a heifer, and Lady Claire, the dam of Lord Wilton, to New 
Zealand. The Doctor 5045, by Provost 4067, out of a daughter 
of Stately, one of the best cows at the sale of the late Mr. David 
Williams (the breeder of the celebrated Sir David 349), and 
Mareschal Neil 4760, were the two last sires used in the 
Adforton herd. Mareschal Neil was a son of Lord Hythe 
and the Royal winner Rosebud. He was sold to Mr. Kennedy, 
of Melbourne, Australia, but the Australian authorities stopping 
importation he was brought back again. 

The Adforton sale was held on the 20th September, 1877, 
and I think the universal opinion was that a better herd of 
Hereford cattle never came under an auctioneer's hammer. 
It was then that Lord Coventry bought Giantess, who had 
been third to Rosebud and Helena at Liverpool Royal, and 
which afterwards won the first prize at the Royal at York, 
and was dam of those two celebrated animals Good Boy and 
Golden Treasure. Many others have that sale to thank for 
good animals. 

To the foregoing description a few details may be added 
regarding the Adforton sale in 1877. The highest price was 
155 guineas for Rosebud by Sir Thomas, dam Rose by North 
Star 2138, which had gained the first prize at the Royal 
at Birmingham in 1876, and at Liverpool in 1877. The 
purchaser was Mr. Arkwright of Hampton Court, and in a 
visitor's notes in the catalogue of the sale is the brief and 
emphatic remark, " Perfection ! " Giantess, got by Sir Roger 



i6o HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

4133, dam Battenhall 2406, fell to Lord Coventry's bid of 
140 guineas. She was described as " the best cow in England 
of any breed," her great width between the forelegs being 
especially noted. She was the winner for Lord Coventry 
of first prize with her son and daughter Good Boy and 
Golden Treasure at the Royal Show at York. Bannerette, 
by Sir Roger, dam Brunette, " a long cow, smooth in coat, as 
grand an outline as could be put on four legs," fell to Mr. 
Duckham for 80 guineas. Minuet, by Sir Roger, dam Myra, 
" beautiful cow, good and level all over, grand back and loins, 
capital thighs, good chine and coat, short legs," went to 
Mr. Garton at 80 guineas. Beatrice, by Lord Hythe, dam 
Darling by Carbonel 1525, first at the Royal Show in 1877, 
was purchased by Mr. Arkwright for 100 guineas. The notes 
on her are " magnificent, good behind foreleg, grand on 
her top, well covered back, well set on legs," The bull 
Mareschal Neil 4760, got by Lord Hythe, dam Rosebud by 
Sir Thomas 2228, was secured by Mr. Arkwright for 175 
guineas. He is stated to have had " good masculine head, 
level good forehand, grand thigh, beef to the ground, good 
quarters, but weak in loin." Romulus, by The Doctor, dam 
Bannerette by Sir Roger, fell to Mr. Fenn at 120 guineas — 
" long, capital forehand, good chine, grand head, a trifle light 
behind shoulders." The average for 94 cows, heifers, and 
calves was ^33 lys. 3^., for 15 bulls and bull calves ;^56 8j. 5^., 
and for 109 head ^37 os. 6d. ; total ;^4029 i8j, 

Messrs. Rea, Monaughty and Westonbury.— Mr. William 
Tudge of Leinthall, in a communication to the authors 
wrote : In a history of Hereford cattle and mention of 
celebrated breeders of these animals, the name of Mr. James 
Rea of Monaughty and Mr. Thomas Rea of Westonbury 
(father and son) must ever stand high. Mr. James Rea was a 
shrewd man and a first-class farmer. In reading a speech of 
his in an old number of the Hereford Times at a dinner of 
the Radnorshire Agricultural Society at Presteign in October, 
1848, it was at once seen that he was considerably in advance 
of his fellows, and by his energy and experiments he acted as 
a pioneer in improvement, perhaps more particularly as a 
breeder of Hereford cattle and hill sheep, for Monaughty is 
some miles up in Radnorshire. In his remarks he said he 
had tried the experiment of crossing his flock, or the greater 
part of it, with Southdowns (for Shropshires seem not to have 
been known then). He had, he says, been blamed very much 
by his neighbours, but his answer was that he should go on 
crossing again on those he had bred that way, and when they 
saw his success, as he knew they would, they would follow his 




Photo by II : H. Bintn,^ 

Lord Wilton 4740 (Bred by W. Tudge, Sen.). 




ROPERTY OF 

ir&M. COLLEGE LIBRARY^ 



Horace 3877 (in old age) (Bred by J. Davies). 



LATER IMPROVEMENT i6i 

example ; and well have the results borne out his theory, as 
the Knighton autumn fairs now testify. 

He commenced breeding Herefords in 1816 with a bull 
bred by Mr. Knight, following with others from Mr. Weyman, 
Mr. Jeffries, and other good breeders. Crabstock 303 and 
Old Court 306 seem to have made the most impression on the 
herd ; the latter, a combination of Tully and Tomkins blood, 
being got by a Tully bull from a Tomkins cow. Then fol- 
lowed his son Monaughty 220 and grandson Monarch 219. 
Then Confidence 367, another Jeffries bull and a Royal 
winner at R.A.S.E. Meeting at Derby. Then came Cholstrey 
217, the same blood again, only got by Mr. Perry's Gold- 
finder 383. The next sire, and one of the best, was Regent 
891, a son of Cholstrey, from Gaylass by Confidence, a cow 
Mr. Rea had bought at Mr. Jeffries' sale at The Grove in 1844. 
Regent won a number of prizes, and in Mr. Russell's notes on 
the Monaughty sale he is described as being the sire of more 
prize-winning bull calves than any bull of his day. His dark 
curly coat, broad forehand and top, gave one an impression of 
his grand form and constitution. It was from his dam Gay- 
lass that Czarina, the first prize heifer at the R.A.S.E. 
Meetings at Chester and Warwick, came, as did also Sultana, 
another Royal winner, and the dam of Sir Cupis Ball 2761, 
who was bought with her a little calf at the Monaughty sale 
in 1863 by Major Kearney. Madoc 899, a son of Regent, 
did good service for Mr. Monkhouse in the show-yard and in 
his herd at The Stow, as did also another son. The Doctor 
1083, at Ashford. After Regent came Grenadier 961, the 
sire of Mr. Thomas Rea's Royal winner Bella, and he was 
succeeded by Chieftain 930 and his two sons Treasurer 1105 
and Pilot 1036, each proving himself a first-class sire. Another 
good bull was Wellington 11 12, bred by Mr. P. Turner, The 
Leen. He was the sire of Diana and Spangle, the prize- 
winning pair of cows or heifers at the Worcester Royal. 
Spangle also took first prize at Newcastle Royal the year 
after. Mr, Thomas Rea bought her at his father's sale on 
October 21st, 1863, for 85 guineas, and at his sale at Weston- 
bury exactly that day 12 months she made loi guineas, and 
her son 12 1 guineas, proving that his speculation, which was 
considered a high one at the time, was very safe, and showing 
also his good judgment, as did the purchase of the last of all 
their good sires, the celebrated Sir Benjamin 1387, a bull once 
seen never to be forgotten, and the great help of many a good 
herd of the present day. 

Mr. Monkhouse of The Stow. — In response to a request 
for information regarding the late Mr. Monkhouse of The 

M 



i62 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Stow, Mr. Forester wrote us, that although he occasionally 
visited that gentleman, he was more inclined to amuse him by 
reciting passages from Burns than to talk about pedigrees. 
" However," added Mr. Forester, *' I gathered that Mr. Monk- 
house and his friend Mr. Hutchinson came from Cumberland 
about the year 1817 in search of farms, the result being that 
Mr. Hutchinson settled at Brinsop and Mr. Monkhouse at The 
Stow. The Stow farm was considered then, as I believe it is 
now, essentially a feeding farm, and as such Mr. Monkhouse 
at first occupied it. He had, however, brought with him a 
love for Leicester sheep, and this predilection led him to attend 
the annual lettings of tups by Mr. Buckley of Normanton 
Hill, near Loughborough. It was here, probably, that he 
made the acquaintance of Mr. Price of Ryall, who was also a 
breeder of Bakewell sheep. Mr. Price on several occasions 
tried to persuade Mr. Monkhouse to come over to Ryall and 
buy some of his heifers, and when his eyesight at last became 
so defective that he could no longer go about buying store 
stock to graze, he did buy some of Price's heifers and turned 
his hand to breeding. But he was eminently a practical man, 
and after trying the pure breed for a time he came to the con- 
clusion that a cross was preferable. [We understand Mr. 
Forester to mean by this expression that Mr. Monkhouse at 
first bred the pure Tomkins variety and afterwards introduced 
the white faces.] Accordingly, somewhere about 1840, he 
bought Sir Andrew 183, bred by Mr. Hemmings of Kingsland, 
and in 1845, Severn 245, a bull calf first at Shrewsbury that 
year, bred by Mr. Thomas of Cholstrey. Thenceforth he 
probably used bulls bred by himself till about 1856, when he 
purchased Formidable 1240 from Mr. Hall, Ashton ; after 
v/hich he seems to have depended very much on his friend 
Mr. Rea of Monaughty, from whom he purchased in succession 
Madoc 899, Chieftain 930, bred by Mr. Stedman, and Sir 
Thoinas 2228, bred by Mr. Roberts of Ivingtonbury. The 
two last bulls were on the ground at the final sale at The 
Stow in 1866 after Mr. Monkhouse's death. The cows at 
that time were exquisite in their touch, but wanted scale. 
What Chieftain and Sir Thomas, two immense bulls, would 
have done for the herd the owner did not live long enough to 
prove. He was an unfailing judge of a calf or a sheep — 
anything he could stand over and handle, but his unfortunate 
blindness of course militated against his judgment as to size 
and character in cattle." Mr. Forester added : I understood 
from Mr. Monkhouse that the farm occupied afterwards by 
his friend Mr. Rca, Monaughty, which being translated means 
Monk's House, was vacant when he came into Herefordshire, 




'J'liK Slow (Mr. Monkhouse). 




I'hotos hy ir. H. Bust in. 



^VI^lAVlu^ iMr. T. T, Galliers). 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 163 

and he might have taken it, but preferred The Stow. Had 
he taken Monaughty he might have styled himself " Monk- 
house of that Ilk." 

Mr. Monkhouse's herd was sold after his death on October 
19th, 1866, when the auctioneers (Messrs. Russell and Son) 
remarked that he had for very many years been known as a 
pre-eminently sound and excellent judge of Hereford cattle. 
*' His fame was not local but national, finding its way into 
every corner of the British Isles where intellect and energy 
have been directed to the great interest of agriculture, and 
recording itself by numerous brilliant successes on the pages 
of the proceedings of the Royal Agricultural Society, as well 
as those of the chief provincial cattle shows in Herefordshire 
and adjoining counties." The great feature of the sale was 
the disposal of Sir Thomas 2228, then six years old. This 
admirable and famous son of Sir Benjamin and Lady Ann, by 
Arthur Napoleon, had, with his offspring, gained in 1863 the 
sum of iJ"ioo in prizes, and there was a very spirited com- 
petition for him, which resulted in Mr. Benjamin Rogers, The 
Grove, the breeder of his sire, obtaining him for ^409 los. 
Several of the other bulls fetched good prices : Whitney by 
Sir Thomas going to Mr. Goodwin for ;^I05 ; Grandee 2554, 
by Chieftain 930, to Mr. Dew for ;^89 55-. ; and Chieftain 
(bred by Mr. Stedman, Bedstone, and used at Monaughty) to 
Mr. Small for ^54 12s. The cows did not sell so well, the 
highest price being £4^, ^s. for Elegance, by Chieftain. 

Mr. Roberts, Ivingtonbury, was also a noted breeder. 
As the breeder of the celebrated Sir Thomas 2228 his name 
will always be closely associated with Hereford cattle. Mr. 
Roberts commenced with excellent blood, the principal 
materials used in the composition of his herd being the 
Tomkins, Yarworth, Weyman, Vaughan, and Galliers strains. 
Among the sires that appear prominently in the early pedi- 
grees of the Ivingtonbury stock are Young Woodman 12, 
bred by Mr. John Price, from the famous Toby Pigeon ; 
Young Trojan 2c6, bred by Mr. Yarworth, by Trojan 192 ; 
Cripple 194, bred by Mr. Yarworth, by Warrior 191 ; Stockton 
237, bred by Mr. Weyman; Cholstrey 217, bred by Mr. 
Vaughan, by Goldfinder 383 ; and Young Cupid 259, bred by 
Mr. Smythies, by Mr. Galliers' Cupid 260. The blood of Mr. 
Hemmings' Sir Andrew 183 was also infused into the herd, as 
well as that of many other choice strains ; Mr. Roberts dis- 
playing fine judgment in the selection of sire and dam. His 
most successful achievement was the breeding of Sir Thomas 
2228, one of the great and impressive sires of the breed. Sir 
Thomas, as has been remarked, was got by Sir Benjamin 1387, 



l64 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

dam Lady Ann, by Arthur Napoleon 910, granddam Lady 
Jane by Cholstrey 217. Of this noted animal Mr. Housman 
supplied the following description in a notice of Mr. Benjamin 
Rogers' herd at The Grove, which appeared in BelVs Weekly 
Messenger in October, 1869: — "Sir Thomas has a noble, 
broad, true bull's head, with the sort of horns, well set and 
strong, which usually accompany a robust constitution. His 
length is very great, although said to be not equal to that of 
his sire Sir Benjamin. Judging from the portrait of the latter 
(one in Mr. Rogers' possession by Mr. Quintin of Hereford) it 
might be said that if the sire surpassed the son in length, he 
gained it between the arm and the breast-end, for Sir Benja- 
min seems to have been enormous there, and we can scarcely 
imagine a longer middle than that of Sir Thomas without the 
accompaniment of a slack back, which Sir Thomas' strong 
loin provides against in his case. His hind-quarters are 
wonderful for deep and level accumulation of flesh. Of a 
placid, gentle disposition, he has just enough of the pride of 
bullhood in him to make him arch his grand neck, slightly 
bend his head, look askance, and snort once or twice as a 
stranger approaches him. This sets off his form splendidly." 
Sir Thomas had been sold at Hereford October Fair in 1864 
to Mr. Monkhouse for £\IQ). When Mr. Roberts' herd was 
sold in October, 1865, most of the young cows and heifers 
were by Sir Thomas, and as the sale comprised 96 head, the 
blood was well distributed throughout the district. Prices, 
however, were not large, the best being 40 guineas for Prima 
Donna 2nd, one of the four calves that took the first prize 
with their sire Sir Thomas at Leominster in 1863 (bought by 
Mr. Boughton Knight) ; 40 guineas for Duchess of Bedford 
(Mr. Boughton Knight) ; 40 guineas for Perfection, by Sir 
Thomas, another of the winners at Leominster in 1863, and 
first at the Bath and West Show in 1865 (Mr. George Bedford, 
Hatfield) ; 40 guineas for Duchess of Bedford 3rd (Mr. White- 
house) ; 49 guineas for Prime Minister (Mr. Gregg) ; 50 guineas 
for Sir Thomas 2nd (Mr. Bowen, Bridgnorth) ; 50 guineas for 
Patron (Mr, Naylor, Leighton Hall). At this sale also Mr. 
Robinson, Lynhales, purchased several Sir Thomas females, 
and Mr. Goode, Ivingtonbury, made a number of purchases 
from the herd, retaining the animals at Ivingtonbury, in the 
occupation of which he succeeded Mr. Roberts. 

Mr. Edward Price, Court House, Pembridge, bred and 
owned some of the most distinguished animals of the breed, 
he having in 1849 won the first prize at the Norwich Meeting 
of the Royal Agricultural Society of England with Sir David 
349; first at the Lewes Show of R.A.S.E. in 1852 with 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 165 

Pembridge 721 ; first at the Lincoln Show of R.A.S.E. in 1854 
with Magnet 823 ; and first at the Chester Show of R.A.S.E. 
in 1858 with Goldfinder 2nd 959. At the foundation of most 
of the pedigrees of animals bred by Mr. Price will be found 
Mr. Hewer's Sovereign 404 (by Favourite 442, dam Countess 
by Young Wellington 505), followed by Crabstock 303, a son 
of Mr. Yarworth's Hector 197, and The Sheriff 356, bred 
by Mr. E. Jeffries, by Sovereign 404. Prince Dangerous 362, 
bred by Mr. Hewer, by Defiance 416, succeeded, and then 
came Sir David 319, which Mr. Price purchased from Mr, 
Carpenter, Eardisland. Sir David has already been referred 
to. After leaving some splendid calves at Court House, he 
was sold by Mr. Price to Mr. Lumsden, Auchry, Aberdeen- 
shire. Another first prize Royal bull Coningsby 718, bred by 
Mr, Carpenter, by Quicksilver 353, dam Pretty Maid by 
Sheriff 356, left good stock in the herd. Then came Sir 
David's son Pembridge 721, from a dam by Hope 411; 
followed by Magnet 823, bred by Mr. Yeld, by The Knight 
185, and Goldfinder 2nd 959, bred by Mr. John Perry. Mr. 
Price's success in the show-yard was remarkable. He gained 
the following prizes : — R.A.S.E., ten first and two second 
prizes ; Bath and West of England, two first and one second ; 
I3irmingham (Christmas Show), four first, two second, and two 
medals ; Shrewsbury, two first ; Worcestershire, four first, 
three second, and two medals ; Paris, one prize and two 
medals ; Ludlow, 20 prizes ; Hereford, 50 prizes ; and Leo- 
minster, 16 prizes ; in all 128 prizes and medals, of the gross 
value of more than £1100. In the catalogue of his sale in 
October, 1867, it was stated that he had sold a large number 
of bulls for exportation, " and no breeder of Herefords perhaps 
realised higher prices for his male animals, whether for use at 
home or abroad. It is, indeed, an established fact that there 
are few herds of Herefords of any note in this county in which 
the blood of the Court House herd is not to be found." The 
highest price at the sale was 105 guineas for the bull Paragon 
2665. A note in the catalogue by Mr. T. C. Yeld mentions 
that Mr. Price offered Mr. David Williams the pick of 12 cows 
out of his herd at ^^30 each. 

On his return from Australia, Mr, JOHN PRICE (son of 
Mr. Edward Price) endeavoured to collect for his herd at 
Court House as much of the old blood as could be obtained. 
He considered that breeders at home, while they had un- 
questionably improved the form and style of the Herefords, 
had done so somewhat at the expense of the thick mellow 
skin and beautiful hair which he had been taught to regard 
as essential features of the breed. Th? animal in which he 



i66 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

believed he perceived the means of strengthening these im- 
portant points was Horace 3877, calved in 1867, bred by 
Mr, J. Davies, Preston Court. Mr, Price had studied the 
breeding of this bull, and had marked his character. He 
found that through Shamrock 2nd 2210, of his father's 
breeding, Horace inherited a large share of the best Court 
House blood — Shamrock 2nd's sire being by Goldfinder 2nd, 
his dam by Magnet 2nd 989, a son of Magnet 823, and his 
granddam by Pembridge 721, a son of Sir David 349, a rare 
combination of prize strains. Shamrock 2nd was the sire of 
Horace's sire and dam. It was on this bull that Mr. Price 
staked his fortunes, and if his father had been successful in 
his choice of Sir David, certainly the later owner of the 
herd could congratulate himself that he was equally fortunate 
when he saved Horace from the butcher's block. The 
characteristics on account of which he was selected by Mr, 
Price became strongly impressed upon his offspring, and his 
rare wealth of flesh and magnificent quality were carried 
through successive generations. The high merit of Horace 
and of his numerous descendants did not prevent Mr. Price 
from trying other alliances. He acquired from Mr. Robinson, 
Lynhales, the bull Regulus 4076, bred by the late Mr. Tudge, 
Adforton, got by Sir Roger 4136, and out of Bonnie, by 
Carbonel 1525. Here again there was a strong infusion of 
the Sir David blood, Regulus was a very fine bull ; his stock 
were noted for their grandly-sprung ribs and thick loins, and 
at Court House the union with the Horace strain proved most 
successful. He was used in the herd for three years, and was 
sire of Hotspur, whose dam was a cow by Horace 2nd. There 
was even a closer combination of the Lord Wilton blood at 
Court House, one of the chief sires being Monarch 7858, the 
first-prize bull calf at the Royal at York. Monarch, calved 
in 1882, was bred by Mr, Carwardine, Stocktonbury, got by 
Lord Wilton, dam Bella by de Cote 3060. Two noted sires 
used were Hotspur 7028, dam Spot by Horace 2nd 4655, which 
distinguished himself at the shows ; and Monarch was generally 
considered to be one of the best of Lord Wilton's sons. The 
cows were chiefly of the Duchess, Spot, Patch, Pigeon, Gipsy 
Queen, Satin, and Lady families. They were by Horace, 
Horace 2nd 4655, Auctioneer, Grand Duke, Truro, Regulus, 
and Old Court, We need not attempt to enumerate the prizes 
won by Mr, Price, but a notice of the herd would be incomplete 
if mention were omitted of his success in gaining, two years 
in succession, the Elkington Challenge Plate at Birmingham 
Fat Stock Show. The winning of the group prize at Brighton 
in 1885 was also a great achievement for the herd and the 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 167 

breed. This noted herd was sold in October, 190 1, by Messrs. 
H. F. Russell and Son, when the average was £4.^ is. for 203 
head, the total of the sale being ;^9I52 lys. The highest 
price for a cow was ;^22o lOs., given by Mr. C. T. Pulley for 
Lottie; for a two-year-old heifer £210 by Mr. Peter Coats; 
for a yearling heifer ;^I05 by Mr. Pulley for Ashleaf ; for a 
heifer calf £:^4 ly. by Sir Jas. Rankin, M.P., for Amnesty; 
for a bull ;^420 by Mr. Peter Coats for Bage Protector, and 
for a bull calf £126 by the Agricultural College, Canada, for 
Lawton. 

The Showle Court herd was commenced by the father 
of the late Mr. WILLIAM TAYLOR about 1820. Mr. Taylor 
himself was one of the most successful exhibitors of Herefords. 
A large portion of his herd was descended from two cows 
bought at the Hazel sale, near Ledbury, about 90 years ago. 
Cows were also purchased from Mr. Williams, Thingehill 
Court : Mr. Jeffries, The Grove ; Mr. Johnston, Sutton St. 
Nicholas ; Mr. Carpenter, Eardisland ; Mr. Williams, Court of 
Llowes, and others. One of the earliest recorded bulls used in 
]\Ir. Taylor's herd was Showle 13 14, bred by the late Mrs. 
Taylor and tracing to Mr. Smythies' stock. The home-bred 
bull Tomboy 1097 was then used ; and the two bulls Tempest 
1076 and Tempter 1077, calved in 1850 and 185 1, are by him. 
Tempter was from the old cow Hazel, named from the place 
where Mr. Barnett resided, by whom she was bred. Most of 
Mr. Taylor's prize cattle were descended from her. Tomboy 
was by Northampton 600, winner of the first prize at the 
Royal Show at Northampton in 1847. A list of prizes won 
by Mr. Taylor would fill several pages and only the more 
noteworthy can be mentioned. Twin 2284, Tambourine 2nd 
2801 by Lord Bateman's Tambourine 2284, Tom Brown 2228, 
Triumph 2836 by Sir Benjamin, Cheltenham Boy 4178, and 
Wolverhampton Boy 4198 were all famous winners. Mr. 
Taylor sold to Mr. Gilliland two cows, Nora and Fairmaid, 
which were very successful at the Irish shows. From Beauty 
he bred the bull Tredegar 5077, which was champion as the 
best bull of any breed at the Bath and West Meeting at 
Croydon in 1875, gaining altogether ;^379 in prizes. He is 
generally considered to have been one of the finest specimens 
of the breed ever seen, and was sold to Mr. H. J. Bailey for, it 
is said, 300 guineas. Mr. Taylor was the breeder of Long- 
horns 471 1, sold to Mr. Carwardine, Stocktonbury, the sire of 
many fine animals, among them being the celebrated bull 
Anxiety 5188, which made such a deep and lasting impres- 
sion on the herds in the United States. Longhorns was by 
Mercury 3692, which was sire of Tredegar, and also of 



i68 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Thoughtful 5063, a famous prize bull. Trafalgar 6230 was 
winner of first prize at the Royal at Derby. Among the 
cows bred by Mr. Taylor were Lancashire Lass by Tredegar, 
first at the International Show at Kilburn in 1879, and at the 
Smithfield Show in the same year ; Modesty, first at the Derby 
Royal, etc. Mr. Taylor won no fewer than 150 prizes in eight 
years, and specimens of his herd were exported to Australia, 
Canada, the United States, and South America. 

Reference has already been made to the career of some 
members of the Turner family. The original herd was 
established in 1780 by Mr. James Turner, Aymestry Court, 
and the blood was retained by his son, and grandson Mr. 
Philip Turner, The Leen. In 1839, Mr. Philip Turner, on 
commencing farming at Westhide, selected twelve cows and 
heifers from his father's herd, which had thus been bred in a 
direct line at Aymestry for a very long period. He also pur- 
chased at the sale of his predecessor, Mr. Kedward, at the sale 
at Westhide in February, 1839, a number of cows. At that 
sale 74 head, of which 21 were young calves, averaged nearly 
£26. Mr. Turner used bulls from The Noke and Aymestry, 
and from the herds of Messrs, J. N. Carpenter, T. Yeld, J. 
Monkhouse ; W. Pitt, Kimbolton ; T. L. Meire, Benjamin 
Rogers, The Grove ; S. Robinson, Lynhales ; and T. Roberts, 
Ivingtonbury, as well as a number bred by himself. Among 
these may be named Andrew 2nd 619, bred at Ivingtonbury 
by Sir Andrew 183 ; Felix 953, bred at The Leen, by Sir 
David 349; Bolingbroke 1883, bred at The Grove, by Sir 
Benjamin 1387 ; Franky 1243, bred by Mr. Meire, by Walford 
871 ; Leominster 3910, bred by Mr. Edwards ; and Bachelor 
2941, bred by Mr. Robinson, by Douglas 2505. The home-bred 
bulls, all prize winners — Provost 4067 by Bachelor 294, Spartan 
5009 by the Hon. Mr. Hill's Silver Boy 3419, Corsair 5271 by 
Dictator 4511, and Pirate 6105 by Corsair 5271 — were also 
successfully used, and they were followed by The Grove 3rd 
5051 (bred by Mr. B. Rogers, The Grove), one of the most 
impressive bulls of modern times. He was by Horace 3877, 
from Blossom by Sir Thomas 2228. Mr. Housman described 
The Grove 3rd in an article in BelCs Weekly Messenger, 
as " having extraordinary mellowness of skin and flesh of the 
best kind and quality for a stock sire, the kind that increases 
fast ; his very touch tells that under moderate pressure of 
keep he would be soon thick fat. He had a great growth of 
fine hair. The rise of the chine line over the shoulder-top 
into the crest of the neck was particularly masculine, and the 
head, not coarse nor heavy, was still a bull's head. In his hind- 
quarters he inherited from Sir Thomas the width immediately 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 169 

behind the hips and to mid-quarter, but did not end off so 
squarely as Sir Thomas did. As an old bull he was as wide 
and full, and square and level, as a model fat heifer." Mr. 
Turner latterly confined himself to eight families — the 
Almonds, tracing from Damsel, bred by Mr. P. Turner, 
Aymestry ; the Fairmaids, from Fairmaid, bred at Aymestry : 
the Daisys, from Daisy, bred at Aymestry ; the Mayflowers, 
from Mayflower, bred at Aymestry ; the Moretons, from 
Moreton, bred by Mr. Hayton and purchased at Mr. Kedward's 
sale at Westhide in 1839 ; the Wigmore Grange tribe, from 
Beauty by Old Court 306 ; the Monaughty tribe, from Lily 
by Old Court 306 ; the Pipton tribe, from Lemon by Charity 
2nd 1535. Mr. Turner's sale at The Leen in September, 1883, 
conducted by Messrs. Rogers and Hamar, formed a noteworthy 
event in the history of the breed. The herd could not only 
boast the claims of long descent and give evidence of public 
appreciation, but it had also been remarkably successful in 
the show-yard, a record of the prizes it had won occupying 
eight pages of the catalogue, while many of the animals bred 
in it had already been bought for exportation. Mr. Culbert- 
son, U.S.A., gave 810 guineas for The Grove 3rd, this being 
the highest price that had up to that date been realised for a 
Hereford ; the next highest, £700, having been paid privately 
for Rudolph, a son of The Grove 3rd, by Mr. G. Morgan, 
U.S.A. Mr. Forester, Sherlowe, was the purchaser of a bull 
calf by The Grove 3rd, out of Rhodia 2nd, for :^278 5^-., and 
Mr. Nott, Buckton Park, secured another bull calf for £210. 
Very high prices were also obtained for the cows : Lord 
Coventry took Rhodia 2nd for 160 guineas ; Mr. Hill, Fel- 
hampton Court, Gladys, for 1 10 guineas ; Mr. Culbertson, 
Viola, for 105 guineas ; Mr. Leigh, U.S.A., Primrose for 170 
guineas; and Mr. Thomas, Orange Blossom for 135 guineas. 
The average for the herd was £y6, total ;^8899. 

Mr. George Pitt, Chadnor Court, founded his herd in 
1842 by the purchase of four cows, viz. Blossom 3rd and 
Prettymaid from Mr. William Pitt, Kimbolton, and Damsel 
and Fairmaid from Mr. John Morris, Stocktonbury (Mr. Pitt's 
father-in-law). The dam of Blossom 3rd was by Mr. T. A. 
Knight's Snowball 246, and she herself was by Mr. Weyman's 
Young Favourite 460. Blossom 3rd was dam of the noted 
bull Big Ben 248, and in Mr. Pitt's possession produced 
Northampton 600, winner of the first prize at the Northampton 
Show of the R.A.S.E. in 1847, i^i addition to many other 
honours. Prettymaid, from Damsel by Kimbolton 599A, was 
by Mr. Edward's Bull 247, and was also a fine breeder, her 
granddaughter having carried off the first prize at Birmingham 



1/0 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

in 1856 as the best fat cow of any breed. The Stocktonbury 
cows— Damsel by Mr. W. Hewer's Old Favourite 442, and 
Fairmaid by Young Favourite 460 — also bred well, and many 
of their offspring distinguished themselves in the show-yard. 
Mr. Pitt being anxious to secure the Sir Thomas blood, pur- 
chased from Mr. Roberts the cow Lady Anne, dam of Sir 
Thomas, but the bull she calved to Sir Oliver 2nd 1733 was 
not satisfactory, and he attended at Mr. Monkhouse's sale with 
the view of buying Sir Thomas. Mr. B. Rogers was there for 
the same purpose, and was not to be denied, although Mr. Pitt 
offered as much as 380 guineas for the bull. Among the sires 
he used were Sir Oliver 2nd 1733, bred by Mr. Rea, by Sir 
Benjamin 1387, Sir Isaac by Hermit 5369, besides many bred 
by himself The herd acquired great uniformity of character 
combined with size, aptitude to fatten, and robust constitution. 
A large number of prizes were won at the local and national 
meetings, as many as 22 first prizes being gained at the shows 
of the Ludlow Society. When the herd was sold by Messrs. 
Edwards and Weaver in September, 1883, the sire in use was 
Bangham 6793, bred by Mr. Carwardine, Stocktonbury, dam 
Bella by De Cote, sire Lord Wilton 4740, sold to Mr. Rees 
Keene for 170 guineas. The other animals made equally good 
prices, the average for 91 animals having been £']'] \s. <^d. Mr. 
(subsequently Sir James) Rankin, Bryngwyn, was an extensive 
purchaser, paying 125 guineas for Victress, 120 guineas for 
Miss Helen, 140 guineas for Blanche, 170 guineas for Colum- 
bine, ICMD guineas for Judith, 190 guineas for Lady Mary, 120 
guineas for Verbena, and 115 guineas for Rosebud. Major 
Peploe gave 170 guineas for Luna and 165 guineas for Spot, 
while Mr. E. Powell gave 130 guineas for Redlike; and the 
highest price, 260 guineas, for Rosebloom, was given by the 
Hon. M, H. Cochrane, Hillhurst, Canada. 

Mr. William Hall, Ashton, owned a famous stock, a 
sketch of which he compiled in 1857. In this he stated: "I 
commenced business at the death of my father in the year 
1838, and took to his stock of Hereford cattle, which had been 
bred in a direct line upon Ashton farm for upwards of 50 
years, and crossed with bulls bred by the most celebrated 
breeders. Amongst others, I will mention the names of Mr. 
T. A. Knight, Mr. Weyman, Lady Rodney, Mr. Morris, and 
Mr. T. Jeffries of The Grove. I will mention the different 
bulls used by myself; Young Cotmore 601, Jarob, Hope by 
Old Hope 439, Monkland 555, Cotmore 2nd 1191, Uncle Tom, 
and Rodney 1373. I have taken ten prizes from various 
agricultural societies, including the extra stock prize given by 
the Leominster Association for the ten best breeding cows in 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 171 

great competition in 1849 ; in 1841, the bull sweepstakes ; 
in 1842, first for bull, cow, and offspring, and cup for steers ; 
in 1848, Leominster medal. In 1856 I sold an ox and a cow 
at Birmingham for 100 guineas." Mr. W. Hall carried on the 
breeding of the herd until 1876, when he retired, and his 
cattle were divided between his two sons, Mr. Herbert 
R. Hall, at Holme Lacy, and Mr. Robert W. Hall at Ashton. 
There are some further notes regarding Mr. W. Hall's herd. 
Young Cotmore 601, bred by Mr. T. Jeffries, The Grove, was 
got by Cotmore 376, first prize winner at the Royal Show at 
Oxford in 1839, his dam being Giantess, a daughter of Mr. 
Hewer's Sovereign 404. Young Cotmore gained two first 
prizes at Leominster, and was sire of Mr. Pitt's Northampton 
600, winner of the first prize at the Royal Show at Northampton 
in 1847. Hope was by Mr. T. Jeffries' Old Hope 439, who 
was out of the dam of Cotmore. Monkland was bred by Mr. 
W. Perry, got by Lion 331, dam bred by Mr. E. Jeffries, The 
Sheriff. Cotmore 2nd 1191 was bred by Mr. T. Jeffries. 
Uncle Tom 1107 was bred by Mr. J. Rea, Monaughty, got by 
Regent 891. Rodney 1373 was a son of Uncle Tom 1107, 
bred at Ashton and sold to go to Scotland. Among other 
bulls used were Ashton 1500, one of the best sires of his day ; 
Major 2629, bred by Mr. B. Rogers, The Grove, got by 
Interest 2046, and from a dam by Severus 1062 ; and Artist 
2934, the massive and giant-like son of Sir Benjamin. The 
last-named animal was bred by Mr. J. Rea, Monaughty, 
and was very much valued at Ashton, being used there until he 
became unfit for stock purposes. He was calved December 5th, 
1862, and the last of his calves were born in 1876, "which 
ended a career of usefulness almost, if not quite, unsurpassed 
in Hereford history." A correspondent, who can speak with 
authority, wTites as follows : — " I think it is only fair and due 
to Mr. W. Hall to say that, at the time he retired, he was 
possessed of the grandest lot of cattle belonging to one man 
in the county. The cows, which numbered about 70, were 
nearly all by that grand stock-getter Artist, and possessed 
wide, open horns, broad fleshy backs, with great scale. Mr. 
W. Hall scarcely ever kept a bull calf to sell, consequently few 
bulls got by Artist appear in the Herd Book. He rarely 
exhibited at any breeding stock shows, excepting at the 
local shows at Leominster and Ludlow, where he was pretty 
certain to be at the top of the tree." 

Mr. Thomas Edwards, Wintercott, who died in 1870 at 
the early age of 47, inherited the herd belonging to his father, 
and took charge of it when he was only sixteen or seventeen 
years old. Among the early pedigrees are those of stock by 



172 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Coningsby 2nd 1552, bred by Mr. Wheeler, The Parks, used 
during 1853-4-5 5 and Promise 1042, bred on the farm. 
Other bulls used were Uncle Tom 1107, bred by Mr, Rea. 
The purchase and use of Croft 937 aided greatly in establish- 
ing the fame of the herd. At the Chester Show of the Royal 
Society, Leominster 1634, by Wellington 11 13 by Croft 937, 
was awarded the first prize. After Mr, Tudge's Adforton 
1839 had gained Royal honours at Worcester, he was added 
to the herd, on which he made a marked impression. He 
was succeeded by Mr. Monkhouse's Tomboy 354, a son of 
Sir Thomas, from a Chieftain cow. This proved a most 
successful combination ; Mr. Edwards being first at the 
Manchester Show of R.A.S.E, with Leominster 3rd 321 1, by 
Tomboy, dam by Adforton. The herd was carried on by Mrs, 
Edwards, assisted by Mr, Edwards' nephew Mr. Allen Edwards 
Hughes, and its victories in the show-yard increased under 
their joint management. Winter de Cote 4253, by Leominster 
3rd, dam by Young Grove, a son of Adforton, won three first 
prizes at the Royal Shows at Hull, Bedford, and Taunton in 
1873, 1874, and 1875, and many other honours; the prizes 
gained by him amounting in value to ;^I75. But the gem 
of the herd, if not, indeed, of the breed, was Leonora, who 
gained prizes of the value of £6^0, comprising three firsts at 
the Royal Shows at Liverpool, Bristol, and Kilburn in 1877, 
1878, and 1879. In addition to many other honours, she 
won eight champion prizes, including the R,A,S,E, champion 
prize of ^^50 at Kilburn, the champion prize at Smithfield, 
and the champion prize at Birmingham in 1879. Beatrice, 
bred like Leonora (by Winter de Cote from a cow by Tomboy), 
gained numerous prizes at the Royal and elsewhere, and 
Perfection by Commander 4452 (a son of Winter de Cote, 
dam by Leominster 3rd) was also successfully shown ; while 
the stock of Royalist 4921, comprising Spangle 3rd, Coomassie 
5841, President 61 11, and Landlord 6010, were also victors in 
many contests. Royalist was bred by the late Mr. H, R, 
Evans, Swanstone Court, In 1881 the herd was transferred 
to Mr. A, E. Hughes, and its subsequent career is noticed in 
another chapter, 

Mr. T. J, CarwardiNE, Stocktonbury, founded his herd 
in 1863 by the purchase of cows and heifers by Sir Thomas 
2228, from Mr, Monkhouse of The Stow; adding in 1864 
cows from Mr, Ashwood, The Brakes, Leintwardine, by 
Downton 12 19, Clipper 1178, Dennis, a son of Defiance 1207, 
and Titterstone 1775, the last-named bull being bred by 
Mr, Tudge at Ashford and got by Mr, Rea's Doctor ; in 1865 
cows by Baron Grove 2402, from dams by The Count 2263 



LATER IMPROVEMENT i73 

and King Tom, son of King James 978, from Mr. Connop, 
Street Court, Eardisland ; other females coming from Mr. 
Middleton, Easthampton, Shobdon, and Mr. Rawlings, Stoke, 
near Tenbury. He used the bulls Counsellor 1939, bred 
by Mr. Philip Turner, The Leen ; Heart of Oak 2035, bred 
by Mr. Rea, Monaughty ; Sir John 2nd 3455 ; De Cote 3060, 
bred by the late Mr. Thomas Edwards, Wintercott ; Sir 
PVank 2762 by Sir Richard, bred by Mr. Thomas Rea, 
Westonbury; and Longhorns 471 1, bred by Mr. Taylor, 
Showle Court. He also used bulls of his own breeding, among 
them Anxiety 5188 by Longhorns, from the celebrated prize 
cow Helena, and Rodney 4907, an own brother to Helena by 
De Cote, from Regina by Heart of Oak. Anxiety was 
exported to America and proved to be one of the most 
prepotent bulls ever introduced into the United States. But 
the most successful sire at Stocktonbury was Lord Wilton 
4740, bred by the late Mr. Tudge, Adforton, by Mr. Rogers' 
Sir Roger 4133, dam Lady Claire by Marmion 3442, the 
half-sister of his dam being Lady Brandon, a winner at the 
Manchester and Oxford Shows of the Royal Agricultural 
Society of England, and afterwards exported to Australia. It 
was after Lord Wilton had done excellent service in the herd 
of Mr. Lewis Loyd, Monk's Orchard, Surrey, that he was 
acquired by Mr. Carwardine. Mr. Loyd exhibited him at 
the Kilburn International Show in 1879. We give here a 
description by Mr. William Housman of this grand bull : 
" Lord Wilton does not fill the eye as an absolutely big bull, 
but he has ample proportionate length, and, like the Adforton 
bulls in general, a robust character, the bone not too heavy 
but made to bear a great weight of beef, and he furnishes 
heavily in the fore-flank and other flesh points. His head 
has plenty of width across the upper part, not too much 
length in the lower part. The horns of fair medium size for 
a Hereford, and, of inward and descending curve, harmonise 
with the kindly, open countenance, and the hanging lap of 
surplus skin gives masculine depth from ear to throat." The 
offspring of Loud Wilton were first brought prominently to 
the front at the Smithfield Club Show, several steers by him 
having been successfully exhibited by Mr. Lewis Loyd. He 
soon made his mark in Mr. Carwardine's herd. At the Derby 
Meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society in 1881, Mr. 
Carwardine gained the first and second prizes for bull calves 
with Sir Bartle Frere 6682, from Tiny by Longhorns 471 1, 
and Romeo 6646, from Rosalie by De Cote 3060, both got by 
Lord Wilton. He also at the same time won the first and 
second prizes with Venus, from Damsel by Longhorns, and 



174 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Henrietta, from Rosetta by Sir Frank 2762, both sired by 
Lord Wilton. The herd, indeed, became the most distinguished 
in the country, the prizes won by it from 1873 to 1883 having 
been — 68 firsts, 55 seconds, 12 thirds, and ten champions. 
Among the more famous winners were, in addition to the 
animals already named, Helena, Assurance 5193 byLonghorns, 
dam Florence; Anxiety 5188; Prettyface by Anxiety, dam 
Prettymaid ; Henrietta by Lord Wilton, dam Rosetta ; Lord 
Grosvenor 7804 by Lord Wilton, dam Verbena ; Monarch 
7858 by Lord Wilton, dam Bella; Venus by Lord Wilton, 
dam Damsel ; Romeo 6646 by Lord Wilton, dam Rosaline, 
etc. The herd became widely known in America, many 
splendid animals having been purchased by breeders in the 
United States. It also supplied several leading breeders in 
England with stock sires. 

After Mr. Carwardine's death, the Stocktonbury herd was 
dispersed by Mr. Alfred Edwards in August, 1884, the sale 
being one of the most remarkable in the annals of the breed. 
It occurred when the American demand was at its height, and 
foreigners competed spiritedly with home breeders for the 
possession of the best lots. Lord Wilton was knocked down 
to Mr. Vaughan, it was stated to go to the United States, for 
3800 guineas. The same gentleman also took a number of 
heifers, but his purchases were not completed. The bull 
Lord Grosvenor 7804 was purchased by Mr. (subsequently 
Sir James) Rankin, Bryngwyn, for 650 guineas ; General 
Gordon made 750 guineas from Mr. Penhall. Among the 
cows and heifers the best prices were 150 guineas by Mr. 
Leigh, U.S.A., for Delight ; 140 guineas by Mr. Rankin for 
Verbena ; 205 guineas by Mr. Penhall for Bella ; 125 guineas 
by Mr. Fenn for Brenda ; 135 guineas by Mr. Rankin for 
Ruth; 210 guineas by Mr. Forester for Peg; 125 guineas 
by Mr. Holmes for Ruby; 155 guineas by Mr. Rankin for 
Tidy 2nd ; 140 guineas by Mr. Rees for Ladybird 2nd ; 235 
guineas by Mr. Vaughan for Mabelle ; 310 guineas by Mr. 
Vaughan for Rosa ; 220 guineas by Mr. Leigh for Henrietta 
3rd; 210 guineas by Mr. Rankin for Rebecca; 210 guineas 
by Mr. Vaughan for Alethea ; and among the bull calves that 
of Delight made 135 guineas by Mr. Turner, The Leen ; The 
Professor from Tidy, 300 guineas by Mr. Radcliff Cooke ; 
Stockton Prince 200 guineas by Messrs. Fenn and Tudge. 
The averages were: 53 cows with 53 calves, ;!^I58 iSs. iid.; 
14 cows in calf, ^108 igs. 6d. ; 6y cows, ^^94 14^-. gd. ; 54 
calves, £6y 5.9. 2d.; 18 two-year-old heifers, £163 iSs. 4d. ; 
20 yearling heifers, ^167 '/s. id. ; 24 bulls, ^320 lOi". ^d. ; 
183 head of cattle, ^125 J2s. sd. Total £22<g%'j i^s. At 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 175 

the second sale of the stock that had been knocked down to 
Mr. Vaughan the heifers made nearly as much money as they 
had previously done, but Lord Wilton commanded only 1000 
guineas, for which sum he was acquired by Mr. Fenn, Stone- 
brook House, and Mr. Tudge, then at Leinthall. This famous 
bull died in June, 1886. 

Mr. Samuel Goode succeeded Mr. Roberts at Ivington- 
bury, where for twenty years he continued to breed good 
Herefords. He founded his herd in 1865 by the purchase of 
13 cows and heifers from Mr. Roberts, 14 cows from Mr. 
David Rogers, The Rodd, and 17 cows from Mr. W. Child, 
Wigmore Grange. Of the animals thus purchased, the lot 
acquired from Mr. Roberts were full of Sir Thomas blood. 
The first bull used by Mr. Goode was Demetrius 2494, bred 
in 1862 by Mr. P. Turner, The Leen, got by Bolingbroke 
1383, a son of Sir Benjamin 1387. Then followed Pompey 
2683, bred by Mr. James Taylor, Stretford Court, and by Mr. 
Edward Price's Trustful 2845. ^^ was succeeded by Albert 
2921, bred by Mr. T. Edwards, Wintercott, and got by 
Adforton 1839 ; and he by Blucher 2964, bred at The Grove, 
a son of Sir Thomas. But a more impressive sire followed 
in Cremorne 5279, bred in 1872 by Mr. Roberts, Lawtonbury. 
He was got by the prize bull Kingcraft 388, and from Beauty 
3rd by King Tom 3198. Here was a very powerful dose of 
Sir Thomas blood. Kingcraft being a son of King Tom 3198, 
who was by Sir Thomas. Sir Henry 5597, bred by Mr. 
Russell, Orleton, renewed the same strain, being descended 
from the Grove, who was by Sir David, and the blood was 
continued by the use of Cremorne 2nd, a son of Cremorne, 
and a grandson on the dam's side of Vain Hope by Sir 
Thomas. The Hewer blood, so esteemed for quality, was 
worked in by Above All 2910. Remus 5535, calved in 1877, 
and bred by Mr. R. W. Bridgwater, Great Porthamel, Brecon, 
was by Glendower 2nd 3840, and out of Harvest Queen by 
Sir Thomas. Glendower 2nd was bred at The Grove, and 
was by Sir Thomas, his dam being Mr. Roberts' Blowdy by 
Sampson 106 1, who was also the dam of Harvest Queen. 
Wandering Willie 4237, Sir Christopher 7262, Rodney 4907 
(a son of De Cote 3060), Ambassador 4851, and Beau 2408 
were used, as was also Lord Ellenborough 7092, bred by Mr. 
Edwards, Broadward. Torro 7313, calved September, 1881, 
bred by Mr. Newman, Buckfield, Leominster, got by Lord 
Wilton 4740, and out of Cherry 4th, by the first prize Royal 
bull Alexander 3652, was then employed. Mr. Goode had a 
large demand from America for his cattle. Many animals 
were from time to time sold to Mr. Miller, Bcecher ; Hon. Mr. 



176 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Cochrane, Hillhurst ; Hon. Mr. Pope ; Messrs. George Leigh 
and Co., Beecher ; Mr. George Morgan, Mr. Boreland, Mr. T. 
J. Lewis, Mr. C. Holtz, and others. It must also be con- 
sidered a high honour that three heifers from Mr. Goode's 
stock were included in the Testimonial herd presented to Mr. 
T. L. Miller. The herd was dispersed by Mr. Henry Russell 
in August, 1885. By that time the depreciation in value which 
had overtaken all breeds had spread to the Herefords, and 
the average was only ^^ 3 1 15^-. for 206 head. 

Mr. W. E. Britten, at Stapleton Castle, had a good 
herd, which was founded by his father, the late Mr. Charles 
Britten, selections being made from the Stretford Court, The 
Grove, Westonbury, Whitfield, Court of Noke, and other 
herds. The sires used were procured from the stocks of Mr. 
Tudge, Adforton ; Mr. B. Rogers, The Grove ; Mr. Turner, 
The Leen ; and Mr. Robinson, Lynhales. The herd was 
dispersed in 1882, when fair prices were obtained. Mr. Britten 
took an active part in the exportation of choice Herefords to 
America, and a very large number were selected and sent out 
by him. As already mentioned, he was appointed secretary of 
the Hereford Herd Book Society on the death of Mr. Urwick. 
For several years he spent some time in America and Canada, 
and was intimately acquainted with all Hereford breeders, 
being in this way able to further the interests of the breed 
considerably. Mr. Britten exported several thousands of 
Herefords both on his own account and on commission, the 
latter principally to the herds of the late Mr. K. B. Armour, 
Kansas City, the Wyoming Cattle Co., Adams Earl, etc. Mr. 
Britten's services as a judge were much sought after, and he 
acted in this capacity for many years both in England and 
Ireland. 

Mr. John Burlton established a herd at Luntley Court 
in 1842, when he took over the stock, composed of animals 
got by Mr. Jeffries' noted bulls, that had been maintained there 
by his predecessor, Mr. Hall. The cattle were carefully bred, 
as the following list of sires used by Mr. Burlton will show : — 
Young Goldfinder, by Goldfinder 383, bred by Mr. Perry, 
Monkland; The Count 351, by Hope 349, bred by Mr. 
Carpenter, Eardisland ; Red Ben 768, bred by Mr. Yeld, The 
Broom ; Sampson ic6i, bred by Mr. Roberts, Ivingtonbury ; 
Havelock 1609, bred by Mr. Shirley, Baucott ; Rifleman 2189, 
bred by Lord Berwick ; North Star 2 1 38, bred by Mr. Benjamin 
Rogers, The Grove; Victor 2855, bred by Mr. Powell, The 
Bage ; Leo 32C9 (by North Star, from Sally by Sir David 
349), bred by Mr. P. Turner, The Leen ; Luck's All 3948, 
bred by Mr. Arkwright, Hampton Court ; Pertly 5498, lay 




John li. Arkwright. 

William Taylor. 

T. L. Mili.kr (U.S.A.). 



W. E. Britten. 
John H. Yeomans. 
"foHN Hill. 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 177 

Horace 3877, bred by Mr. Piatt ; Young Gamester 5699, bred 
by Mr. Arkwright ; and Hesiod 6481 (by The Grove 3rd), bred 
by Mr. P. Turner, The Leen. Among the families repre- 
sented were several from the old Luntley Court stock ; and 
others from Westonbury, The Leen, Hampton Court, Court 
House, etc. The herd was sold in September, 1885, when 
114 animals averaged £2^ 6s. 

The late Mr. T. L. Meire of Cound Arbour and Eyton- 
on-Severn, Shrewsbury, began to breed Herefords in the year 
1829, with a few females purchased at the Buildwas, Diddle- 
bury, and Clee Downton sales, and with a draft from the herd 
of his father, the late John Meire of Berrington (who had 
succeeded to his father's herd of Herefords in 1792, and who 
has left particulars relative to his purchased bulls and cows). 
The stock bulls used have been : Grove 370, bred by Mr. E. 
Jeffries ; Young Waxy 451, sometimes called Waxy, and bred 
by Mr. J. Hewer ; Dinedor 395, bred by Mr. Stedman ; Young 
Waxy 241, bred by Mr. T. L. Meire ; Speculation 387, bred 
by Mr. T. L. Meire ; Lawyer 627, bred by Mr. T. L. Meire ; 
Layman 'j6'j, bred by Mr. T. L. Meire ; Uckington 2286, 
bred by Mr. John Meire; Cound 1 193, bred by Mr, T. L. 
Meire; Franky 1243, bred by Mr. T. L. Meire; Gleam 2548J 
bred by Mr. T. L. Meire ; Eyton 3095, bred by Mr. T. L. 
Meire ; Eyton 2nd 3814, bred by Mr. T. L. Meire ; Silver Boy 
3419, bred by the Hon. and Rev. Noel Hill ; Vanguard 5100, 
bred by Mr. P. Turner ; Fabric 6948, bred by Mr. T. L. Meire! 
Excluding one cow, whose dam was given by the late Joseph 
Meire of Norton, Berrington, and Abbotsfield, Shrewsbury, 
and descended from a celebrated cow bought by the late Lord 
Berwick of Cronkhill, Shrewsbury, the whole of the dams and 
granddams of all females in the herd, as far back as the year 
1833, were bred by the late Mr. T. L. Meire, and were by 
pedigree bulls. In 1842, at the Smithfield Club Show, among 
other prizes, Mr. Meire was successful against all breeds with an 
ox by Speculation 387. The last time Mr. Meire showed 
Herefords, and the only occasion upon which any of the herd 
was exhibited at the Royal, was at Shrewsbury, in the year 
1845. About the year 1853, Mr. Niblett of Bristol exhibited at 
the Smithfield Club Show oxen bred by Mr. Meire, and won 
the old class prize four years in succession. In 1863, at the 
Smithfield Club Show, Mr. Heath of Norfolk gained the gold 
medal for the best ox of any breed with an ox by Franky 
1243, bred by Mr. Meire. In 1868, Mr. Heath was again 
successful in the same competition with another ox by the 
same bull Franky 1243, bred by a neighbour, Mr. Elsmere, 
who had used Mr. Meire's bull Cound 1 193 to produce the dam. 

N 



178 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Mr. Thomas Rogers, at Coxall, had a very fine herd, 
which won about 200 prizes. It was descended from cows 
purchased from the elder members of the Rogers family, and 
the best bred sires in the country were used. The principal 
tribes cultivated were : the Beau Ideal, full of the Grove 
blood ; Beauty Spot, of Jeffries descent ; Gentle Mary, tracing 
from a dam by a son of Sir David 349 ; Princess Alice, of a 
good old strain ; and Triumph 3rd, by Sir Oliver 2nd 1733, etc. 

Mr. J. L. Hewer commenced breeding in the year 185 1, 
His father (the late Mr. John Hewer) gave him a heifer called 
Gentle by Governor, from Moss Rose by Hope 411, and the 
bull General 1251. He had the advantage of his advice, and 
could send the cows to any of his bulls he chose, so that he 
had some very good animals and was very successful at the 
shows. One year Mr. Hewer took four animals — viz. a bull, 
Van Tromp 1440, a cow, Lofty 2nd, a two-year-old heifer, 
Alice Grey, and a yearling heifer, Nell Gv/ynne, to the show 
of the Royal Agricultural Society of Ireland, held at Dundalk, 
and obtained the four first prizes. Owing to a serious illness 
he had to sell most of his herd in 1877. 

Mr. R. L. Burton, Longner, and his brother Mr. E. R. L. 
Burton, preserved the valuable strains of Knight cattle which 
passed through the herds of Mr. Salwey, Lord Berwick, 
and the Hon. and Rev. Henry Hill. The foundation of the 
Longner herd was laid by the purchase of five cows from the 
Hon. H. Noel Hill's sale at Cronkhill, including Rarity, a very 
prolific and fine breeder, and Peach, the highest-priced cow 
at the sale, dam of the grand bull Merry Monarch. Rarity, 
by Conqueror 1929, was from Rosina by Attingham 911, 
and traced back to Mr. Knight's Cherry ist. Peach, by Van 
Tromp 2291, went back to Mr. Knight's Old Betsy. Mr. 
Burton also acquired cows from Mr. John Hewer, Vern 
House ; Mr. J. B. Green, Marlow (including Duchess 7th, 
purchased for 135 guineas at the Gwernaffel sale, this being 
the highest price at that celebrated auction) ; while three calves 
were bought at the Stanway Manor sale. The cows were sent 
to Mr. W. Taylor's Triumph 3rd 421 1, Mr. Grove's Blondin 
2962, Mrs. Edwards' Magnet 4754, etc. Silver Prince 5583, 
by Silver King from Peach, and Defence 4504, by Blondin, 
also from Peach, left some very thickly-fleshed, massive animals 
in the herd. Mr. John Hewer's Archduke was hired for 
two seasons, and Docklow 4518, bred by Mr. Britten, Merry 
Monarch 5466 from Mr. Noel Hill's Peach, and King Dick 
5404, by Magnet from Duchess, were also used. Mr. Burton's 
sale took place in February, 1881, Mr. John Thornton being 
the auctioneer. Mr. John Hill, of Felhampton Court, was an 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 179 

extensive purchaser of animals of the Cronkhill families, buy- 
ing Rarity, Nectarine (from Peach), Bright Lady 4th, Rarity 
5th, Bright Lady 8th, Rarity nth. Rarity i8th, Nectarine 2nd, 
Bright Lady i6th, and the bull Merry Monarch 5466, the last 
named for 80 guineas. Lord Coventry ; Mr. Fenn, Stonebrook 
House; Mr. Piatt, Barnby Manor; Hon. M. H. Cochrane, 
Canada ; and Major Gardner, Ireland, were also purchasers. 

Mr. Frederick Platt, Barnby Manor, purchased cows 
from the Showle Court, The Rodd, Old Court, Wintercott, 
Pipton, Longner, and Marlow herds. He bought the famous 
bull Horace 3877 from Mr. John Price for 500 guineas, and 
other sires used were Hartington 5358 by The Grove 3rd 
5051, and Holme Tredegar 7016, a grandson of the great 
show bull Tredegar 5077. From 1876 to 1882 the herd 
won 50 first, 20 second, and ten third prizes ; the ^100 cup at 
Birmingham in 1878, the }Cso cup in 1880, and the ^20 cup 
in 1880 at Smithfield. Mr. Platt also gained Messrs. Beach 
and Co.'s cup six years in succession. The herd was sold 
in July, 1883, when some excellent prices were realised; 
Primrose 7th sold to Mr. Penhall, Partridges Hollow, for 
120 guineas; Gillyflower 2nd, Mr. Culberston, 80 guineas; 
Lady 4th, Mr. H. C. Burleigh, 135 guineas ; Horace 6th 7072, 
Mr. Myddleton, Beckjay, for 150 guineas; and Sir Frederick, 
Mr. Culberston, U.S.A., for 100 guineas. The bull Horace 
died in Mr, Piatt's possession when he had reached the age 
of 16 years. 

Mr. John Y. Cooke, who was one of Mr. Eyton's coad- 
jutors in the establishment of the Herd Book, bred at Moreton 
House some good specimens of the Hewer and Yeomans 
blood, using largely stock descended from Favourite 404 
and Royal 331. He gave the following account of the cow 
Royalty, by Royal out of Countess, bred by his father Mr. W. 
Cooke, Lower Lyde Farm, by a son of Fitzfavourite 441 : — 
" Dimensions : girth before shoulder, 7 ft. 4 ins. ; behind fore- 
leg, 7 ft. 6 ins. ; one foot further back, 8 ft. 3 ins. ; before the 
hip bones, 8 ft. 4 ins. ; over hips and under flank, 8 ft. 4 ins. ; 
length from horn to rump, 7 ft. 2 ins. ; from nose to setting of 
tail, 8 ft. 6 ins. ; rump and sirlorn weighed 12 st. 6 lbs. at 
14 lbs. to the stone. She bred two living calves and one 
dead one ; was out in the meadows with his other cattle until 
Christmas, when she lost her calf, and was then put into the 
stalls to feed, and was slaughtered by Mr. Pudge of Bishop's 
Froome, Herefordshire, in the month of March following. He 
is responsible for the measurement of this wonderful irndUcm 
in parvo" 

Mr. W. B. Peren, Compton House, Somersetshire, owned 



i8o HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

a herd that attained remarkable success in the show-yard. It 
was largely descended from Mr. T. Roberts' Ivington Rose by 
Sir Thomas 2228, winner of first prize at the Royal Show 
at Wolverhampton in 1871, Cardiff in 1872, Hull in 1873, 
and Smithfield in the same year. Her daughter Rosette, by 
Dinedor, was commended at the Royal at Taunton in 1875, and 
won several first prizes at the Yeovil Show. Compton Rose, 
by Sir William 4141, and also out of Ivington Rose, gained 
third prize at the Royal at Taunton, and was in the prize list 
at the Bath and West Shows in 1874 and 1875. Rosalie, by 
Lord Lincoln 3224, out of Ivington Rose, was third at the 
Royal at Taunton. Lady Lottie, by Lord Lincoln 3220, was 
second at the Royal at Taunton in 1875 and Birmingham in 
1876. But it is not necessary to further particularise, nearly 
every animal in Mr. Peren's herd having been a prize-winner. 
The herd was sold by Messrs. Rogers and Hamar in October, 
1877. 

When farming at Leinthall, Mr. S. W. UrwiCK (who was 
for a number of years secretary of the Herd Book Society) had a 
good herd of Herefords, some of which attained great weights. 
He bred and fed a Hereford cow that won first prize at 
Bingley Hall, Birmingham, 1855 (live weight, 21 cwt. 3 qrs. ; 
dead weight, 19 score 10 lbs. per quarter). The late Lord 
Berwick, who was a great authority on Herefords, told Mr. 
Urwick she was the heaviest cow he had ever seen, and was 
not up to the weight she ought to have been fed to, having a 
live calf January i8th, 1855, the same year she was exhibited. 
Leinthall 1633 was from a daughter of this cow, by Young 
Royal 1469, and was herself 20 cwt. She was entered at 
Bingley Hall Fat Show, but, unfortunately, through illness, 
was obliged to be taken out of the show-yard before these 
animals were judged. She bred a heifer that won a prize at 
Bingley Hall under four years, and that weighed 17 cwt. 
Young Royal 1469 was a bull of great weight, bred by the 
late Mr. J. Rogers, Lady Court, formerly of Pilleth, who 
always prided himself on the great scale and character of his 
cattle. He was purchased by Mr. Urwick at a high price, 
and many of the pedigrees of the present day run back to 
him as a sire, notably Sir Benjamin 1387. 

The Rev. Archer Clive bred Herefords at Whitfield and 
Kilpeck Court, whose blood enters pretty largely into the com- 
position of several of the herds. His cows were chiefly de- 
rived from the stocks of Mr. Bowen, Monkland ; Mr. Walker, 
Holmer ; Mr. Pearce, Stretton ; Mr. Yeomans, Moreton, etc. ; 
and he had in his possession several females got by the 
renowned Sir David 349, while the name of Mr. Edwards' 



LATER IMPROVEMENT iSi 

famous bull Dayhouse 299 will be found in many of his 
pedigrees. Among the bulls used were Andrew 2nd 619, bred 
by Mr. Roberts, Ivingtonbury ; Trader iioi, bred by Mr. 
Turner, Showle ; Bertram 15 13, bred by Mr. Turner, The 
Leen ; Sir David 2nd 1065, bred by Mr. E. Price, Court 
House ; Alma 1 144, bred by Mr. Stephens, Sheephouse ; 
Mameluke 1307, bred by Mr. John Hewer; General 125 1, 
bred by Mr. John Hewer; Ballarat, by Mr. John Perry's 
Goldfinder 2nd 929; and Wormbridge 1801, bred by Mr. 
Clive. The bull Cefnesko 1530 was sold for exportation to 
Australia. Mr. Clive won several prizes at the Royal and 
other shows, and in 1858 he gained the second prize at Here- 
ford for 22 cows. 

The late Mr. E. Bowen, Corfton, Craven Arms, owned 
one of the oldest herds in the country. The foundation of his 
father's herd was from four heifers and some cows purchased 
of Mr. Meredith, Buckton Park, Leintwardine, in 18 16. The 
first bull used to them was one bought of Mr. Sheward, 
Dilwyn, near Hereford; the next, Mars 321, bought of Mr. 
Yarworth in 1820. Then a son of Titheman 6, next a Hewer 
bull, bought of Mr. Dawes, Purslow, then a son of The Sheriff 
656, and Hero 458. Mr. E. Bowen succeeded to the stock on 
the death of his father in 1837, and continued using Hero 458 
till 1840, when he had Lot 364 from Mr. John Hewer, and 
from that time continued using bulls from him {with one 
exception, Oxenbold 2145) till his death in 1873. The chief 
animals added to his stock for breeding purposes were in 1 844, 
at Mr. T. Jeffries' sale, a cow Giantess ; a heifer he called 
Berrington, bought at Lord Rodney's sale at Berrington, near 
Leominster ; two, Sally and Marknose, at Mr. Hewer's sale in 
1846 at Lower Wilcroft ; Victoria, by Royal John 3401, dam 
by Goldfinder 959, at Mr. E. Price's sale at Pembridge ; a cow, 
by Chance 348, at Mr. Carpenter's sale at Eardisland ; and a 
cow, Bryony, at Mr. Hewer's sale in 1866. The sires recently 
in use in the herd were Corfton Ben 6875 and Invincible 5397. 
The following bulls were used by Mr. E. Bowen, viz. : — Bred 
by Mr. John Hewer: Lot 364, Faith 518, Abdel Kadir 1837, 
Jacob 4663, Original 3rd 525, Mercury 361, Governor 464, 
Cardinal Wiseman 1168, Mameluke 1307, Cyrus 1199, Grati- 
tude 1 26 1, Defence 1207, Magnum Bonum 1303, Lord Lincoln 
3220, and x'lbernethy 2908. Oxenbold 2145, bred by Mr. R. 
Shirley ; Broadgauge 3708, bred by Col. Fielding ; Benjamin 
7th 4350, bred by Mr. Green, Marlow ; Little Archer 6025, 
bred by Mr. J. B. Lutley, Brockhampton ; Councillor 5273, 
bred by Mr. F. Evans, Old Court ; and the following bred by 
himself: — Corfton 1 188, Corfton Cyrus 4464, Abraham Lincoln 



i82 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

4287, Reuben 4923, Hudibras 3170, Macaroni 2627, Cardinal 
Manning 5239, Don Juan 2502, Corfton Duke 5268, and 
Locomotive 5432. The cow Lady Wiseman lived until she 
was 20 years old, and had a calf when 18 years old. 

Mr. S. H. Atkinson acquired the herd at Letton Court in 
1880. It had been founded in 1873 by Col. Bridgford of 
Kinnersley, who commenced it by purchasing 14 cows and 
heifers from the Lynhales herd, chiefly by Mr. B. Rogers' 
Luxury 3233, and in calf to Regulus 4076, from the Adforton 
herd. Bulls of approved blood and character were used. The 
herd was sold in 1889. 

Lord Bateman, who died on December 6th, 1901, took 
an active interest in the breed, and kept a fine herd at Shobdon 
Court. It was established by his father about 1830. The 
sale of the Othouse herd, as it was then named, took place in 
i860, and it may be mentioned that some of the earliest exports 
of Hereford cattle to North America were made by Mr. Stone 
of Canada, who obtained at Shobdon and sent to the West a 
large proportion of the Othouse stock. Four cows and heifers 
were retained, and formed the foundation of Lord Bateman's 
herd. Their names were Old Rose, calved in 185 1, by 
Big Ben 248, out of Rosebud by Charity 650 ; Rose 2nd, 
calved in 1859, by Carlisle 923, out of Old Rose ; Sylph, calved 
in 1858, by Carlisle 923, out of Lily by Royalty 1374; and 
Trinket, calved in 1856, by Carlisle 923, out of Virgin by 
Andrew 2nd 619. The bull Brigadier iioio, purchased 
from Mr. Haywood, Blakemere, and a son of Mr. J. Price's 
Monarch 7858, was successfully used, and so was Pathfinder 
14013. The impress of such bulls as Carlisle 923, Knight 185, 
Rose Stock 6651, Rupert 9172, and Stanley 4740, was notice- 
able in the herd. 

Mr. Richard Bach, White House, Onibury, Shropshire, 
established a herd in 1883, which was mainly descended from 
a heifer bred by his late father, Mr. Francis Bach, only eight 
animals having been bred from other cows. Of the herd of 
about ninety head which he owned in 1908, seventy-eight were 
descended from this cow Bertha 2nd, calved on June 22nd, 
1880, all being thus of one family. Of the other eight, three 
were of Mr. W. Tudge's Old Bracelet family, three of Mr. H. 
Haywood's Pauline family, and two of the late Mr. Myddlc- 
ton's Miss Nobleman family. Mostly all had won prizes at 
Ludlow either in the class for four breeding cows, or in that 
for four heifers. The sires used included Laddie 24703, Simon 
25779, Albert 25896, and Eaton Noble 24008. The herd was 
sold in September, 1908, as Mr. Bach had decided to join his 
sons in British Columbia. 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 183 

Major T. Millard Bennett purchased a cow at the sale 
of Mr. James Rea, Monaughty, in 1863, and two cows at the 
sale of Mr. Monkhouse, The Stow, in 1866, and from these and 
their descendants he formed a herd of over 30 breeding cows 
at Monkhall. Among the bulls may be mentioned Sir Oliver 
2nd 1773, Sir Hungerford 3477, and Avon 2393. Hector 
5961 was used during the last three years, and the bull Corn- 
lift 5270 was purchased at the Hampton Court Sale in 1885, 
taking the strain back to the old blood of Sir Oliver 2nd and 
Sir Hungerford. A number of cows and heifers were sold to 
Mr. Barneby, Saltmarsh Castle, and five bulls to Mr. James 
Kay, The Limes, went to America. 

The herd at Ensdon was founded by the late Mr. EVAN 
BOWEN in 1855 with well-selected animals from contemporaiy 
breeders, among whom may be mentioned Messrs. Thomas 
Colebatch ; Stedman, Bedstone ; Urwick, Felhampton ; Tarte, 
The Bache ; and Wright, Halston. The first bull used was 
Breiddon 856. From this sire the larger portion of the 
herd (afterwards owned by Mr. J. BoWEN Jones) traced its 
descent. Breiddon was one of the best Cronkhill bulls of his 
day, being by Wonder 420, dam Beauty, going back to Mr. 
Knight's Old Betsy. Prizeman 4063, bred by Mr. J. B. 
Green, Marlow, by Zealous, dam Polyanthus by Albert 
Edward 859, was also used. The sires in service included 
England's Glory 5314, bred by Mr. Percy, South Petherton, 
got by Chevalier 3746, dam Queen of the Roses ; and 
Sylvester 8092, bought at the sale of the Stocktonbury herd, 
in which he had been used. Mr, J. Bowen Jones' interest in 
the herd commenced in 1863, and the whole of the stock 
passed into his hands in 1873. The later introductions were 
principally of the Longner and of the late Lord Berwick's 
Cronkhill strain, of which blood so much had previously 
existed in the herd. Consignments were sold for the United 
States and for home breeders through Messrs. Russell, Birken- 
head ; Fenn, Downton ; and Tattersall, London ; and to 
Messrs. George and J. C. Bell, Buenos Ayres ; Mr. L. B. 
Harris, and others. The herd was sold by auction when Mr. 
Bowen Jones gave up the farm. 

Mr. George Bray, sen., commenced breeding Herefords 
at The Haven, Dilwyn, about the year 1830, with strains from 
his uncle, Mr. George Tomkins, Wistaston. He continued 
with the same stock for years without a change, never pur- 
chasing a female except of the Tomkins blood. He. however, 
crossed with bulls from such breeders as Mr. Perry, Cholstrey ; 
Mr. Monkhouse, The Stow ; and Mr. Carwardine of Stock- 
tonbury. 



i84 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Mr. George Child commenced a herd at Court of Noke 
in 1869, when he acquired the old-estabHshed stock of Here- 
fords belonging to the late Mr, J. S. Bannister, Weston, 
Pembridge. Some additions were made from the herd of 
his father, Mr. W. Child, Westonbury, and several animals 
were secured at his sale in 1878. In 1875 Mr. G. Child took 
the Court of Noke Farm, when he made purchases from the 
Downton Castle herd, which was sold in the beginning of that 
year. Baron 4325, Colorado 5257, Horatius 5390, a son of 
Horace, were the sires chiefly used. Numerous drafts of 
heifers and bulls were sold to go to America, Mr. G. F. Morgan 
taking the first lot, consisting often heifers by Colerado 5257, 
in 1880. Mr. Thomas Clarke, for Messrs. Earl and Stuart, 
Lafayette, Messrs. George Leigh and Co., and Mr. W. E. 
Britten were also purchasers. In 1882 Mr. Child hired out 
the bull Horatius 5290 to Mr. Tait for service in the Royal 
herd at Windsor, where he left some very good stock. So 
useful did he prove that his services were again sought in the 
Royal herd. Several steers by Horatius were sold to H.M. 
The Queen, one of which took the first prize in the three-year- 
old class at the Smithfield Club Show in 1884, and was awarded 
the prize as the best Hereford. Mr. Child was most successful 
at the Fat Stock Shows, a pair of his steers under two years 
old winning first prize at Newport in 1884 against all breeds. 
The same animals afterwards gained first and second prizes in 
their class at Birmingham and Smithfield. At Smithfield and 
Birmingham in 1885 a steer, bred by Mr. Child, gained for 
Mr. Wortley the first prize for three-year-old oxen, taking at 
the former show the special prize as best Hereford. Mr. Child 
was first in the young steer class, all these animals having 
been got by Horatius. The herd was sold in 1893. 

Mr. C. W, Radcliffe Cooke's herd at The Hellens was 
founded in 1882 by the purchase of a cow and heifer calf from 
Mr. Moore, Monksbury Court. The cow Wood Pigeon was 
bred by the late Mr. Taylor, Showle Court, and was typical of 
his strain of animals ; also by the purchase in the same year 
of three cows and calves, and three heifers in calf from the 
herd of Mr. S. Jones, Broadstone. The calves were by Mr. 
Jones' bull Columbus 6359, and the heifers were in calf to the 
same sire. At the sale of Mr. Mason's herd at Comberton, 
a cow and calf were also purchased. The calf was got by 
Earl 3rd 5049. The bull Hero 701 1 by Kimbolton, dam 
Lilian by Rodney 4907, was also bought. The chief animals 
afterwards added comprised the heifers Plum and Playful 2nd, 
bred by Mr. Turner, The Leen. At the Stocktonbury sale 
the bull calf Professor by Lord Wilton, dam Tidy by Long- 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 185 

horns 471 1, was purchased for 300 guineas. Lydia Vanguard 
was bought at Mr. Price's sale at The Hawthorns. It may be 
noted that The Hellens was always celebrated for its Hereford 
cattle, and Mr. Radcliffe Cooke has prize cups won by his 
grandfather, the late Mr. Edward Wallwyn, in 1805 and 181 1. 

At Cyfarthfa Castle Mr. W. T. Crawshay established a 
herd in 1882, by the purchase of animals selected for him by 
Mr. Thomas Fenn, Stonebrook House. Five of the animals 
were bred by Mr. Fenn himself; four were bred by Mr. F. 
Southern, Kempton, Aston-on-Clun ; three by Mr. Price, The 
Vern ; two by Mr. Y. Marston, Lady Harbour ; two by Mr. 
Burlton, Luntley ; two by Mr. Pearce, Snodhill Court ; others 
by Messrs. Taylor (Thinghill), Rawlings, Cadle, Brewer, and 
Lowe. Downton Magnet 6912 was purchased as the first 
stock bull. Three cows were bought later from Mr, Lutley, 
Brockhampton, and two from Mr. T. Nott, Buckton Park. 
The yearling bull Stockton Prince was purchased in May, 
1885, from Messrs. Fenn and Tudge, who bought him as a calf 
at the Stocktonbury sale for 200 guineas. He was by Lord 
Wilton, his dam being Ruth. The other bulls used were 
Westbury 8158 and Bonny Boy 8299. A few bulls were sold 
to Mr. G. Morgan for America. Amongst the prizes won 
were first at Newport in 1881, for Downton Magnet 6912, 
which was reserve at the Bath and West Show at Cardiff in 
1882, and second at Abergavenny in 1882. Pink was the 
second prize cow, and Cyfarthfa Fancy the second prize two- 
year-old heifer at the Glamorganshire Show in 1885. Mr. 
Crawshay gave up his herd years ago. 

Mr. Thomas Duckham, Baysham Court, Ross, .so well 
known for the valuable services he rendered to the breed as 
editor of the Herd Book, was also distinguished as a successful 
breeder, and few herds were so largely resorted to by buyers 
from all parts of the world as that at Baysham Court. 
Mr. Duckham laid the foundation of his herd in 1846, by the 
purchase, at the Earl of Oxford's sale, of the cow Eywood, so 
named from the place of sale. She was got by Cotmore 2nd, 
entered in Volume III. as having been sired by Charity 375 or 
Cotmore 376 ; more probably the latter, who was winner of 
the first prize at the first show of the Royal Agricultural 
Society at Oxford in 1839. Eywood proved a valuable 
breeder, and her daughter Delight was dam of Cato 1902, 
the last bull used by Mr. Lumsden of Auchry House, 
Aberdeenshire. After being used seven years in Aberdeen- 
shire, Cato was secured to join the herd of the Earl of 
Southesk at Kinnaird. The Sylva family was descended from 
Eywood. Sylva 4th was the dam of Unity 502, used in the 



i86 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

herd of Mr. W. S. Powell ; of Concord 5262, sold to Mr. Barry, 
Cape of Good Hope ; of Triumph, sold to Mr. Meldon, South 
America ; while another of her calves went to South Africa. 
Another early purchase by Mr. Duckham was a lot of three 
from Mr. John Hewer, Vern House, Marden, including Pope 
527. Pope turned out to be a most successful sire. A sub- 
sequent addition was made to the herd by the acquisition of 
three cows from Mr. D. Pearce, Stretton Court, Hereford. 
From Mr. E. J. Lewis, Upper Breinton, came also Winifred 
by Pope 527, of the Hewer blood. Lord Berwick's cow, 
Carlisle, produced at Baysham Court six bulls and one heifer. 
Among the bulls was Commodore 2472, first at the Bath and 
West at Bristol and at Hereford, and at the Royal at New- 
castle and Plymouth in 1864 and 1865. Another of her calves 
was Reginald by Franky, first at the Bath and West, and second 
at the Royal at Leicester in 1868. He was sold to Mr. White, 
Martindale, Sydney. The heifer from Carlisle was Silver 2nd 
by Colonist 1925, which bred seven calves. Several other 
animals were bought by Mr. Duckham from the Cronkhill herd. 
From Mr. Rea, Monaughty, was acquired Dainty 4th, calved in 
1855, got by Grenadier 961, from Dainty by Regent. Some of 
her progeny went to Jamaica. The herd of Mr. Taylor, Stret- 
ford Court, supplied the cow Venus 8th, by Santiago 2742, dam 
of Cannon Ball 4399 (by the Sir Benjamin bull Sir Cupis Ball 
2761), sold to Mr. Tudge, Adforton, and used with good 
results in his herd. The Wynnstay family, descended from 
Countess by Lottery 410, also bred well, specimens having 
been selected for Australia, South America, and the United 
States, while of the Winifreds, some were sold to South 
America, and to Mr. Whitfield, Rougemont, Canada. Among 
the sires used were Colossus 591, calved in 1846, bred by 
Mr. J. Y. Cooke; Franky 1243, bred by Mr. T. L. Meire ; 
Lord Berwick's Cronkhill 1558; Castor 1900, bred by Mr. T. Rea, 
by Sir Benjamin, and more of this strain was introduced by 
the use of Sir Cupis Ball 2761, also by Sir Benjamin. Avon 
2393, bred by Mr. Powell, was a son of Mr. Hewer's General 
1 25 1. Victor 2294 by Cronkhill, dam Winifred, was more 
than once a Royal winner. Lord Southesk's Helianthus 4641, 
whose weight at ten years old was 3024 lbs., gave a decided 
impress to the herd. Prince Horace succeeded Helianthus and 
introduced the Horace blood ; and other ones were Standard 
6706, bred by Mr. W. S. Powell, sire Unity 5092, dam 
Mr. Tudge's Bannerette by Sir Roger 4133 ; and Prince 7937, 
a three-year-old, bred at Baysham Court, got by Prince 
Horace, dam Prettymaid 7th by Helianthus. Mr. Duckham 
died in 1902, but had sold his herd prior to that time. 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 187 

Mr. Edward Farr, Court of Noke, who died in March, 
1905, had a very large herd, and came to the front more 
especially with the Wintercott-bred bull Britisher 19261, one of 
Albion's sons. After winning first and champion at the Royal 
and Herefordshire Shows, and first at Shrewsbury in 1901, 
he was sold by Mr. Farr to Messrs. George Leigh and Co., 
Ancora, and won championships in the United States. Mr. 
Farr exported numerous Herefords. 

Among the breeding animals that were in Mr. THOMAS 
Fenn'S herd at Stonebrook House may be micntioned Lady 
of the Teme, which was exhibited as a calf, and was winner 
of first prizes at most of the shows, viz. at the Royal at 
Wolverhampton, the Gloucestershire, the Leominster, and the 
Ludlow Meetings. She was afterwards shown as one of a 
pair of breeding cows, her own sister Queen of the Teme 
being her companion at the Shropshire and West Midland 
Meeting held at Ludlow, where they were awarded first prize. 
Both these cows, with Cornelia and Lady Stanton, were ex- 
hibited in a class of four breeding cows and gained first prize. 
Queen of the Teme was the granddam of Downton Rose, which 
took first prize as a two-year-old at the Bath and West of 
England Show at Worcester. She was also first at the Royal 
in 1 88 1 as a two-year-old, first at the Herefordshire Show, 
and first at the Shropshire and West Midland in the same 
year. Downton Rose was sold for exportation to America. 
Brecon was dam of Downton Baroness, which had reserve 
number as a calf at the Royal. Cornelia was the dam of a 
bull calf by Auctioneer 5194, sold for exportation to America, 
and there disposed of for 124 guineas. She was also the dam 
of three or four heifers which went to America. Hopbloom 
was dam of Downton Hopbloom, sold to go to America for 
200 guineas. Mr. Fenn had also Spot, bought at Major 
Peploe's sale for no guineas, and a cow from Stocktonbury for 
which he gave 130 guineas. A heifer was sold for 300 guineas 
for exportation to America. About fifty cows were generally 
put to the bull. The sires used up to 1886 were Auctioneer 
5194 by Horace 2nd 4655, Lord Wilton 4740 (of which Mr. 
Fenn was the joint proprietor), Downton Boy 5877, Downton 
Grand Duke 5878 by the champion bull Grateful 4622, and 
Sir Garnet 9236, the last a son of Lord Wilton. Downton 
Boy won second prize at the Royal at Kilburn. Auctioneer 
was never shown, but he proved himself a capital sire. Mr. 
Fenn sold many Herefords for exportation to the United States, 
Canada, and Australia, the purchasers including Messrs. Gudgell 
and Simpson, Messrs. Burleigh and Bodwell, Mr. Cook, Brook- 
mont, Mr. T. L. Miller, and Mr. C. M. Culbertson, in the United 



i88 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

States, and the Hon. J. H. Pope, Hon. M. H. Cochrane, and 
Mr. Gibb, in Canada. A steer bred by Mr. Fenn by Romulus 
5542, sold to the Hon. M. H. Cochrane, won the sweepstakes, 
value ;^ioo, for best carcase of any breed at the Chicago Fat 
Stock Show in 1882, when he was exhibited by Mr. C. M. 
Culbertson. Among the sires that most impressed their 
character on the herd were Severus 2nd 2747 ; Blakemere, bred 
by Mr. Haywood; Silver Chief, bred by the Hon. H. Noel 
Hill; Romulus 5542, bred by Mr. Tudge ; and others whose 
names have been given. Mr. Fenn's herd was sold in 1905, 
owing to his retiring from farming. The highest prices were 
170 guineas for the heifer Loving Cup, sold to Mr. Rowlands ; 
120 guineas for Roderick, sold to Mr. Cole, and 100 guineas 
for Royal Rupert, sold to Mr. A. R. Boughton Knight. The 
average price realised for 28 heifers and their calves was 
;^44 18s. lod. ; for the three-year-old heifers £26 i^s. ; for 13 
yearling heifers ^^38 3^. 6d. ; for 10 bulls ^^48 12s. 3^. The 
7S lots realised ;^2358 i6s. 6d., averaging upwards of ;^30 per 
head. 

Mr. G. T. Forester, of Sherlowe, began breeding Here- 
fords from purchases made at the sale of the late Mr. Thomas 
Jeffries at the Grove, Pembridge, on October 22nd, 1844. Of 
the five females bought there he had descendants of three, 
viz. Lady Chance (lot 7), Miss Fitzfavourite (lot 16), and a 
daughter of Lady Chance (lot 30). He also bought at that 
sale the bull calf Faugh-a-Ballagh 268, winner of the first 
prize at Leominster in 1844. The cow Miss Fitzfavourite, 
with her calf and the bull Byron 380, were also first in their 
class at Hereford in 1844. In 1845 Mr. Forester bought from 
Mr. Carpenter, Eardisland, a two-year-old heifer by Hope 439, 
commended at Hereford. In 1847, at Mr. Carpenter's sale, a 
cow bred by Mr. D. Williams, Newton, by Mr. John Turner's 
Chance 348, was acquired. In 1867, at the sale of Mr. 
Thomas Morris, Therrow, Breconshire, a cow Rosebud — 
subsequently named by Mr. Forester, Norma — by Druid 1220, 
was purchased ; in 1868, at the sale of Mr. Ashwood, Downton, 
the cow Her Highness, by Triumph 1779, was secured. Mr. 
Ashwood's herd was of the blood of his landlord Mr. Knight, 
Downton Castle, but Triumph was bred by Mr. Gravenor, who 
was about the last to possess a herd of the pure Tomkins and 
Price blood. This cow, Her Highness, proved an excellent 
breeder, and curiously enough, though herself of grey blood on 
both sire's and dam's side, she brought only one grey calf 
From the above-mentioned seven females the whole of the 
Sherlowe herd was descended, except that, at the Stocktonbury 
sale, Mr. Forester bought the four-year-old cow Peg by Lord 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 189 

Wilton 4740 ; and a one-year-old heifer, Miss Ruby, by Presi- 
dent Arthur 7177, out of Ruby by Lord Wilton 4740. The 
first bull used was Faugh-a-Ballagh 368 (bought at the Grove 
sale), who died of pleuro pneumonia the following year, to 
replace whom, in 1847, Hope 439 was purchased from Mr. 
Carpenter. Subsequently, the bulls used were chiefly those of 
Mr. John Hewer's breeding, viz. Governor 464, Wonder 420, 
Darling 1202, David 1204, Doctor 1964, Mameluke 2nd 2632, 
Abdel Kader 1837, Above All 2910, and Abernethy 2908. 
At Lord Berwick's sale in 1861, Mr. Forester bought Severn 
1382, by Walford 871, out of Mr. D. Williams' Rebecca by 
Mr. Hewer's Governor 464. From the Hampton Court herd 
in 1872, Minstrel 3256, by Sir Oliver 2nd 1733, dam Minnie by 
Sir Benjamin, was secured ; in 1874, Charon 6424, bred by Mr. 
Green, Marlow, was obtained ; and in 1880, Downton Grand 
Duke 5878, bred by Mr. Price, Court House, was used. 
Occasionally also a home-bred bull was used, notably Rhap- 
sodist 4902, by Minstrel 3256, out of Angelica Kaufmann by 
Abdel Kader 1837 ; and Acheron 5177, by Charon 6424, out 
of Hetoera by Severn 1382. These two were very good getters 
and should have been used more freely in the herd. The later 
bulls in service were Othello 6092, own brother to Mr. Turner's 
prize bull Pirate 3368, purchased in 1881, and Plough Monday 
9034, also bred by Mr. Turner, by The Grove 3rd 5051, out of 
Rhodia, and purchased at The Leen sale in 1883. 

The Gattertop herd, formerly the property of Mr. W. J. 
Smith, was founded in 1872, animals having been purchased 
from the late Mr. E. Russell, Cholstrey — by Demetrius 2494 ; 
Mr. Bedford, Milton House — by Frank 2762 and Triumph 
2337 ; Mr. J. Pinches, Hardwick — by Heart of Oak 2035 I 
Mr. T. Williams, Brobury Court — by The Duke 4184; and 
Mr. W. E. Taylor, Thingehill Court— by Pilot 5647. Five 
heifers were introduced from the herd of Mr. E. Davies, Palton, 
Much Wenlock, by Baronet 5208 ; and two heifers from Mr. 
W. E. Britten, Stapleton Castle, by Mars 12th 5457. The 
chief sires used were Young Sir Frank 4274 by Sir Frank 
2762, and Duke of Bedford 5030 by Croft 927. The bulls 
Pertly 5498 by Horace, Zulu Chief 6773, and Stockton Wilton 
by Lord Wilton, were used. Young Sir Frank left his impress 
on the herd, his stock being remarkable for size and symmetry. 
Duke of Bedford was also a very useful sire. Pertly fully 
kept up the reputation of his noted sire Horace, many of his 
offspring going to America. The other two young bulls, Zulu 
Chief and Stockton Wilton, also proved successful in the herd. 
The chief families were the Spencers, Beauties, Statelies, Stellas, 
Jennies, Perfections, and the Countess Lees, the last going back 



190 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

to the Hewer blood. The sales were principally to America — 
to Mr. Drimmie, Iowa ; Mr. Thomas Lewis, Beecher ; the 
Wyoming Association, and the Hon. M. H. Cochrane, Hill- 
hurst. Mr. Smith exhibited only at the local Shows, where 
he was successful. After Mr. Smith's death his herd was 
dispersed in 1908. 

Mr. John Gillespie, Atherton House, Preston, interested 
himself in endeavouring to extend the Herefords into districts 
where they were not previously cultivated. Prior to his 
removal to Lancashire he was a tenant of the trustees of the 
late Mr. Thomas Ashton, Hatfield Court, and then kept a few 
Herefords. His first purchase was in September, 1878, from 
Mr. William Harris, Hampton Charles, Worcestershire, the cow 
Claret and her calf Claret 2nd being acquired. Other pur- 
chases were made from time to time ; among them the cow 
Rosa Lee 2nd, from Mr. H. J. Bailey's Rosedale, dam of Mr. 
H. R. Hall's prize bull Dale Tredegar 5856. P>om Mr. A. 
P.ogers, The Rodd, the cow Floss 2nd by Marquis of Water- 
ford 5454, was bought. This herd was dispensed in 1889. 

Mr. S. C. Good's herd at Aston Court was commenced 
in the year 1850 with cows purchased at Mr. Edward Good's 
sale, by a bull bred by Mr. Walker, Burton. A portion of the 
calves were by a grey bull from the herd at Ashley Moor (Mr. 
Salwey's), and bulls were afterwards used from the herd of the 
late Mr. Richard Roberts, Lower Stanage, notably one by 
Walford 871. Afterwards a bull by Sir David was used. 
From Mr. W. Hall's herd at Ashton came. Sir Dick 4114, 
Artist 2934, and Major 2nd 71 11; and in the interval the 
noted stock-getter Severus 2nd 2747 was used in the herd 
three seasons. Then followed Mars 3244, Disraeli 3066, and 
Ludlow 6050, afterwards Knighton 7764, and Ashton Horace 
by Chancellor 5246. At Mr. Roberts' sale four of the best 
bred cows were purchased and added to the herd, among them 
being Westonbury 2nd by Artful 2391, a cow by Sir Benjamin 
1387, and old Broady by Walford 871. 

The Glanusk herd was established by Sir Joseph Bailey 
(afterwards Lord Glanusk) in 1836. It was commenced with 
cows bought from Mr. Jenkins, Trebarried, and Mr. Morris, 
Dderw, and comprised specimens of the Giantess, Miss Comus, 
Speckle, Miss Dderw, and Gem tribes. Prizes were won at 
the Crickhowell, Abergavenny, and Brecon shows. One of 
the earliest bulls in service was Newton 344, own brother to 
Sir David. The herd which the late Sir Joseph Bailey left at 
his death in 1858 was of the finest quality, and Sir J. R. Bailey, 
Bart., M.P., carefully maintained it, the sires used having been 
of exceptional merit. They included Giant 1411, Comus 1927, 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 191 

Colossus 3030, Prince Imperial 2 171, Tomking 2829, Stanway 
2790, Baron 3670, Tippo 4202, Von Moltke 2nd 5127, King 
of the Dale 2nd 5408, Sorcerer 6197, Sultan 5619, Tredegar 
5077, Mountaineer 6081, Velocipede 6241, King of the Moun- 
tain 8786, Painter 11526, and Silvio 11691 — the last-named 
bred by the Earl of Coventry, and got by Good Boy. 

A considerable portion of Mr. E. Grasett's fine herd at 
Wetmore traced straight back to the earliest Herefords of v^'hich 
there is any record, being descended from the celebrated stock 
of the late Rev. J. R. Smythies of Lynch Court. Mr. Grasett 
was for eight years in partnership with Mr. George Smythies, 
son of the gentleman just named, and on his retirement became 
sole proprietor in 1878. Sires of capital blood and good per- 
sonal qualities were always used. Among them may be men- 
tioned Spark 5th 5008, bred by Mr. J. B. Green, Marlow, got 
by Dauphin 3058, of the Spangle tribe ; Roarer, by Mr. 
Taylor's grand show bull Tredegar 5077 ; Downton Star 4522, 
bred by Mr. T. Fenn, Stonebrook House ; Romulus 5542, bred 
by the late Mr. Tudge, by The Doctor 5045, dam Bannerette by 
Sir Roger 4133, bought at the Adforton sale for 120 guineas ; 
Benjamin 7th 4350 and Blakemere 5227, bred by Mr. Hay- 
wood, Blakemere House ; Victory 4th 5817, bred by Mr. Green, 
by Renown 2719; Fairy Prince 5319, bred by Mr. Lutley, 
Brockhampton, by Coriolanus 3769, going back on the dam's 
side to the best Hewer blood, and winner of first prize at the 
Royal Show at Truro in 1880 ; Hartington 5358, bred by Mr. 
Rogers, The Grove, by The Grove 3rd 5051 ; his son Head- 
strong 5960 ; Horace 4th 5388, by Horace 2nd 4655 ; Horace 
6th 5027, by Horace 3877 ; and Rocket 2nd, by The Grove 
3rd. The strains thus skilfully worked into the herd were 
the very choicest, and the blending of the Sir David and Sir 
Thomas blood with that of Horace was a decided feature, the 
result of mingling the two most famous modern lines with the 
old Lynch Court sorts being very successful. Mr. Grasett's 
herd generally numbered from 38 to 40 breeding cows. Locket 
2nd by Spark 5th was descended from Mr. Smythies' Lovely, 
the early sires in the pedigree being Trusty 15, bred by Mr. 
Price of Ryall, a son of his famous cow Toby Pigeon, and 
Goliah 37, also bred by Mr. Price, and full of the best Tom- 
kins blood. It was mainly from this family that the specimens 
of the old Lynch Court herd at Wetmore were derived, and 
the heavy flesh for which tne old Tomkins cattle were cele- 
brated was retained. The bulls used prior to 1886 included 
Horace 4th 5388, by Horace 2nd 4655, dam Sunflower; 
Horace 6th, by Horace 3877, dam Gillyflower by Wolver- 
hampton Boy 4198; and Hartington 5358, bred by Mr. B. 



192 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Rogers, The Grove, got by The Grove 3rd 5051, dam Gay 
by Longhorn 3216. The winner of three first, five second, 
and one champion prizes, Hartington was sire of many prize 
animals both at home and abroad, some of his stock having 
been particularly successful in Canada, and he established for 
himself the reputation of being one of the leading sires of his 
day. He was sire of the best Hereford in the show-yard at 
Smithfield in 1883, and of Miss Annie, the heifer that gained 
the silver medal as the best heifer in the Dominion of Canada, 
open to all comers. Mr. Grasett sold largely for exportation, 
many going to the Hon. M. H. Cochrane, Hillhurst, Canada ; 
Mr. C. Cook, Iowa ; Messrs. Gudgell and Simpson, Messrs. 
Leigh and Co., Messrs. Smythies and Strange, South America ; 
Messrs. Swan and Co., Wyoming ; Mr. G. F. Morgan, Mr. 
T. L. Miller, Mr. Bissell, Mr. Culbertson, Mr. Stevens, South 
America ; and Mr. Daniell ; while 1 5 were disposed of to Mr. 
L. L. Bridges, Ontario, Canada. On leaving Wetmore Mr. 
Grasett's herd was dispersed, and a number of the animals of 
the old strains were secured by Admiral Britten for his herd 
at Kenswick, which is now managed by Mr. Grasett. 

A very choice herd was established by Mr. RiCHARD 
Green, The Whittern. At The Leen sale in 1883 nine females 
were purchased, viz.. Trinket by Spartan 5009, Pearl 2nd by 
Spartan, Maggie by Silver Boy 3419, Duchess 5th by Corsair 
5271, Rosa by Cruickshank 5849, Laura by Spartan, Gipsy 
Queen by The Grove 3rd 5051, Belladonna by Spartan, and 
Graceful by Plantagenet 5503. The cows Sarnsfield Cherry 
3rd by Bidney Boy 6310, Cherry Pie by Docklow, and Luna 
Star by Sir Watkin 4999, were acquired from Mr. Robinson, 
Lynhales. At Mr. Carwardine's sale at Stocktonbury, 
Beatrice by Longhorns 471 1, Perfection by Rodney 4907, and 
Bertha by Rodney were bought, while five females were 
selected from Mr. Arkwright's herd at the sale at Hampton 
Court in 1885 : Ivington Lass 9th by Mareschal Neil 4760, 
Orange Blossom 7th by Mareschal Neil, Orange 6th by Con- 
juror 5264, Pearl 4th by Ivington Boy 4662, and Beauty i ith by 
Conjuror. At Mr. Burlton's sale at Luntley Court, Cowbridgc 
Lass by Pertly 3498, and Gaylass 5 th by Pertly, were pur- 
chased, while Bedford 2nd by Cremorne 5279 came from Iving- 
tonbury. Other bulls in use were Alexander, dam Linnet, sire 
Lord Wilton ; Whittern Grove by Silver Boy, Highland Laird, 
Rose Stock, and Hogarth. With such a combination of choice 
blood and good looks the herd proved very successful. It was 
brought to a high state of perfection under the skilled manage- 
ment of Mr. T. A. Turner. During the fifteen years Mr. 
Green won nearly a dozen championships and upwards of 




DowxTON Hall (Sir W. Rouse Bough ton, Bart.). 




J'hoto/'V "'■ 11 ■ Bustin.\ 

Hampton Court, Hkkf.fokhshire (Mr. Arkwright). 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 193 

one hundred and twenty first, eighty second, and thirty-six 
third prizes at the Royal, Bath and West of England, and 
other shows. In 1900 and in 1903, he won the coveted 
Leinster Cup, value ^150, at the Royal Dublin Society's 
show and among other victories he took two firsts at the Royal 
Show in 1903. Mr. Green had several good bulls which he 
sold for exportation. He was particularly successful in regard 
to the cows and heifers bred in the herd, some of which were 
models of style and quality. The charming heifers Perilla and 
Sister Perilla amongst many others will be remembered for 
their merits and great successes. In October, 1902, a con- 
siderable portion of the herd was sold, and, owing to continued 
ill-health, Mr. Green had resolved to make a complete dispersal 
in the autumn of 1903, the sale being fixed for October. Before 
that date, however, he died, in September, 1903. 

The Hampton Court herd, so successful in the posses- 
sion of Mr. J. H. Arkwright, was one of the oldest in the 
country, having been begun in 18 19 by Mr. John Arkwright. 
The early sires used were chiefly from the strains of Mr. 
Yarworth, Mr. Tully, Mr. Tomkins, Mr. Hayton (Moreton), 
Mr. Hewer, Mr. Smythies — in short, all the best herds of the 
time. Of the cows introduced a few may be specified. Hare- 
wood Beauty was bought from Sir Hungerford Hoskyns in 
1835, and from her sprang the Ivington Lass tribe. The 
Gaylass and Lady Leicester families traced from Curly by 
Reliance 278, a bull bred by Mr. Yeomans, Moreton, and son 
of the celebrated prize bull Royal 331. The Orange Blossom 
sort go back to a cow by Jupiter 1289, bred by Mr. Turner, 
Court of Noke. The Curly family had its origin in a cow 
called Hickman's Pleasant by Reliance 278, bought from 
Mr. R. Hickman, Wintercott, in 1845. The Gipsy strain was 
from a cow by Quicksilver 2nd 6126; the Oyster Girl from 
a cow by Reliance 278 ; the Silks from a cow by Jupiter. 
Welcome, calved in 1854, and bought from Mr. E. Price, Pem- 
bridge, was got by Young Confidence 653, and she founded a 
valuable strain. At Mr. Tudge's sale at Adforton, Beatrice 
by Lord Hythe 3937, her heifer calf Beatrice 2nd by Mareschal 
Neil 4760, and the grand show cow Rosebud (bred by Mr. 
Rogers, The Grove), got by Sir Thomas 2228, were pur- 
chased. A cow named Perkins' Beauty, by Young Royal 
1470, was bought in 1863 from her breeder, Mr. Perkins, 
Woodhouse, Bodenham, and founded the well-known Hampton 
Beauty sort. From Nosegay, by Treasurer 1 105, and full of 
the old Rea blood, acquired at the Westonbury sale in 1863, 
the Hampton Roses were bred, while there were a number of 
smaller families. The herd was exhibited with great success. 



194 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Sir Hungerford 3447, a capital stock bull as well as a show- 
yard winner, was first at the Royal Shows at Leicester and 
Manchester, and also at the Bath and West of England Show 
at Southampton. Hampton Beauty, by Sir Oliver 2nd 1773, 
was first at the Leicester Royal. Gaylass 4th was first at the 
Bristol Royal in 1877 and second at Kilburn and Carlisle. 
Abigail was first at the Kilburn Meeting. Conjuror 5264 won 
12 first prizes, three of them at the Royal. Sir Oliver 2nd 
1733, a son of Sir Thomas 2228, was first at the Royal at 
Worcester in 1863. Rosebud gained many Royal firsts, her 
son Rose Cross 7237 having been first at the Bath and West, 
and second at the Royal Show in 1884. Pearl 3rd was first 
at the Royal at Carlisle. One of the most impressive bulls 
used in the herd was Ivington Boy 4662 by Mr. Tudge's 
Orleans 2661, dam Ivington Lass. The Lord Wilton bull 
Iroquois 7039, bred by Mr. A. E. Hughes, Wintercott, was in 
service. He was from the same dam as the bull Washington, 
exported to America, and on June 17th, 1885, he weighed 
I ton 4 cwt. (2688 lbs.). The bull Sir Richard from Hampton 
Rose, bred by Mr. Arkwright, and sold to Mr. D. Pierce, 
Ohio, in 1870, left most excellent progeny in the United 
States ; he and his offspring having done much to attract 
the favourable notice of Americans to the Hereford breed. 
A large portion of the Hampton Court herd was sold in 
August, 1885, at a time when prices of stock were very low in 
this country, and when there was a lull in the foreign trade. 
The average for 135 head was about ^^31, the highest price 
being no guineas for the bull Hampton Wilton, purchased 
for Mr. Bissell. From 1859 to 1898 Mr. Arkwright won 
upwards of 300 prizes, prominent winners being Rose Cross, 
Rose Cross 2nd, Spring Jack, Happy Hampton, Pearl Cross, 
Prince Bulbo, Red Cross, Montezuma, etc. The sires in use 
about 1 886 were Iroquois 7039, Lord Chesterfield 8833, Hamp- 
ton Court 8707, and Cheriystone 9700. The number then in the 
herd was 82, comprising representatives of the Ivington Lass, 
Gaylass, Curly, Gipsy, Oyster Girl, Silk, Beatrice, Beauty, 
Hampton Rose, Pearl, and Lively families. As will be seen 
from the list of successful bulls, Mr. Arkwright's herd won 
many prizes in the eighties and nineties of the nineteenth 
century. A word should be added in commendation of the 
admirable system that was adopted of keeping records of the 
herd. After Mr. Arkwright's death the herd was sold in 1904, 
when it realized ;^2854. Pearl 15th made 210 guineas to Mr. 
P. Coats ; Pearl i8th, 150 guineas, to Mr. Foster; Pretty Maid 
7th, 125 guineas, to Mr. C. Williams ; and Ivington Lass, 100 
guineas, to Capt. W. Slator. The bulls realized up to 70 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 195 

guineas. The cows, heifers, and calves averaged ^^ guineas, 
and the bulls 41 guineas. 

The Hatfield Herd was founded in 1881, when, owing 
to the difficulty experienced in getting good tenants in the de- 
pressed state of farming, the trustees of the late Mr. Thomas 
Ashton — viz. Major Howarth Ashton and his brother — 
determined on taking into their hands a farm of 500 acres on 
the estate, then without a tenant. They engaged the services 
of that experienced judge of Herefords Mr. George Bedford, 
Leominster, as manager, and this good choice was justified 
very soon, for the first year Princess beat everything at the 
shows as a heifer, being first at the Royal, Bath and West, and 
Shropshire Meetings, and was sold at a high price to Mr. 
Culbertson, U.S.A. She was by Marquis out of Moss Rose. 
Major Hatfield won first for yearling bulls at Ledbury in 1884, 
the animal being sold to go to America. The principal sire 
used was Prophet by Moses. Moses was bred by Mr. Henry 
Bailey, Rowden Abbey, Bromyard, and so named because he 
was dropped in the bulrushes by a pond at the place where 
Mr. Bailey was then living. 

Mr. Henry Haywood, Blakemere House, commenced 
breeding Herefords in 1853 by acquiring the herd established 
with care and judgment by his father-in-law, the late Mr. 
William Matthews, who selected the progenitors of his stock 
chiefly from his relative, Mr. Weyman, Stocktonbury ; infusing 
frequently therewith several strains of Mr, John Hewer's herd, 
and having amongst others the bulls Jupiter 518, Mark 424, 
and Tupsley 432. Mr. Haywood for many years used the 
bulls belonging to his neighbour, the late Mr. John Davies, 
Preston-on-Wye, viz. Woodman 2nd 1450, Preston 2688, 
Cholstrey 1 1 18, and Frugality 1997, the sire of Horace. Many 
of the females in the herd were descended from Beauty 
(Volume VL, p. 140) by Preston, dam by Wilmaston 1455 by 
Royal 331, winner of the first prize at the Royal Show at 
Bristol. The only addition to his herd for many years made 
by Mr. Haywood was Hewer (Volume VL, p. 220), bought at Mr. 
John Hewer's sale at Marden in November, 1865, and from 
this cow was descended Blakemere 5227, the sire of Mr. Fenn's 
champion prize cow in 1880. Truro 5677, sire Horace sSyy, 
the champion prize bull at Dublin in 1881, died at Blakemere 
House after one year's service. Pertley 5495, another Horace 
bull, and Attila 6790, by The Grove 3rd, were used. Mr. Hay- 
wood had also in service Honey wood 8741 from Hopbine 7th 
(Volume H., p. 900) of the Hewer blood. For use among cows 
and heifers that were most affluent in Horace blood Mr. Hay- 
wood hired Mr. H. W. Taylor's Mohican 8719 by Franklin, and 



196 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

nearly full brother to the champion bull Maidstone. Among 
the more noteworthy specimens that were in the herd was 
Brunette (Volume H., p. 199) by Blakemere 5227. Her calf of 
1 88 1, Brunette 2nd, won several first prizes in America for 
Mr. G. F. Morgan ; and that of 1884, Belinda, with the year- 
ling heifer White Ear 3rd, were shipped in 1885 to Mr. 
Cochrane, Canada. Another member of the Beauty family 
was Be True 2nd (Volume XH., p. 209). Her daughter Bellona, 
calved in 1885, also well maintained the character of the sort. 
Many of the Hewer and Beauty families, with others from the 
herd, were exported to America, Mr. G. F. Morgan taking 
five in July, 1880. After Mr. Haywood's death his herd was 
sold in 1902. His son, Mr. William Haywood, has founded a 
herd at Westfield House, near Hereford, chiefly from the 
Blakemere stock. 

Herefords had been bred at Felhampton Court for more 
than a century, and Mr. John Hill, when proprietor of the herd 
there, retained descendants of the old Unvick strains. The 
cattle that belonged to Mr. Urwick at Felhampton Court were 
of a light yellow red colour, and the appearance, in the " Live 
Stock Journal," of a notice of the herd by " Pimpernel " in 
1880, elicited from the Hon. A. B. Allen, New York, a letter 
in which he stated that, among the earliest importations into the 
State of New York were a few thus coloured. They were on 
shorter legs, thicker and more compact bodies, with ample 
soft furry coats, and handled much better than those of a dark 
red. The cows were altogether better milkers than those of the 
latter colour, and he was confident they were better feeders 
and matured a little the earliest. The next addition made by 
Mr. Hill was from the herd of Mr. Green of Marlow, noted for 
its great scale and good proportion of lean meat when fed. 
From it came the Zeal, Cherry, Duchess, and other families. 
The Monaughty, Coxall, The Leen, Benthall, and Sherlowe 
herds were also laid under tribute. But the most important 
point in connection with the herd was the introduction of the 
Cronkhill blood. The Polyanthus family, descended from 
Mr. Knight's Old Betsy, had been a favourite sort with the 
late Lord Berwick and his brother, the late Hon. H. Noel Hill, 
the latter of whom purchased Polyanthus at the sale held after 
the death of Lord Berwick in 186 1. At the sale of the Hon. 
H. Hill's herd, on his death in 1870, Mr. John Hill purchased 
Apricot, the granddaughter of Polyanthus, and twin sister to 
Nectarine, which latter cow he also afterwards acquired. At 
the outset the Marlow blood was crossed with the Cronkhills 
at Felhampton Court to gain size. This had also been done 
by Mr. Robert Burton at Longner Hall, among his Cronkhills, 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 197 

by the use of King Dick, out of one of the Marlow Duchesses. 
One of the Marlow bulls used by Mr. Hill was Dauphin 2nd 
3783, got by Zealous 2349, who was a son of the famous Sir 
Benjamin 1387. Dauphin 2nd was a bull of extraordinary 
size, his weight in March, 1877, having been no less than 
25 cwt. 2 qrs. 12 lbs. He did not, however, do the herd 
much good, being rather big and coarse. Another Marlow 
bull was used, both before and after Dauphin 2nd, with much 
greater success. He was Hopeful 2nd 3876, by Renown 
2719, from Hardy by Zealous 2349, Renown having been 
bred by Lord Berwick. Hopeful 2nd was a grand getter, 
and his quality was wonderful. Renown was bought by 
Mr. Smythies, late of Wetmore ; from him by Mr. Green, 
Marlow ; and he was the sire of some of the best stock in the 
Marlow herd. A very large addition of Cronkhill blood was 
made at the Longner Hall sale in 1881, when, besides a 
number of cows and heifers, the bull Merry Monarch 5466 
(got by Triumph 3rd 421 1, dam Peach, out of Polyanthus) 
was purchased. Here the Rarities and Bright Ladys were 
acquired. Both these go back to Mr. T. A. Knight's Cherry ist, 
the former branching off at Dorcas by Ashley Moor White 
Bull 870, and the latter at her half-sister. Damsel, by 
Cholstrey 868. Mr. Hill not only bought largely at the 
Longner Hall sale, but he subsequently picked up nearly 
all the specimens of the Cronkhill herd then disposed of that 
were not exported. The result was that of the 1 1 5 cows and 
heifers, whose pedigrees were given in the catalogue of the 
Felhampton Court herd for 1884, 47 were of Cronkhill 
descent. The proportion was afterwards larger, and Mr. Hill's 
aim was to make this element still further predominate in his 
herd. Mr. Hill, who has been a diligent student of Hereford 
history, had early seen that the animals selected by Lord 
Berwick from Mr. Salwey traced from the very oldest and 
best strains in existence. The career of the founder of these 
families, Mr. T. A. Knight of Downton, has already been 
sketched, and it will be remembered that he obtained his 
stock from the most eminent breeders of the eighteenth 
century. Mr. Hill rendered a service of great value to the 
breed by devoting his attention to these grand old sorts, and 
proving that they still possessed all their former excellence. 
There were usually at Felhampton Court about 150 head of 
cattle, and the character of the various families was strikingly 
maintained. For several years the bull Merry Monarch 5466 
was used. He was the highest-priced animal at the Longner 
Park sale, and was a most successful sire. Mr. Housman's 
description of this noted animal may be reproduced : — " Merry 



198 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Monarch is really a noble specimen of the high-bred Hereford. 

His broad forehead, full eyes, flat-rooted horns, with their 

wide and downward bend, give him great character, even 

when only his head is seen, but his head is a faithful index of 

the mass that follows it. . . . The front is immensely deep 

and grand to look at, the neck is full of masculine strength, 

without excess or coarseness, the breast large and bulging, yet 

not throwing any other part into insignificance. The bull, 

in no forced condition — only fair working order — has beef 

everywhere, very heavily packed behind the shoulder (where 

most bulls are deficient), ample, for a lean bull, over the crops, 

thickly covering his strong loin and level hind-quarters, and 

filling every nook and corner of the frame. The depth at 

the flank, and armful of heavy flank (it is much more than 

a handful, and hangs out by its weight), balance the depth of 

fore-quarters, and the ribs fore and aft, while they spring out 

boldly and at once, and allow abundance of room for the vital 

organs, are not in too great a hurry to curve in again, but 

extend low enough to give great depth of side." Merry 

Monarch was assisted by his son Cronkhill Monarch 6885, 

from Rarity by Conqueror 1929, and thus inheriting a double 

share of the Knight or Cronkhill blood. Other sires were 

Royal Monarch and Felhampton Grove, both bred in the herd. 

Royal Monarch, by Merry Monarch was out of Gladys, by The 

Grove 3rd 5051, purchased at The Leen sale for no guineas, 

and representing the best of Mr. Philip Turner's bull-breeding 

tribes, her dam being by the Royal prize bull Spartan 5009. 

Felhampton Grove was also by The Grove 3rd, and out of 

Columbine, bought at The Leen, and got by Silver Boy 3419, 

who was bred by the Hon. and Rev. H. N. Hill, and got by 

Young Conqueror 3612. Mr. Hill did not exhibit his cattle, 

but in many ways he has done yeoman's service in advancing 

the interests of the breed. Foreign buyers early discovered 

the merit of the Felhampton Court herd, and they made heavy 

drafts from it. The extent of this demand is best shown by 

the number of private sales in 1882 and 1883. It appeared 

that during these years no fewer than 104 pedigree animals 

were sold from the herd. Among the foreign buyers were the 

Hon. M. H. Cochrane, Hillhurst, Canada ; Mr. T. L. Miller, 

Beecher ; Messrs. George Leigh and Co., Beecher, Illinois ; 

J. V. Farwell, Chicago ; C. M. Culbertson, Canada ; J. W. 

Bookwalter, Ohio ; Senor C. Quesada, Buenos Ayres ; Messrs. 

Estill and Elliott, U.S.A. ; Hon. J. H. Pope, Canada ; Professor 

Brown, Canada ; Mr. H. Mackern, Buenos Ayres ; Messrs. 

Gudgell and Simpson, Missouri ; Mr. S. Martin, Buenos Ayres ; 

Senor L. Pintos, Buenos Ayres ; Senor A. Casares, Buenos 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 199 

Ayres ; Senor J. Gomez, Buenos Ayres ; Senor Salas, Buenos 
Ayres, and others. In the hands of several of these gentle- 
men, cattle bred by Mr. Hill were shown with much success, 
an example of which was the high honours they obtained at 
the Buenos Ayres Exhibition in 1886. The herd was sold 
in 1898, when Mr. Hill removed from Felhampton Court to 
Marsh Brook House. 

Few breeders exported more Herefords to all parts of the 
world than Mr. Samson J. Holder, Court Farm, Aston 
Ingham, whose cattle were sent to South Africa, South America, 
the United States, Canada, and other distant lands. The herd 
combined some of the best strains of blood of the oldest and 
most eminent breeders, including such names as Messrs. 
Roberts, Ivingtonbury ; T. Rogers, Coxall ; J. B. Green, 
Marlow ; H. J. Bailey, Rosedale, Tenbury ; B. Rogers, The 
Grove ; P. R. Jackson, Blackbrooke ; J. Moore, Monksbury ; 
J. Hewer, Vern House ; Stedman, Bucknell, Salop ; Turner, 
The Noke ; Vaughan, Cholstrey ; J. Rea, Monaughty ; P. 
Turner, The Leen ; J. Morris, Stocktonbury ; J. Wigmore, 
Bickerton Court ; Capt. Crawshay, Dany Park ; J. B. Lutley, 
Brockhampton ; W. Tudge, Adforton ; J. E. Jones, Breinton, 
etc., etc, 

Mr. W. G. Hotten's herd at Trelasker, Cornwall, was 
established in May, 1 871, by the purchase from Mr. Duckham, 
Baysham Court, of Dainty 7th (Volume VIII., p. 191) and her 
heifer calf Beauty of Avon 2393, and Jewel (Volume VII. p. 
224) with heifer calf Jewess by Avon 2393. At the same time 
Waterlily, by Hildebrand (Volume XV., p. 335), and her heifer 
calf Lotus by Beguildy 4342, were bought from Mr. Thomas 
Nott, Buckton Park. Spangle by Cincinnatus 3749, bred by 
Mr. Nott, and Dart 4th by King of the Lilies 3892, bred by Mr. 
W. E. Britten, Stapleton Castle, were also acquired. The bull 
Gamester 31 18, bred by the late Mr. Gibbons, got stock with 
thick, heavy flesh and good constitution. Viceroy 5679 left 
useful animals, dark in colour, well fleshed, and deep milkers. 
Grand Duke 5342, Ethelred 6421, and Hartington 6468 were 
used, and the sire recently used was Brampton 5231. Several 
cows and heifers were sold to the Iowa Hereford Cattle 
Company, and bulls went to Buenos Ayres. 

The herd of Mr. Barneby Lutley at Brockhampton, 
was commenced in 1871, Mr. Hugh Wyndham having been 
entrusted with the selection of the animals. He purchased the 
bull Coriolanus 3769, from Mr. Tudge, Adforton. In 1872 
five cows were purchased from Mr. John Hewer, among them 
being Gipsy Girl, a great favourite of her breeder. In the 
same year Mr, Wyndham bought largely at the sale of Mr, 



200 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Henry Higgins, WooUaston Grange, near Chepstow, who had 
largely used Hewer blood. In 1873 two cows were acquired 
from Mr. Stedman, Bedstone, and subsequent additions were 
made from the herds of Mr. Green, Marlow. The great aim 
had been to preserve the Hewer type and character, and this 
was attained with great success. 

The herd at Stapleton Castle, owned by Mr. E. J. MORRIS, 
numbered in 1886 about 130 head of breeding animals, ex- 
clusive of 30 steers. It was originally started at Stanley 
Pontlarge, in Gloucestershire, about fifty years ago, on a farm 
the property of the Earl of Wemyss and March, where Mr. 
Morris resided for eighteen years. Animals used in the 
formation of the herd were bred by Mr. B. Rogers, The Grove ; 
the late Mr. Rogers, The Stocken ; Mr. Fenn, Stonebrook 
House; the late Rev. Archer Clive, Whitfield; the late Mr. 
W. C. Morris, Whitwick ; the late Mr. Roberts, Ivingtonbury, 
and others. In the spring of 1875 Mr. Morris removed his 
herd to Gwernaffel, a large, hilly, poor farm, near Knighton 
in Radnorshire. At the memorable sales of Mr. J. B. Green 
(Marlow Lodge), who was the outgoing tenant at Gwernaffel, 
at which 120 cattle averaged nearly ;^44 each, Mr. Morris 
purchased 22 animals, mostly sired by or in calf to the wonderful 
bull Renown 2719, and including animals of the celebrated 
Cherry, Lady Mary, Vanity, Violet, Pearl, Old Governess, 
Cora, and Zoe tribes ; also Jessie and Satin from Mr. Gibbons, 
Hampton Bishop, the last two strains, through Shamrock 2nd 
2210 and The Admiral, being closely allied to Horace 3877. 
From the late Mr. Tudge, Adforton, Mr. Morris acquired 
Dowager by Pilot 2156, Hermia by The Doctor 5045, and 
Picnic by The Doctor. At the sale of Mr. T. Rogers at 
Coxall in 1878, Mr. Morris purchased Maid of Lome 2nd by 
Longhorns 3216, her twin heifer calf Louise of Lome by 
Cheerful 5254, and Tiny by Horace 3877. From Mrs. Edwards, 
Wintercott, came Dowager by Royalist 4921, and also Silver 
by the same sire. At the sale of Mr. J. Rogers at Pipton in 
1 88 1, two of the Sovereign tribe were purchased. The sires 
chiefly used by Mr. Morris at Gwernaffel were Victor 4th 5 1 16, 
by Renown and out of Mr. Green's Old Vanity ; Baron Gulliver 
5204, by Baron 4th 4326, purchased from Mr. T. Myddleton, 
then at Lynaven ; The Duke 5638 and Charity 5249, home- 
bred bulls; and Royal 13th 6154. In 1882 Mr. Morris re- 
moved to Stapleton Castle, and his herd greatly benefited by 
the change to a warmer climate and better soil. At Mr. W. E. 
Britten's sale at Stapleton Castle, Mr. Morris purchased seven 
females sired by Mars I2th 5457, Colerado 5257, Horatius 
5390, and King of the Lilies 3892. At The Leen sale in 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 201 

1883, he bought at very high prices Diadem by Corsair 5271, 
and Emerald by Provost 4067, both in calf to The Grove 3rd 
5051. Both cows produced heifer calves, but unfortunately 
Emerald's was lost at birth. Another wonderfully good cow 
was added in Pink 2nd, by Cremorne 5279, purchased at the 
sale of Mr. Goode, Ivingtonbury. The sires in use about 1886 
were Youngster 6269, bred by Mr. T. Myddleton, Beckjay ; 
Columbus 8024, by The Grove 3rd, out of Columbine, bought 
at The Leen sale by Mr. Hill, Felhampton Court ; and Captain 
Frere 8362, by Sir Bartle Frere 6682, for which ^210 was 
paid at the Stocktonbury sale. Youngster was used for four 
seasons, and weighed nearly 24 cwt. He proved a valuable 
sire. Charity 3rd 6350, by the Grove 3rd, was also used, as 
well as Mr. A. Rogers' Albany by Lord Wilton. Mr. Morris 
did not exhibit, as he considered it was more profitable to 
keep a very large head of cattle and sheep on his farm in a 
store state. That he did so was shown by the fact that on 
a farm of 540 acres he had generally about 150 cattle, and 
prior to the autumn drafts of store ewes being sold, between 
800 and 900 Shropshire sheep, although nearly 200 acres of 
the farm were arable. It may be added that Mr. Morris 
belonged to a family well known in Hereford annals, his 
father's eldest brother, the late Mr. P. Morris, Newbury, having 
won first prize for aged Hereford bulls at the meeting of the 
R.A.S.E. at Liverpool in 1840. His uncle and cousin also 
successively occupied Stocktonbury, and bred many prize 
animals. He sold largely for exportation, the following having 
been purchasers : — Mr. J. W. M. Vernon, Tustingham House, 
Quebec, Canada ; Messrs. G. Leigh and Co., Beecher, Illinois ; 
Messrs. Mackie and Drew, Oshawa, Canada ; the Iowa Cattle 
Company, Cheyenne, U.S.A. ; Mr. Adams Earl, Lafayette, 
U.S.A., etc. Mr. Morris disposed of his entire herd. His son, 
Mr. E. E. Morris, has a herd at The Field, Hampton Bishop. 

The foundation of the herd that belonged to Mr.^T. 
Myddleton, Beckjay, dated from the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century. Mr. Myddleton's father obtained the stock 
with which he commenced, more than 90 years ago, from his 
uncle, Mr. Edwards of The Lodge, and it may be mentioned 
that the heifers then acquired cost, even in these early days, 
some ;!^40 each. Mr. Myddleton himself began his career as 
a breeder at Llynaven, Clun, about 1869, taking over his 
father's stock, and the herd was removed with him when he 
went to Beckjay in 1879. Among the sires used were Mr. J. B. 
Green's Nobleman 2652 ; Mr. T. Rea's Plato 4895, a son of 
Sir Benjamin ; Sir Thomas 2nd 2778, bred by Mr. Roberts 
and got by Sir Thomas ; Sultan 4163, bred by Mr. Tudge 



202 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Adforton (by Orleans 2661, dam Stately by Pilot 2156); 
Lord Southesk's Hildebrand 4646, by King of the Lilies 2892 
and out of the Royal prize cow Queen of the Lilies; Young 
Stanway 5705; the Rev. Arthur dive's Baron 4th 4326; 
Captain 5238, bred by Mr. B. Rogers, The Grove ; and Silver 
King 5580, by Hildebrand. Hartington 5358, bred by 
Mr. Rogers, The Grove, by The Grove 3rd 5051, dam Gay by 
Longhorns 3216, after being successfully used by Mr. Myddleton 
for three years, was sold to Mr. Piatt, Barnby Manor, Newark ; 
but was brought back to the district, having been purchased 
by Mr. Myddleton and Mr. Grasett, Wetmore. He was the 
second prize winner at the International Show at Kilburn, and 
gained three first, five second, and several other prizes. His 
stock were exceedingly successful in the show-yard, both at 
home and abroad. Regulus 4076, bred by the late Mr. Tudge, 
got by Sir Roger 4133, and from Bonnie by Carbonel 1525, 
was also used. Horace 4th, 5388, bred by Mr. T. Thomas, 
St. Hilary, Cornwall, a son of Horace, and Horace 6th 5027, 
another son of Horace, bought at Mr. Piatt's sale for 150 
guineas, were in service. The herd was frequently exhibited 
with success, while foreign buyers drew from it freely. 
Mr. Myddleton was killed by a gun accident in the spring of 
1897, and his herd was sold in the autumn of that year. 

Mr. Naylor's herd at Leighton Park was established 
about 1850 by the purchase of animals from Mr. Yeld, The 
Broome. The chief animals added were bought at Brock- 
hampton, Pipton, Edenhope, Snodhill, and Coxall. Silvester 
797, bred by Mr. Price, Pembridge, was the best stock-getter 
when the herd was established. The sires included Prince 
Imperial 2nd 9067, Zulu Chief 8173, and Liberator by Lord 
Wilton 4740. The herd numbered about 80 head. Eight 
bull calves were sold in 1884 to Mr. J. H. Yeomans for 
exportation to America. The herd was successfully exhibited 
from 1854 to 1 86 1, when prizes to the value of ;^3o8 were 
gained, including first prizes at the Paris Exhibition, the 
Royal, Smithfield, and Birmingham Shows. 

The New House herd, near Craven Arms, was started in 
1828 by Mr. Richard Dawes, father of Mr. Wm. M. Dawes, 
with some well-bred cows given him by his father, and others 
purchased at sales and from some of the best herds. The 
bulls used in the early days of the herd were Young Tytheman 
by Old Tytheman 6th ; a bull of Mr. Bowen's of Hewer blood ; 
a bull by Fitzfavourite 442, Young Favourite by Old Favourite 
441, Young Hector by Hector 535, Clungunford 869A, and 
Young Cotmore 334. Up to 1842 a very complete record of 
the animals had not been kept, but from that time Mr. Dawes 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 203 

kept an accurate statement. Good bulls were used from 1842, 
many of them of considerable celebrity and of choice strains. 
The bulls, Earl Wilton by Lord Wilton 4740, and Wilton 
Grove by Argyle, dam Amethyst by Lord Wilton, were pur- 
chased in 1885 at Mr. Goode's sale at Stocktonbury. Sales 
were made for exportation, eight heifers having in 1884 gone 
to Senor Salas, Buenos Ayres. 

Mr. John T. Paull's herd at Trelonk, Cornwall, was begun 
in 1865 by the purchase of Ringdove, by Great Eastern 1598, 
from Mr. Richard Davey, Palsue House, Cornwall, and in the 
same year. Dairymaid by Conservative 1931, bred by the late 
Mr. W. Dingle, Trelonk. In 1878 the herd was increased by 
the acquisition of Patch 2nd by Truro 5677, from Mr. John 
Price, Pembridge; and Bulb 2nd by Banquo 2nd 5199, from 
Mr. H. N. Edwards, Broadward. The bulls used included 
Gamester 31 18, Duke of Cornwall 4530, Mariner 2nd 5688, 
Grand Duke 5342, Roseland 61 51, Grand Duke 2nd 7675, 
and Clinker 9718 by Rose Stock 6651, the last named being 
now in use. Patch 2nd did well in the show-yard and also as 
a breeding cow. Bulb 7th, dam Bulb 2nd, won first prize in 
her class at the Penzance Meeting of the Royal Cornwall 
Society, also first at the Devon County Show and first at the 
Sherborne Show in 1885. The Dairy tribe, descended from 
Dairymaid, also produced several prize-winners, 

Mr. Benjamin Rogers commenced at Doluggan, in 
Radnorshire, about 1835, to lay the foundation of the famous 
herd that, after its removal to The Grove, Pembridge, exer- 
cised such a remarkable influence on the Hereford breed. 
This was, indeed, one of the historic herds of cattle, and to do 
justice to it would require a greater amount of space than is at 
our disposal. In 1837 he obtained four heifers by Cupid 198, 
selected from the herd of his brother, the late Mr. John Rogers 
of Pilleth, and six heifers by Batch 468, from Mr. Ricketts, 
The Batch. In the pedigrees of the earlier sires used by 
Mr. Rogers on the heifers acquired from Pilleth and The Batch 
will be found a powerful infusion of the blood of Mr. John 
Hewer's Sovereign 404. The first bull used at Doluggan was 
Sovereign 2nd 1739, calved in 1837, bred by Mr. Rogers, 
Pilleth, got by Sovereign 404, dam Lady by Cupid 198. Then 
followed Charity 375, bred by Mr. E. Jeffries, by Byron 440, 
dam by Sovereign 404. A few of the other early sires used 
may be mentioned : Portrait 372, bred by Mr. E. Jeffries, by 
Mr. Hewer's Lottery 410; Charity 2nd 1535; by Radnor 
1 366, of Tully blood ; Old Court 306, bred by Mr. Perry, and 
also of Tully blood ; Gaylad 2nd, by Gaylad 400, dam by Old 
Court ; Prince 251, bred by Mr. Yeld, descended from a cow 



204 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

by Mr. Knight's White Bull 246; Severus 1062, bred by 
Mr. Rea, Monaughty ; and Young Royal 1470, by Mr. Rogers, 
The Stocken, by Royal 331, a son of Cotmore 376 (who was 
by Sovereign 404, dam by Lottery 410). Mr. Rogers' Pretty- 
maid 2nd, as the result of a visit to the famous Sir David 349 
in 1855, produced in February, 1856, the remarkable bull Sir 
Benjamin 1387 ; while Damsel, by Gaylad 2nd 1589, calved in 
March, 1857, the bull called The Grove 1764. Both Pretty- 
maid 2nd and Damsel were descended from Curly, one of the 
heifers purchased from Mr. Ricketts in 1837. Mr. Rogers did 
not long retain Sir Benjamin, which was sold to Mr. Rea, 
Westonbury. At The Grove he became the sire of Boling- 
broke 1883, dam Damsel, who was a.so the dam of The Grove 
1764. Bolingbroke was sold to Mr. Turner, The Leen, and 
was used very successfully in his splendid herd. From 
Mr. Rea, Mr. Rogers acquired one of Sir Benjamin's sons. Sir 
Richard 1734, which became the sire of North Star 2138, 
largely used in The Grove herd, and who was afterwards 
disposed of to Mr. Bannister, Weston. Besides The Grove 
1764 and North Star 2138, The Doctor 1964, bred by Mr. 
John Hewer, by Defence 1207, was employed in the herd 
during this period. Mr. Rogers next purchased Sir Thomas 
2228, bred by Mr. T. Roberts, Ivingtonbury, and got by Sir 
Benjamin, for ;^409 los. Sir Thomas left at The Grove a 
collection of magnificent stock. He was the sire of Sir Roger 
4133 (from a dam by North Star 2138), which had such a 
beneficial influence on Mr. Tudge's herd at Adforton, where, 
among his offspring, were Lord Wilton 4740, Regulus 4076 
(the sire of Mr. Price's Hotspur 7028), and Giantess, the dam 
of Lord Coventry's Good Boy y668 and Golden Treasure. 
Mr. Rogers sent the cow Blossom, by Sir Thomas, for service 
by Horace 3877, and the issue was The Grove 3rd 5051, who 
became the sire of many prize animals. The Earl 2nd 5048, 
by Sir Thomas 2228, from one of the Strapper family, and 
Grand Duke 5342, bred by Mr. John Price, by Horace 3877, 
were afterwards in the herd. Other sires in use at The Grove 
were Assurance 5193, bred by the late Mr. Carwardine, Stock- 
tonbury, sire Longhorns 471 1, dam Florence by De Cote 3060 ; 
and Charity 4th 7480, by The Grove 3rd, dam Daisy by Sir 
Thomas. Assurance, calved in 1876, was the sire of Tregrehan 
6332, one of the best bulls in the United States. In a note 
from Mr. Rogers in 1885 he said: "I have sold between 300 
and 400 young bulls at an average of about ^^50 each. They 
have been distributed in 13 counties in England and Wales, 
besides Ireland and Scotland, and a good many have been 
exported to America and other parts of the world, and I am 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 205 

happy to say they have given general satisfaction." The 
number of pure-bred Herefords owned by Mr. Rogers at The 
Grove and at the adjoining farm of Stansbatch was about 200. 
These notes merely indicate the material of which the herd was 
composed. Some references to what Mr, B. Rogers accom- 
plished for the breed will be found in the notices of the 
Ivingtonbury, Adforton, The Stow, The Leen, Westonbury, 
Monaughty, and many other herds. Mr. Rogers died in 1900. 

The Pencraig Court herd was founded between the 
years 1830 and 1840 by Mr. Rees Keene, who then added to 
his own breeding cows a number of animals from the herds of 
the leading Hereford breeders of the day ; notably Lord Here- 
ford, Mr. Poles of Woollaston Grange, etc. Entries were first 
made in Volume HI. of the Hereford Herd Book. The 
animals added to the herd were as follows : — Lady Blanche, 
first at the Royal Show at Bristol and first at the Bath and 
West of England Show at Oxford in 1878, purchased at the 
sale of the late Mr. Warren Evans, Llandowlais ; Snowdrop, 
also acquired from Mr. Evans ; Jeflfrey 6th and her daughter 
Beatrice, bred by Col. Fielden, Dulas Court, Hereford ; Polly 
7th, bred by Mr. R. L. Burton, Longner Hall ; and My Lady 
and her daughter, purchased from Mr. E. Lister, Cefn I la. 
Among the more noted sires used were Tredegar 4210, first 
at Newport in 1871, beating the Royal winner Von Moltke 
4234 ; Arrow 3661, bred by Mr. B. Rogers, The Grove, a son 
of Sir Thomas, winner of the first and special prize as best 
animal in the yard at the Brecon Show ; Lord Waterford 
6045, a son of Lady Blanche, his son Reward having been 
first at the Royal and Bath and West Shows in 1881, and 
Return 6639, second at the Royal and Bath and West Shows 
in 1 88 1. The sires in use included Rosebery 7235, another 
son of Blanche, whose stock turned out exceedingly well, and 
Bangham 6793, by Lord Wilton 4740, purchased at the sale 
of the Chadnor Court Herefords in 1883. The first animals 
exported from the herd were sent to America between the 
years 1845 and 1850; another lot was exported to America 
in 1850. Since then animals were sold to Messrs. Adams 
Earl and Co., Lafayette ; Mr. W. E. Britten for exporta- 
tion ; Mr. Thomas Fenn, and others. A large number of 
prizes were gained at the national and local shows. Mr. Rees 
Keene removed the herd to Llanvihangel Court where it was 
sold recently. 

The Cornwall herd, that belonged to Mr. R. S. Olver, 
Trescowe, numbered from 120 to 150 head, and was founded, 
by the late Mr. Thomas Olver about the year 1844, when he 
purchased some pure-bred Herefords from the Earl of St. 



2o6 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Germans, who at great expense had founded a large herd 
principally from the stock of Mr. Hewer, Hampton Lodge, and 
used the following bulls bred by Mr. J. Hewer, viz. Lottery 2nd 
408, Defiance 416, Baron 418, and St. Germain 430. About 
1855, Mr. Olver bought from the old-established herd of Mr. 
Lobb, Lawhilton, Cornwall, Beauty (Volume IV., p. 82), Lily 
(Volume IV., p. 142), and Honeysuckle (Volume VI., p. 220), 
all by Rory O'More 171 1, bred by Mr. P. Turner, The Leen. 
In 1857 he bought at the sale of the herd of Mr. J. Y. Cooke, 
Moreton House, Princess (Volume III., p. 204), Cheerful 
(Volume III., p. 137), Patience (Vol. III., p. 196), Victress 
(Volume IV., p. 503). and Brunette (Volume V., p. 139). He 
also bought from Mr. E. Price, Court House, Queen (Volume 
III., p. 206); in 1858, at the sale of the herd of Mr. T. 
Longmore, Buckton, he purchased Blossom (Volume V., 
p. 133), Fanny (Volume V., p. 187), Dove (Volune V., p. 172), 
Ringdove (Vol. VI., p. 302), all by Young Walford 1820), 
who was by the noted bull Walford 871. Daisy (Volume VII., 
p. 230), bought at the sale of Mr. R. Davey, Polsue, 
Cornwall, was by Zippor 2354, a son of Sir Benjamin 1887, 
and was bred by Mr. Rea, Monaughty. Pure-bred bulls 
from the best herds had always been used, and those in service 
included Merlin 7851 (by The Grove 3rd 5051), bred by Mr. 
Turner, the Leen; and Dunbar 8550, a grandson of Lord 
Wilton 4740, bred by Mr. Carwardine, Stocktonbury. For 
many years the cows were milked at the dairy, the butter sold, 
and the calves reared on skim milk, the steers being run on 
coarse pasture during the summer, and sold fat at three years 
old, similar to the ordinary Devon cattle of the district. The 
cows were found to be good milkers, and the steers very hardy 
and capital graziers. In 1865 Mr. T. Olver took Penhallow 
Farm and put a part of his Hereford herd there ; his eldest 
son, Mr. R. S. Olver, remaining at Trescowe and continuing 
to breed Herefords successfully for a number of years. 
Animals from the Trescowe herd have done very well at the 
Royal Farm at Windsor, the champion bull Fire King 22135 
being out of a cow bred by Mr. Olver. 

The nucleus of the herd at Trethick, belonging to Mr. A. 
Legh Olver, was acquired from Mr. T. Olver, late of Trescowe, 
Bodmin, about 1858. The families were descended from Dove, 
bred by Mr. T. Longmore, Buckton ; Strawberry, bred by 
Mr. Jefferies, The Grove ; Cheerful, bred by Mr. Cooke, 
Moreton House ; and Miss Coningsby, bred by Mr. Addis, 
Nockerhall. Mr. Olver used bulls belonging to breeders in 
the neighbourhood, viz. Mr. Grose's Champion 3733, Premier 
4852, Proctor 5523, Victor 6244, and Mr. R. S. Olver's Grand 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 207 

Turk 3853, Gambler 3 116, Kinsman 2nd 4688, Duke of Corn- 
wall 5883, Winstanley 6258, Mr. R. S. Olver's Merlin 7851, 
and Dunbar 8550. 

The foundation of the herd at Eglwysnunyd, South 
Wales, that belonged to Mr. W. S. Powell, was laid in 1853 
by the late Mr. Powell. Some cows were bought at the sale 
of Mr. W. Mayberry, and others from Mr. Evans, Old Bank, 
Brecon, who was well known at that time as never having 
purchased anything but the best Herefords procurable. Sub- 
sequently cows were bought of Lord Bateman, Messrs. J. Rea ; 
Stedman, Bedstone Hall ; J. Hewer, Vern House ; W. Tudge, 
Adforton ; J. Baldwin, Luddington ; J. Rogers, Pipton ; 
Burlton, The Vern ; J. D. Brewer, and others. Several noted 
cows were purchased, among them having been Bannerette 
by Sir Roger 4133, bred by the late Mr. W. Tudge ; Sovereign 
17th by Pipton 5501, bred by Mr. J. Rogers, Pipton; PolHe 
4th by Landseer 3202, bred by the late Mr. J. Baldwin, 
Luddington ; and Lady Grey 3rd by Alphonso 4305, bred 
by Mr. Brewer. One of the first sires used in the herd was 
Brecon 2974, by Young Hope 343, dam by Dangerous 493. 
Young Hope was by Chance 348, Sir David's sire. Brecon 
was succeeded by General 125 1, bought at Mr. Hewer's sale 
in 1861 ; and although he was 13 years old when purchased, 
he proved himself an excellent getter, and was in use for two 
seasons. After General came Avon 2393, by General 125 1, 
and with a pedigree running back to Silver 540. Avon was 
a most level bull and an excellent stock- getter. Constant 
2480 was also used at that time ; his dam was Vesta, that 
took the first prize at the Bath and West, and many other 
shows. Prince Edward 3340, by the noted Franky 1243, was 
then purchased from Mr. Duckham. Amongst other bulls 
used were Sir Cupis Ball 2761 by Sir Benjamin 1387 ; Unity 
5092, bred by Mr. Duckham, a remarkably thick bull and a 
fine sire ; and Spartan 5009, purchased from Mr. Turner, The 
Leen, by Silver Boy 3419. He was a very good heifer-getter, 
and was the sire of some of the best cows sold at The Leen. 
Standard 6706 by Unity 5092 came next, and he proved 
himself very useful in the herd. Other bulls used were 
Abbott 6775 by The Grove 3rd 5651, Nestor by The Grove 
3rd, and Horace 7th 7724. Abbott was bred by Mr. A. P. 
Turner. Many animals were sold for exportation. 

Mr. Aaron Rogers, of The Rodd, commenced his herd at 
Pilleth, Radnorshire, about 1858, by the purchase of cows from 
his father, then residing at The Stocken, in the same county, 
and who owned a capital herd of pedigree Herefords, in whose 
veins ran the blood of Cotmore 376, Sovereign 404, Portrait 372, 



2o8 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Confidence 367, and Young Royal 1470, bred by Mr. Rogers, 
which had been mated with females from the herds of Mr. 
Ricketts of The Bach and the late Sir F. Lewis of Harpton 
Court Mr. Rogers, sen., is said to have been the last breeder 
who used the celebrated Sovereign. It will thus be observed 
that in these early Stocken cattle the Hewer strains were very 
strongly infused. Subsequently Mr. A. Rogers purchased five 
heifers by Trump 2842 from the late Mr. Price, M.P., of Norton 
Manor, and he also obtained the cows Silvery and Morella 
from the herd of Mr. Edwards of Wintercott. In 1866 Mr. 
Rogers bought, at the sale of his uncle, Mr. David Rogers 
of The Rodd, some females of the old family strains, and in 
the following year four others from the herd of his brother, 
Mr. Thomas Rogers of Coxall, one of them being Purity, bred 
by the late Mr. Rea of Monaughty, another being Silver, bred 
by his uncle, Mr. Benjamin Rogers, at The Grove, and a third 
being Lady Court Lass, bred by his father, and the dam of 
the famous prize bull Grateful 4622. The first bull he pur- 
chased was Village 1791, bred by Mr, Rea, Monaughty, who 
allowed Mr. Rogers to send some cows to Sir Benjamin 1387 ; 
he also used Magnum Bonum 2097, Sir James 3448, Gratitude 
3147, Stanway 2790, a prize bull bred by Mr. Tudge, Adforton, 
and afterwards sold to Sir Joseph Bailey, M.P., for 200 guineas ; 
Grateful 4622, winner of ;^37i in prizes; Marquis of Water- 
ford 5454 ; Bredwardine 5233, by Horace ; Osman Pacha 5489, 
by Truro 5677, the well-known son of Horace ; Charity 3rd 
6350, by The Grove 3rd 5051 ; Archibald 6290, from Miss 
Chance 3rd ; Albany 7364, got by Lord Wilton, and from 
Maude by Marquis of Waterford ; Painter 2nd 8976, got by 
Archibald 6290, and from Pipton Lass by Hildebrand 4646 ; 
and Pleasant 7167, by Osman Pacha. Grateful and Archibald 
were two of the finest show bulls ever seen, and gained 
numerous prizes at Royal and other shows. At the Hereford 
County Show, Albany, when one year old, was put before 
his half-brother. Monarch, belonging to Mr. John Price, and 
he was second as a two-year-old to Mr. Hughes' Washing- 
ton at the Royal at Shrewsbury. Mr. Rogers sold a large 
number of animals for exportation, the purchasers having 
included Messrs. Gudgell and Simpson, Hon M. H. Cochrane, 
Messrs. George Leigh and Co., Messrs. Burleigh and Bodwell, 
and Mr. F. W. Stone, etc., while he had a constant demand for 
his bulls from the best home breeders. Mr. Aaron Rogers 
having died, his herd was sold in 1906. 

Mr. E. Yeld's herd at Endale was founded in 1873 by the 
purchase of six cows from the herd of his father, Mr. G. Yeld, 
Twyford, and from cows picked up at several sales ; notably 




SiKETTON Court (Mr. J. H. Yeomans). 




WiNTERCOTT (Mr. A. K. Hug 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 209 

from the herd of Mr. Symonds, Meers Place, Weobley, who 
had a very good stock descended from the strains of Mr. 
Roberts, Ivingtonbury, and Mr. Taylor, Stretford. Mr. Yeld's 
father's herd was established more than seventy years ago, 
and he used the same bulls as his late uncle, Mr. Yeld, The 
Broome, whose stock has already been described. Among 
the other females afterwards bought were two cows at Mr. 
Turner's sale ^t The Leen — Primula and Luna 2nd. He also 
purchased two cows from Mr. Thomas, Monaughty, which had 
been bought at Mr. G. Yeld's sale. One of these was a great 
favourite, being out of Girl of the Period, a well-known prize 
winner. The sires used were chiefly of Mr. Yeld's father's 
blood ; the first being Cheerful 5254, employed for five years, 
and afterwards in the Coxall and Croome Court herds. Then 
followed Prince James 6118 ; Petruchio 6598 from Mr. Tudge, 
Adforton ; and Blucher 6312 by Mr. Turner's Corsair 5271. 
The sires in use included Tom Wilton 9322, bred by Mr. 
Carwardine, by Lord Wilton 4741, and Endale Grove, from 
Primula, half-sister to the famous Rudolph. Another son of 
Lord Wilton (Gift Wilton) was in service in the herd ; he was 
of the same strain of blood as Prince James 61 18. A portion 
of the herd was sent to the United States, where Mr. Yeld, 
who was engaged in the business of pedigree cattle exporta- 
tion, had taken a farm. Seventeen heifers, mostly by Blucher, 
were sold to Mr. C. W. Cook, Brookmont, Iowa. Prizes were 
taken for steers at the local shows. In exhibiting at those 
meetings, Mr. Yeld followed the example of his father, who 
was very successful with steers at the Leominster and Hereford 
Shows. He had bred over two hundred prize winners at the 
Royal, Bath and West, Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Leo- 
minster, Ludlow, and other shows. One celebrated Royal 
winner, the bull Lead On 16800, was unfortunately roasted 
to death along with other animals in a destructive fire at the 
farm buildings about 1897. In August, 1900, Mr. Yeld had a 
very successful sale of a portion of his herd. Many of the 
cows sold were by the noted bulls Lead On, Hope, Royal 
Hero, Cavalier, and Hope On, while the younger stock were 
by Great Hero, Commence, and Iron Duke. Among the 
purchasers were Lord Llangattock, the late Sir Joseph Pulley, 
Mr. P. Clive, M.P., etc. Mr. Yeld was killed by a railway 
accident in 1901 and his herd was sold in 1902. 

A long notice of Mr. J. H. Yeomans' herd, which he estab- 
lished, at Stretton Court, would have been required were it not 
for the fact, that in March, 1882, Mr. A. H. Swan of Cheyenne, 
bought nearly the whole of the stock, numbering 95 head, only 
a few old favourites being retained as the nucleus of a second 

P 



210 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

herd. The connection of the Yeomans family with the improve- 
ment of the breed has been referred to in another portion of 
this book. Mr. Yeomans' herd was chiefly descended from the 
stocks of Mr. John Hewer, Mr. G. Tomkins, Mr. Arkwright, 
Mr. John Yeomans, Mr. Peren, and others. The Hewer blood 
was held in especial esteem, and there was a very beautiful 
family of Ivington Roses, tracing from Mr. Peren's grand cow 
of that name. At the time of the large private sale Mr. 
Yeomans' young stock were mostly by Helianthus 4641 and 
Lord Wilton 2nd 6552 ; the former, bred by the Earl of 
Southesk, was got by King of the Lilies, a son of Mr. J. D. 
Allen's Royal winner Queen of the Lilies, and out of Mr. T. 
Rogers' Queen of Hearts. At ten years old he weighed 
3024 lbs., and his stock were so fine that he was kept in service 
for several years. Lord Wilton 2nd was by Lord Wilton, 
from Mr. Carwardine's Charity 2nd by Longhorns 471 1. 
There were a few members of the Hinton family (deep in 
Hewer blood), and some good animals came from Mr. Piatt's 
at Barnby Manor. Other purchases were made from the best 
breeders, so that the new herd was soon again of goodly size, 
the selections having been most carefully made. Mr. Yeomans 
has in his possession paintings representing the famous bulls 
Sovereign 404 and Lottery 410, which were presented by 
Mr. John Hewer. An engraving of Sovereign is given in 
this work. 

Mr. John Taylor's herd at Elsdon was founded in 1874 
with twelve in-calf cows bought that year, twelve in-calf cows 
purchased in 1875, and six heifers and calves in 1876. The 
cows were by Sir Frank 2762, and in calf to Triumph 2nd 
3553. The heifers were by Triumph 2nd 3553 and the calves 
by Sir Francis 3438, all being acquired from the late Mr. 
William Taylor, Thinghill Court, Hereford. Among the 
sires used were Regulus 4076 by Sir Roger 4133, bred by 
Mr, Tudge, Adforton ; Moorcock 6078 by Regulus, bred by 
Mr. Robinson, Lynhales ; Horatius 5390 by Horace 3877, 
bred by Mr. Robinson ; Horatius 2nd 5983 by Horatius, bred 
by Mr. Robinson; Manlius 6559 by Hercules 2nd 6476, bred 
by Mr. Robinson ; Earl of Agincourt 7581 by Formosa Boy 
3rd 5920, bred by Mr. P. G. Hughes, Leinthall ; Highland 
Laird 7015 by Horatius, bred by Mr. Robinson, and Elsdon 
Grand Duke 8564, a twin, by Grand Duke 5343. After Mr. 
Taylor's death the herd was sold by auction. 

Mr. Philip W. Taylor's herd at Holmer House was got 
together by his father, the late Mr. Taylor, Showle Court ; 
some animals being drafted out of his own herd, and others 
being purchased at the sale of Mr. H. T. Taylor at Holmer, 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 21 1 

The Holmer stock had been crossed with bulls from Showle 
Court for upwards of 30 years. The sires used comprised 
Adamant 5710, Treason 5662, Emperor 5890, The Monckton 
Lad 5646, Hannibal 6282, and Tradition 7316, Two heifers 
were sold to Don Carlos Casares, South America, and five 
heifers to Mr, C. W. Cooke, Brookmont, Iowa. 

Mr. Edward Thomas' herd at Monaughty was begun in 
1844 by the purchase of pure-bred Hereford cows without 
pedigree. He afterwards added to it by obtaining the cow 
Hebe 2nd at Mr. J. Rea's sale at Monaughty, and Lucy 6th at 
Mr. T. Rea's sale at Westonbury. In 1869 Melody 3rd was 
bought at Mr. Taylor's sale at Stretford ; and in 1883 Orange 
Blossom at Mr. Turner's sale at The Leen. 

Mr. J. S. Tucker, Pathada, Cornwall, commenced his herd 
in 1874, when he visited the late Mr. Evans, Swanstone, and 
purchased three heifers. Curly, Adelaide, and Miss Cornwall. 
Curly and Adelaide were by Royal 4093, and Miss Cornwall 
was by Sir Oliver 4th 4982. They were three very useful 
heifers and were much admired at the Cornwall County Show 
in 1875, Adelaide being acknowledged to be the best heifer of 
that year. The bull first used was Cupid 4486, bred by Mr. 
Duckham. Mr. Tucker also in 1874 bought two cows with 
heifer calves from Mr. Grose, Penpool, Wadebridge — Barmaid 
and Cheerful. The principal bulls in service since were Tre- 
hurst 5667 ; H.R.H. 5988, bred by the late Mr. Evans, Swan- 
stone ; and Mortimer 7130, bred by Mr. W. Tudge, Leinthall. 

The herd at Lynch Court that belonged to Mrs. M. TURNER 
was commenced in 185 1 by the late Mr. D. Turner with cows 
bred by his late father, Mr. P. Turner, Aymestry Court ; 
having thus sprung from the same stock as that of Mr. P. 
Turner, The Leen. All the animals in the herd were directly 
descended from the Ayrnestry Court stock, with the exception 
of the Daisy tribe, which traced from a cow bred by Mr. W. 
Child, Wigmore Grange. Amongst the bulls used were 
Andrew 3rd 908, Stockwell 2793, Bolingbroke 1883, Bachelor 
2941, Draco 3795, and Meteor 6072. Some of the sires were 
bred on the farm, viz., Logic 2079, Rustic 3402, and Energy 
1982. Two were bred by Mr. W. Child, Westonbury, viz., 
Quack Doctor 3368 and Zurich 4281. Among other sires 
may be mentioned Cassio 1528, Newton 1667, Earl Derby 2nd 
2510, Burton 11 59, The Rover 2821, The Doctor 1083, Stan- 
dard Bearer 3471, Comet 4449, and Prince Charming 5514; 
in 1884 Meteor 6072 and Captain Cuff 7469. Meteor 
weighed 23 cwt. alive. The herd consisted of specimens of 
the Aunt Esther, Daisy, Linnet, Strapper, Peacock, and 
Plum tribes. Sales were made to Mr. Burleigh, Vassalbro, 



212 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Maine, U.S.A., and to Mr. E. Yeld, Endale, for exportation to 
America. 

At The Vern, in the Leominster district, Mr. William 
Price maintained a choice herd which was full of the Hewer 
blood, and it was appropriate that it should be so, for on the 
farm is the site on which once stood Vern House, for many- 
years the residence of John Hewer. The nephew of Mr. 
Williams of Thinghill Court, well known in his day as a noted 
Hereford breeder, Mr. W. Price had another uncle named Mr. 
Eliot, who was also celebrated for his herd. In 1847 Mr. 
Eliot hired from John Hewer the celebrated bull Governor 
464, his descendants being very fine, grand-looking cattle. 
Mr. Oakey, the breeder of the cow Beauty, from which one 
of Mr. Price's tribes was derived, had also some magnificent 
animals. Mr. Price's herd was founded in 1850, when six 
heifers were sent to Governor 2nd 2018. The sires afterwards 
used were Trooper 2838 ; Troubadour 1781 ; Stockwell 2792 ; 
Gift 3rd 3126; Harewood 5355 (son of Sir Hungerford, and 
of the Sir Benjamin lineage) ; Prince Royal 2nd 6619 ; Wilton 
Monarch 8165 (a son of Lord Wilton); Lieutenant Loyal 
1 1 389; Sylvester 8192 (whose dam Luna was a daughter of 
Lord Wilton) ; Cavalier 9682, by The Grove 3rd ; Royal 
Blood 1 5641 ; and Leinthall Wilton 14669. Of the tribes in 
the herd, the Lovely traced to Governor 2nd ; the Beauty to a 
cow by Carlisle 923 ; the descendants of The Doctor 1083, 
which were known as the Beauty family, with branches called 
Benefactress, Brunette, and Boniface ; the Stockwell tribe, also 
of Hewer blood ; and the Pink tracing direct to one of the 
heifers mated in 1850 with Governor 2nd. Mr. Price's old- 
established herd obtained such a high reputation across the 
Atlantic that, when the American demand was at its height, 
all the bulls he could rear were eagerly bought for exportation. 
In one year he sold thirty bull calves for Wyoming, U.S.A. 
Mr. Price had never been in the habit of exhibiting his cattle, 
but the herd reached a high standard of merit. He combined 
the old Hewer blood with some of the choicest strains of 
modern breeders, and there were few herds that displayed such 
uniformity of excellent shapes and high quality. The herd 
was sold in 1901. 

Mr. William E. de Winton founded a herd at Hill- 
hampton Court in 1883 by the purchase of cows from Major 
Kearney, Clonmellan, Ireland. They were descended from 
animals acquired in 1863 from Mr. James Rea, Monaughty, 
tracing from Old Court 306, of the Tully blood, and from a 
cow named Miss Severn by Severn 1382, bought in the same 
year from Lord Berwick. Mr. de Winton used, in 1886, the 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 213 

bull Robin Adair 9137, bought from Mr. A. P. Turner, when 
1 1 months old, for 1 50 guineas ; he was considered one of the 
best bulls of his year. 

The herd at The Hill, Eyton, was founded many years 
ago by the late Mr. R. Griffiths, Devereux Wooton, sires 
having been used from Mr. Tomkins and others. In 1852 his 
son, Mr. W. P. Griffiths, Hyard Sarnsfield, commenced breed- 
ing with heifers from his father's herd, all of which were mottle 
faced, but from continual crossing with the best sires they 
became red with white faces. At the death of Mr. W. P. 
Griffiths the herd was sold in 1881, when Mr. R. T. Griffiths 
bought twenty-one cows and heifers. Amongst the sires used 
were Wellington 1113, bred by Mr. Edwards, Wintercott ; 
Young Protector 1816; Abdel Kader, bred by Mr. Hewer; 
Antagonist 2927, another of Mr. Hewer's ; King John 6504, 
and others. 

Pictures of Old Time Herefords 

At the Centenary Show of the Herefordshire Agricultural 
Society celebrated in 1898, a loan collection of old pictures of 
Hereford cattle was organised. The Hereford Times gave a 
description of these, and from it some extracts are made, as 
they are of historic interest. It was stated that upwards of 200 
pictures, many of them works of art, were lent, together with 
old prize cups and medals awarded to show Herefords in past 
generations, and the whole collection formed one of the most 
interesting and instructive features of the show-yard. There 
had not been time to hang the pictures chronologically, and 
spectators could not systematically follow all the gradual 
changes which had been effected in the markings, contour, 
points, and colour of Hereford cattle within the last century. 
But the very juxtaposition of periods long apart served to 
accentuate the changes which had taken place in developing 
the symmetrical charming Hereford of to-day, and spectators 
were able to judge the pictures more intelligently and enjoy- 
ably by the help of a descriptive catalogue which had been 
compiled by Mr. W. E. Britten and Mr. T. W. Garrold. After 
viewing the straight level cattle in the classes of the show, one 
felt inclined at the first glance of the pictures to doubt the 
faithfulness of delineation, but the eminence of some of the 
artists was sufficient testimony of their accuracy, supported by 
well-preserved pictures in a book published in 1800, and lent by 
Sir Walter Gilbey. The following notes on the pictures, which 
were given by the Hereford Times, we are allowed to reprint : — 
One great purpose served by the Herefordshire Agricultural 



214 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Society, and it has earned the gratitude of generations of 
breeders for that of itself, was to reduce the breeding to 
uniformity of colour and marking by its preference for red 
body and white faces. Character and symmetry have likewise 
been insisted upon, and the horns have got shorter. The law 
as to colour and markings become stricter as time goes on at 
the present day, and the Americans are leading the fashion. 
As Mr. Taylor, of Missouri, stated, his countrj^men prefer a 
deep cherry body with pure white face and mane, and they 
object to the old-fashioned white back. Some desire the 
surrounding part of the eye to be pure white, but ranchmen 
like a little red round the eye, as it indicates that the cattle 
are proof against snow blindness and the glare of the sun. 

Diverse as some of the forms and colours of Hereford cattle 
were during the past century, a picture here and there in 
the exhibition displayed an ancient Hereford almost as well 
shaped and coloured as one of the modern type. Still, it must 
be admitted that very palpable improvements can be traced 
in the development of the Herefords up to within the last 
twenty years, since which the type has become so universally 
permanent that the continued improvements are not so 
manifest, 

Mr. Henry Haywood, of Blakemere, sent five pictures. 
One was a coloured engraving from a picture by Weaver of 
the Hereford bull Prizefighter. This bull was bred by Mr. 
John Haywood, of Clifton-on-Teme, by whom he was sold to 
Mr. Gwillim, of Purslow, in Shropshire, and elsewhere reference 
is made to the challenge made in 1800, when this celebrated 
Hereford bull won the 100 guineas against a Longhorn. 
Owing to the age of the picture, Prizefighter appeared to be 
black, but in another picture of this bull in the exhibition, a 
reddish tint was quite perceptible. A second picture of Mr. 
Haywood's showed an ox, by Prizefighter, winner at Smithfield 
Show; a third picture was of Woodstock 24, calved in 1833, 
bred by Mr. Price, of Ryall, by Young Woodman 12, dam by 
Sovereign 17, great dam bred by Mr. Tomkins, of Wellington. 
He won second prize at Bristol meeting of R.A.S.E., 1842. 
Then there was a portrait of Mr. John Price, of Ryall, 
Worcestershire, born 1776. He bred Herefords principally 
from the stock of Mr. Benjamin Tomkins. The fifth picture 
was of a cow, about 1830. 

The Rev. Henry Dew, Whitney Rectory, near Hay, sent 
four pictures which formerly belonged to the late Mr. Monk- 
house, The Stow, the first a modern-looking bull. Chieftain 
930, calved 8th September, 1852, bred by Mr. Steadman, of 
Bedstone, Salop, and entered in the Herd Book by Mr. Rea, of 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 215 

Monaughty ; second, a bull, Sir Thomas 183, calved in 1836, 
bred by Mr. Hemmings, of Kingsland, by a son of Conqueror 
1 80. Sir Andrew with six of his offspring won first prize in 
their class at the Leominster Agricultural Society's Meeting in 
1840; third, Plaything, rising 3 years, date 1829; and the 
fourth picture of a cow, supposed to be of Tomkins blood, 
date previous to i860. 

Mr. J. R. Hill, Orleton Court, Leominster, lent six pictures 
of the following: An ox, date 1839, bred by Mr. Rd. Hill, of 
Portway, Orleton, fed by the Earl of Warwick and exhibited 
by him at Warwick Castle Show, 1839, when he took first 
prize, and afterwards at Smithfield Club Cattle Show, when he 
again took first prize, and was awarded the gold medal as the 
best beast shown amongst 90 competitors ; the bull Claret 932, 
bred by Mr. W. Racster, of Thinghill, near Hereford, by 
Partner 103 1, and winner of first prizes at R.A.S.E. Shows 
at Chester in 1858, and Warwick in 1852; the bull Tom 
Thumb 243, bred by Mr. J. Thomas, of Cholstrey, by Stormer 
244, sold to and used by Lord BerAvick ; the strawberry 
coloured bull Restorative, calved 1852, bred by Mr. H. Hill, 
of Stableford House, Bridgnorth, by Tom Thumb 143 ; bull 
Milton 21 14, calved 1859, bred by Mr. R. Hall, of Golding 
Hall, Salop, by Chanticleer 1173, and winner of first prize at 
Bridgnorth, 1861, and Leeds and Battersea meetings of 
R.A.S.E. in 1861 and 1862 ; the cow Lady Ash, calved 1855, 
by Sibdon 1385, dam by Chance 355. She won first prize at 
Bridgnorth, second prize at Birmingham, at Stock Show, 
i860, and first prize and a gold medal as the best cow shown 
at Smithfield, i860. 

Mr. J. H. Yeomans, Stretton Court, Hereford, also sent 
half a dozen pictures. First came the famous Old Sovereign 
404, calved in 1820, bred by Mr. J. Hewer, by Old Favourite 
442, dam Countess, own sister to Old Favourite 442. Sovereign 
won many prizes and was used by many of the best breeders 
of the day. He was let for sums which amounted to ^640 i8s. 
Secondly, there was Lottery 410, calved in 18 14, bred by Mr. 
J. Hewer, by Conqueror 412, dam by Old Wellington 507. 
Lottery was let for sums amounting to ;^7io for use in several 
of the best breeds. Another picture was that of Byron 440, 
calved in 1825, bred by Mr. J. Hewer, by Hamlet 512, dam 
by Huntington 539, and let to many good breeders ; a fourth 
picture showed Helianthus, calved 1st April, 1872, bred by 
Earl of Southesk, Kinnaird Castle, Forfarshire, sold at his sale 
to Mr. White, of Zeals, Bath, from whom he was purchased by 
Mr. J. H. Yeomans, of Stretton Court, Hereford, and brought 
to Herefordshire where he did good service ; the sixth painting 



2i6 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

being a Hereford ox, bred by Mr. J. Hewer. Mr. Yeomans 
also lent the horns of the bull Sovereign. 

Mr. T. Duckham, Holmer, Hereford, lent fiv-e pictures : 
portrait of Delight, bred by Mr. Duckham, by Pope 527, dam 
Eywood by Cotmore 2nd 1191, and winner of third prize at 
the Worcester Meeting of R.A.S.E., and many local prizes ; 
Carlisle, bred by the late Lord Berwick, of Cronkhill, Salop, 
by Albert Edward 859, dam Silver by Emperor 221, and 
winner of first prize at the Carlisle, Chelmsford, and Salisbury 
Meetings of the R.A.S.E., in 1855, 1856, and 1857; Com- 
modore 2472, bred by Mr. T. Duckham, by Castor 1900, dam 
Carlisle by Albert Edward 859, and winner of first prizes at 
the Newcastle and Plymouth Meetings in 1864 and 1865, of 
the R.A.S.E., and at the Bristol and Hereford Meetings of the 
B. and W. of E., and at many local meetings ; a Hereford ox 
at 7 years old, fed by Mr. Westcar, of Aylesbury, Bucks, 
winner of champion prize, as best ox, exhibited at the Smith- 
field Show, 1 801 ; and a Hereford ox at 4 years old, bred by 
Mr, Meire, of Cound Arbour, Salop, and fed by Mr. Heath, 
Ludham Hall, Norfolk, winner of the gold medal at Smith- 
field, 1863, as the best ox of any breed. Mrs. Phillpotts 
(daughter of Mr. Duckham) lent portraits of Royal 331, bred 
by Mr. Yeomans, of Moreton, Hereford, by Cotmore '^'j6^ 
dam Countess 3rd, bred by Mr. Turner, of Noke Court, a 
Royal winner in 1842 ; and Countess 3rd (dam of Royal), also 
a winner at the Royal in 1842. 

Mr. Geo. Wells Meats, of Hereford, lent an oil painting 
which formerly belonged to his ancestor, Mr. George Wells, of 
Eardisland and Credenhill. The picture was painted by Dunn, 
of Worcester, about 1820, and is a portrait of Mr. Wells's cow 
Betty. 

Mr. Thomas Meats, Hanley Court, near Hereford, lent 
three very interesting portraits, viz. of a bull, which belonged 
to Mr. T. Meats, of Marsh Court, Bridge Dollars, Hereford, 
painted by Dunn, of Birmingham, about 1820; a cow, which 
belonged to Mr. Meats, of Masch Farm, about 1820, which is 
reported to have won prizes at Hereford and elsewhere ; and 
of two mottle-faced heifers, the property of Captain Hargest, 
of Credenhill; date about 1820; contains portrait of Captain 
Hargest. 

Mr. R. H. Garrold, Richmond Place, Hereford, lent two 
paintings of cows which belonged to the late Mr, Meats, of 
Credenhall, near Hereford ; date about 1830. 

Mr. W. E. Britten, Bodenham-road, Hereford, sent a 
valuable collection. The first picture was that of the cele- 
brated Cotmore 376, calved in 1836, by Sovereign 404, d^m 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 217 

by Lottery 410, He was winner of the first prize in his class 
at the first show of the R.A.S.E. held at Oxford in 1839, and 
of three first prizes at the Herefordshire Agricultural Society. 
Cotmore is reported to have been the heaviest Hereford bull 
(i ton 15 cwt.) ever known. The second picture was a portrait 
of Hope 439, calved in 18 16 by Byron 440, dam Cotmore's 
dam. He was sold to Mr. Carpenter, of Eardisland, and 
was the sire of many valuable animals. Another picture 
pourtrayed the cow Lady Grove and her bull calf Faugh-a- 
Ballagh. Lady Grove was calved in 1840, sire Charity 375, 
dam by Old Chance 348. She won first prize at Here- 
ford and Tredegar in 1842, and first at Derby meeting of 
R.A.S.E., and at Hereford in 1843. Her calf, Faugh-a-Ballagh, 
was first as a bull calf, and was sold to Mr. Forester and Mr. 
Eyton for i^ioo. Other pictures were of Silver, sire Young 
Chance 449, and dam of Commerce 354, sold to Mr. Allen, 
The Moor, Lyonshall, in 1845 ; a cow, Beauty, sire Young 
Chance 449, dam Cherry by Sheriff 356. Beauty was dam of 
Confidence, winner of numerous prizes, and was sold at the 
Grove sale for ;^ 100 to Mr. Smith, of Shelsley. Also portrait 
of a cow, dam of Cotmore 376 by Lottery 410. All these 
cattle were bred by Mr. Thomas Jeffries, of The Grove, 
Pembridge. 

Mr. John Preece, Woodbine, Marden, Hereford, lent a 
portrait of the bull Lottery, when 13 years old. Lottery 410, 
bred by Mr. J. Hewer, calved 1824, was by Conqueror 412, 
dam Old Red Rose by Old Wellington 507. He was reputed 
to be one of the best stock-getters ever seen and was hired to 
many of the best breeders of Herefords. The amount paid 
for his hire was upwards of ^700. 

Mr. T. W. Clarke, High Town, Hereford, sent a portrait of 
a cow, belonging to the late Mr. Kedward, of Westhide, near 
Hereford. The cow had calf by her side. Mr. Kedward told 
a person still living that the calf when 48 hours old was sold 
for ;^48, about 1830. 

The veteran Hereford breeder, Mr. Benjamin Rogers, The 
Grove, Pembridge, loaned a most interesting group of portraits. 
The first was of Sir Benjamin 1387, calved February, 1856, bred 
by Mr. Benjamin Rogers, and sold to Mr. Thomas Rea, of 
Westonbury, by Sir David 349, dam Prettymaid H. by Young 
Royal the Second 1469. The authors of the catalogue 
humorously remarked — " This was one of a family of knights, 
who ultimately attained to the peerage. The sire of Sir 
Benjamin was Sir David. Sir Benjamin begat Sir Thomas. 
Sir Thomas begat Sir Roger, and Sir Roger was the sire of 
Lord Wilton, who was knocked down at the auction following 



2i8 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

on the death of Mr. Thomas Carwardine, of Stocktonbury, 
Leominster, for 3800 guineas." Sir Thomas 2228, calved 
January, i860, bred by Mr. Thomas Roberts, of Ivingtonbury, 
Leominster, by Sir Benjamin 1387. With his offspring and 
dam he won prizes at Leominster in 1862, in a class for bull, cow, 
and offspring. He was sold for 200 guineas at the dispersion of 
Mr. Monkhouse's herd. A third portrait was of Prettymaid 2nd 
(Volume IV., p. 170), calved December, 1852, bred by Mr. 
Rogers, by Young Racid 1470, dam Prettymaid by Prince 251. 
A fourth picture showed Damsel (Volume IV., p. 108), calved 
October, 1850, bred by Mr. Rogers, by Gaylad 2nd 1589, dam 
Curly by Charity 2nd 1535. Damsel was dam of The Grove 
3rd, Bolingbroke, sold to Mr. Turner, The Leen, and Chalance, 
sold to Mr. Price, and a fifth portrait, the celebrated bull The 
Grove 3rd 5051, calved November, 1874, bred by Mr. Benjamin 
Rogers, by Horace 3877, dam Blossom by Sir Thomas 2228. 
This bull was never shown for a prize. He was considered 
one of the best sires ever bred, and was sold at The Leen sale 
for 810 guineas, to Mr. Culbertson, of Illinois, U.S.A., being 
afterwards sold in America to Mr. Adams Earl, of Lafayette, 
Indiana, for 7000 dollars. 

Mr. Henry W. Taylor, Showle Court, Ledbur)', sent five 
portraits, viz. Triumph 2630, calved March, 1864, bred by Mr. 
Thomas Rea, Westonbury, Leominster, by Sir Benjamin 1387, 
and won first prize as a yearling at the Bath and West of 
England meeting at Hereford in 1865 ; Tredegar 5077, calved 
December, 1872, bred by Mr. W. Taylor, of Showle Court, by 
Mercury 3967 ; Maidstone 8875, calved April 1883, bred by 
Mr. Taylor, by Franklin 6961, dam Duchess 4th (Volume VII., 
p. 362); Trader 1161, calved February, 1850, bred by Mr. 
Taylor, of Showle Court, by Tomboy 1097, dam Cherry by 
Original 216, and Beauty (Volume IV., p. 83), calved 1853, bred 
by Mr. James Connop, of Noakes Court, Leominster, by King 
John 830. 

Mr, Edward Yeld, Endale, Leominster, sent portraits of 
Commerce 354, a Herefordshire winner, calved October, 1841, 
bred by Mr. T. Jeffries, The Grove, by Hope 439, dam Silver 
by Young Chance 449, and a Hereford ox of extraordinary 
weight and size. 

Mr. T. T, Galliers, Wistaston, King's Pyon, a portrait ot 
the cow Silver 18 14, painted by Weaver when the cow was 
8 years old, bred by Mr. George Tomkins, of Wistaston, 
nephew of Mr. Benjamin Tomkins. 

Mr. John Hill, Marsh Brook House, Church Stretton, sent 
a large collection, including portraits of Prizefighter, Cotmore, 
Hope, Wellington 4, calved 1808, bred by Mr. B. Tomkins, 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 219 

and sold by him to Mr. Price, of Ryall, of whom he was bought 
in October, 18 18, by Mr. Jellicoe, of Beighterton, Shropshire, 
for ^^"283 io.f., and afterwards bought by Mr. Germaine ; 
Victory 33, calved 1839, bred by Mr. J. Price, of Ryall, by 
Blenheim 26, and sold to Sir F. Lawley at Mr. Price's sale 
for iJ"ioo ; Broxwood 485, calved 1843, bred by Mr. J. Ricketts, 
by Hope 409 ; Young Trueboy 32, calved 1838, bred by Mr. 
Price, of Ryal, by Trueboy 14, and sold to Sir F. Lawley at 
Mr. Price's sale for £1^0 ; and another picture. These small 
paintings were the originals from which the plates in Eyton's 
Herd Book were taken, and were the property of Mr. Eyton. 
Mr. Hill's collection also included four prints of the cow Carlisle, 
Napoleon 3rd 1019, Attingham 911, and Walford 871, the 
property of Lord Berwick, of Cronkhill, all prize winners. A 
proof engraving of the late Mr. T. A. Knight, author of 
" Pomona Herefordiensis " ; a small photograph of Lord 
Berwick, and a portrait of the bull Colossus. 

Mr. Henry Leake, Moreton Jeffries Court, lent a portrait of 
an ox, painted by Needham, bred by Mr. W. Perry, of St. 
Oswald's, Cholstrey, Leominster. He was sold to the Duke of 
Devonshire, fed by him, and took a first prize. 

Mr. William Pudge, Frogend, Bishop's Froome, exhibited 
portraits of Goldfinder, calved 1834, bred by Mr. Turner, of 
The Noke, by Tobias 487, dam Duchess by Sovereign 404 ; 
and a heifer. Silver, calved December, 1846, bred by Mr. W. 
Perry, of Cholstrey, by Marden 564, dam by Albert 330. 

Mrs. Martha Edwards, Victoria House, Hereford, sent 
portrait of a steer, bred at Upper Wintercott by Mrs. Sarah 
Cooke ; date 1886, which took first prize at Birmingham 
Show, and was bought for the Queen. 

Mrs. Lloyd, Ryeland Street, Hereford, lent picture of a bull, 
bred at Upper Wintercott, Leominster, by Messrs. John and 
Henry Cooke, about i860. 

Mr. Price, States House, Clifford, picture of a cow, bred by 
Sir Hungerford Hoskyns, at Harewood, with portrait of Mr. 
Peake (Sir Hungerford's bailiff), and showing top of Harewood 
House, date 1840. 

Mr. H. R. Evans, King's Pyon, Weobley, portrait of Lady 
Oxford, calved July, 1869, bred by Mr. H. R. Evans, of 
Swanstone Court, Dilwyn, Leominster, and sold to Mr. Gibson, 
of Reedy Creek, Inverell, New England, New South Wales, 
by Chieftain 2nd 1917, dam Branly 2nd'by Sir Franklin 1068. 

Mr. R. W. Hall, Ashton, Leominster, picture of Lovely, 
and twin heifers Theodora and Dorothea, and twin bulls Sir 
Julius and Sir Julian, date 1885. 

Mr. Herbert R. Hall, Orleton Leominster, portrait of 



220 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Hotspur 7726, calved July, 1882, bred by Mr. Carwardine, of 
Stocktonbury, the property of Mr. H. R, Hall, by Lord Wilton 
4740, dam Rosalind by de Cote. 

Mr. George Muscott, Annington, Acock's Green, portrait 
of Cotmore. 

Mr. W. T. Cooke, King's Pyon, Weobley, pictures of a 
bull, Tomkins' strain, date unknown, and a cow of 1835, also 
a portrait of Benjamin Tomkins, dressed in short breeches 
white stockings, three-cornered hat, and coat with big buttons, 

Mr. S. E. S. Jones, Hampton Water, Leominster, three 
paintings of cattle, bred by Mr. Williams, of Great Thinghill, 
near Hereford, very early in the present century. Mr. Williams 
was one of the first members of the Society and a constant 
exhibitor at the shows. 

Mr. Rees Williams, Aberyskir Court, Brecon, lent a fine 
painting of Sir David 349, one of the most celebrated bulls 
of the breed, bred by Mr. D. Williams, of Newton, Brecon. 
He was calved the 13th February, 1845, and was by Chance 
348, dam Duchess by Chance 348. Sir David was sold to 
Mr. Price, of Pembridge, and subsequently became the property 
of Mr. Lumsden, of Auchry House, Aberdeenshire ; Mr. 
Turner, of Noke, Leominster ; Mr. Higgins, of Woolaston 
Grange, Chepstow, and Lord Berwick, of Cronkhill, by whom 
he was sold to the butcher when 15 years old. It will be 
noticed that he was very much in-bred, but, notwithstanding, 
displayed great constitution. He was first in his class at the 
Newcastle and Norwich meetings of the R.A.S.E. in 1846 and 
1849, and at the Herefordshire Agricultural Society's meeting 
in 1847, 9-"d with cow and offspring in 1849, He took first 
prize and sweepstakes open to all England in 1848 and 1849 
at Leominster and Ludlow Shows. Mr. Rees Williams also 
sent portraits of Lucy, probably the cow mentioned on page 
148 of Volume IV. of Herd Book, or on page 227 of Volume 
V. and of Mr. Williams, breeder of Sir David. 

Mr. E. Stooke, Hereford, sent pictures of a bull of Mr. J. 
Hewer's blood, said to be General, and a bull, name and 
pedigree uncertain. 

Mr, George Hewer, Madley, portraits of Cotmore, also of a 
prize ox, date 1837, ^"^ of a cow, date 1839. 

Mr. S. W. Urwick, Hereford, sent handsome portraits of a 
cow bred and fed by Mr. Urwick, at Leinthall, near Ludlow, 
winner of first prize and silver medal at Bingley Hall Show, 
Birmingham, 1855, and of a heifer 3 years 11 months old, 
bred and fed by Mr. Urwick, at Leinthall, winner of second prize 
in Class 4 at Birmingham Fat Stock Show in December, 1857, 
and second at Smithfield the same year. 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 221 

Mr. W. Davies, Edgar Street, Hereford, portrait of a bull 
reported to have been bred by Mr. Styles Powell, at Hinton, 
Hereford, and to have been sold by him to H.R.H. Prince 
Albert in 1854. 

Mr. Richard Green, Whittern, Kington, portraits of his 
well-known prize winning heifers, Perilla and Sister Perilla. 

Mr. Edwyn J. Morris, Gorton House, Presteign, portraits 
of Memento, calved October, 1864, bred by Mr. W. G. Morris, 
Whitwick, Hereford, by Sir Thomas 3406, and winner of first 
prize at Worcester and at Winchcombe in 1868 ; and Haughty, 
a cow at 5 years old, bred by Mr. Morris, winner of second prize 
Birmingham, and first at Winchcombe in 1874; weighed when 
slaughtered 17 j scores per quarter. 

Mr. James James, Weston, near Ross, portrait of an ox, 
bred and fed by Mr. James, first prize at Smithfield Show in 
1872. 

Mr. J. H. Arkwright, Hampton Gourt, lent quite an 
extensive collection. There were portraits of four animals 
from the herd of Sir Hungerford Hoskyns, of Harewood, which 
was dispersed in October, 1843. One cow. Lady Gambridge, 
was a celebrated animal. She won as a yearling at Hereford, 
and as a two-year-old she took prizes at Gloucester, Bath, and 
Tredegar. At the Gambridge Show of the R.A.S.E., in 1840, 
she took a prize as a cow in milk. An offer was made to back 
her against any other animal in England for £100, but the 
challenge was not accepted. There was also lent a print of 
the Lincoln Ox, date 1790 ; and a print of the Eldsdon Bull, 
date 1 806 ; and the same coloured. Portraits of two heifers, 
Violet and Guy, first prize pair at Hereford in 1863 ; portrait 
of the great winners. Sir Oliver H. 1732, calved October, 1857, 
bred by Mr. Thomas Rea, of Westonbury, by Sir Benjamin 
1387, dam Eva by Regent 891 ; Sir Hungerford 3447, calved 
August, 1865, bred by Mr. Arkwright by Don O'Gonnel 1952 
dam Nutty by Mortimer 1328 ; Ladylift, date 1867 ; Hampton 
Beauty (Volume VH., p. 268), calved July, 1864, bred by Mr. 
Arkwright, by Sir Oliver II. 1663, dam Beauty by Young 
Royal 1470 ; Gonjuror 5264, winner of twelve first prizes and 
a cup, calved August, 1877, bred by Mr. Arkwright, by Goncord 
4458, dam by Bayleaf 3675 ; Rose Gross 7237, calved August, 
1881 ; Pearl III. calved July, 1879 ; Spring Jack 14191, calved 
January, 1888 ; Rose Cross 2nd 14865, calved January, 1889 ; 
and Happy Hampton 16097, calved January, 1891. The 
portrait of Spring Jack was rendered additionally interesting 
by the fact that the bull was depicted being led by a little boy 
three years old, a proof of the amiable temper of the Hereford 
breed. 



222 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Mr. John Price, Court House, Pembridge, lent portraits of 
Sir David; Goldfinder 2nd 959, calved 1852, a bull said to 
have carried everything before him ; Hotspur 7028, calved 
1881 ; Monarch 7858, calved August, 1882 ; and also an ox, 
bred and fed by Mr. Price. This ox in 1881 was at Birming- 
ham the first in his class, the champion Hereford, and took 
the President's prize of £2$ and the Elkington Cup; in 1882 
at Birmingham he was again first in his class, and was awarded 
the President's prize, and finally won the Elkington Cup. In 
the same year he was first in his class at Smithfield. 

Mr. A. Rogers, The Rodd, Presteign, sent portraits of Lady 
Edith, by Stanway 2790, dam by Chieftain 930, first at 
Newport Show, 1868; Grateful 4622, calved 1873, by Sir 
Thomas 2228, dam by Jupiter 3 191, and Archibald 6290, 
calved 1880, by Dolley 5875, dam by Grateful 4622. 

Mr. W. Tudge, Leinthall, Ludlow, portraits of the Hereford 
cows Silver Star and Lady Brandon, bred by Mr. Tudge, of 
Adforton, the renowned sires Lord Wilton 4740, Regulator 
4898, Regent 11 589, calved 1885, and Ancient Briton 15034, 
the Champion Hereford of America, calved 1890, bred by Mr. 
W. Tudge, Leinthall, Ludlow. 

Mr. J. B. Vevers, Yarkhill, portrait of Sovereign. 

Sir James Rankin, Bart, M.P., print of Hereford bull 
Royal Grove 9157, calved in 1883. 

Mr. E. Shaw, Bryngwyn Cottage, Hereford, portrait of 
Figaro, calved 1888, first at R.A.S.E. meeting at Windsor 
and at Hereford, 1889. 

Miss Morris, St. Owen Street, Hereford, curious old print 
of a fat cow, date 1 800. 

Mr. J. T. Davies, Preston Court, photograph of Horace 
3877, calved 1847, bred by Mr. John Davies, of Preston Court, 
Hereford, by Frugality 1997, dam by Shamrock 2nd 2210. 

Mr. E. T. Bowen, Halford, Craven Arms, pictures of a 
champion ox at Smithfield in 1850, and a bull, date about 
1799. 

Mr. Walter Pye, Hereford, portrait of Sovereign 404, when 
ten years old. 

Sir Walter Gilbey, Elsenham Hall, Essex, a large book, 
giving description of different varieties of oxen common on 
the British Isles, and executed by George Garrard upon an 
exact scale from nature, under the patronage of the Board of 
Agriculture; date 1800. Sir Walter also lent five very 
interesting prints of Hereford cattle. 

Mr. Alfred Watkins, Hereford, etchings of the four most 
esteemed breeds of cattle, namely. Shorthorn, Hereford, Long- 
horn, and Devon, by E. F. Wells. 



LATER IMPROVEMENT 223 

Mr. W. E. Britten, Hereford, lent the Herd Book of 
Hereford cattle. 

Mr. Charles Higgins, Fownhope, sent two pictures of fat 
Hereford cows, fed by Mr. Harry Higgins, of Woolastone 
Grange, Gloucestershire, date 1858 and 1859. These cows 
won in successive years the Corporation Plate at Newport for 
the best animal. 

The cups, medals, etc., had for centrepiece a piece of plate 
belonging to Mr. J. P. Apperley, Withington, won by Mr. 
John Apperley, of Withington, at the show of the Society held 
on the nth June, 1799, in Broad Street, Hereford, and awarded 
for the best bull not exceeding the age of 20 months. This 
was the first prize ever awarded by the Herefordshire Agri- 
cultural Society for an animal of any kind. 

Mr. C. W. Radcliffe Cooke, M.P., lent plate awarded in 
October, 1804, at a meeting of the Society, to Mr. E. Walwyn, 
of Hellens, Much Marcle, for the best three-year-old heifer, 
and plate awarded in 18 13 to Mr. Walwyn for a heifer. 

Mr. T. T. Galliers, Wistaston, King's Pyon, lent a cup 
awarded at the meeting held 4th March, 1805, in Broad Street, 
Hereford, for the best three-year-old heifer, and a similar cup 
awarded in 1807. 

Mr. J. R. Hill, Orleton Court, near Leominster, lent a gold 
medal awarded for ox shown at Smithfield and Warwick, also 
a silver medal. Gold medal of the R.A.S.E. awarded for 
Milton at Battersea Show in 1862 ; and a gold medal awarded 
in i860 at Birmingham Show for Lady Ash. 



CHAPTER VIII 

SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 

In the following notes no attempt is made to refer to all the 
Hereford herds in England, or even to supply a full description 
of the leading establishments. Changes in their composition 
occur so frequently that there would be little historical value 
in printing a complete account of the herds as they are at 
present constituted, and to do so thoroughly would alone 
almost require a volume. A later chapter gives a list of a 
good many of the existing herds, this consisting of returns 
received from breeders or their representatives. The aim now 
will be to sketch briefly the formation of those herds as to which 
some details have been obtained and to afford an indication 
of the materials of which they are composed. 

The Royal Herd at Windsor. — A fine herd of Here- 
fords was maintained at the Royal Farms, Windsor, by Queen 
Victoria, and has been continued by King Edward VII. since 
His Majesty's accession in 1901. Of the eight early tribes in 
the herd, at least five had been there for generations. Two of 
the oldest were those of Lupa and Agnes, both by Attingham 
911 ; the latter being an own sister to Lord Berwick's Ada. 
Alexander 3653 (a descendant of Agnes) was shown at the 
Royal Agricultural Society of England's show at Bedford in 
1874 ; and a heifer of the same descent won third prize at the 
Smithfield Club seven years later. The great reputation of 
Lord Wilton induced Mr. W. Tait, then manager, to purchase 
from Mr. Carwardine Conqueror 7510 by Lord Wilton, from 
Coral by Rodney 4907. A bid of 500 guineas transferred Con- 
queror to the Ontario Agricultural College. So impressive a 
sire is rarely found. To take his place, when he went, Emperor 
8569 (of very similar breeding) was bought privately from Mr. 
Carwardine, and used in 1884-85. A family descended from 
Jeanette, by Sir Benjamin 1 387, was full of Monaughty blood. 
Georgie was of a tribe long settled at the Flemish Farm, 
and one of the very oldest of the breed. It, like Mr. Hill's 
Rarity and Bright Lady families, traced back, through eleven 




I'hotoby F. l^abbage.^ 



Earlsfield 19387 (H.M. the King's). 




riwtohy F. BaM-ag,:-\ 



Fire Kinc 22135 (H.M. the King's). 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 225 

generations, to Cherry, bred by the late Mr. Knight of Downton. 
Another old-estabHshed tribe at Windsor was that of Medina 
by Brecon 918. The manager of the Flemish Farm also bought, 
at Mr. Carwardine's and Mr. F. Piatt's, two females ; both of 
these had very distinguished connections. Paulina, the older, 
was bought from Mr, Piatt in 1883, in calf to Horace 6th 7027. 
Pauline, purchased from Mr, Carwardine, was a daughter of 
Verbena, by De Cote 3060. Besides the animals named, 
Gladiator was purchased at Stocktonbury, he being by Lord 
Grosvenor from a Lord Wilton cow, Constantine, bred at 
The Leen, Pembridge, by The Grove 3rd 5051, out of 
Mr. B. Rogers' Lemon by Hildebrand 4646, was bought from 
Mr. Turner. Another purchase was in 1882 from Mrs. 
Parthenia Evans of Swanstone Court, Dilwyn, Leominster. 
This was Ruth by Sir Thomas 2nd 4995, a two-year-old heifer, 
tracing, through Rose by Salisbury 2204, to Rosebud by 
Pembridge 721. There were two purchases from Mr. Child, 
both by Horatius. Two heifers. Bonny Lass and Turquoise, 
came from Mr. John Price's fine herd, and were by his prize 
bull Hotspur 7028. 

In the early days of the eighties Mr. Price's Hotspur 7028, 
first prize bull at the Royal at Preston, was successfully used, 
as was also Monarch, which took first prize at the Royal at 
York in 1883. Mr. P. Turner's Trajan 81 17, a son of the famous 
The Grove 3rd 5051, was used at the beginning of the nineties ; 
he was own brother to Cassio 6849, a bull exported to Canada 
where he won many prizes, as also in the United States, 
Bruce 13646, another successful sire, was bred by Mr. Hughes, 
Wintercott, and brought in through his sire the blood of Lord 
Coventry's celebrated prize bull Good Boy 7668. He won in 
Herefordshire, and became the sire of Albion 1 5027, first prize 
bull at the Royal at Doncaster and champion at Cambridge. 
Luminary followed ; this fine bull, distinguished for his 
magnificent head and character, was home-bred, by Mr. Price's 
Pharaoh from Luna, a beautiful cow by the famous sire Lord 
Wilton. Ladas, bred by Mr. Allen Hughes, another handsome 
bull, was in use several seasons and was the sire of the 
celebrated champion steer of 1899. Earlsfield 19387, bred by 
Mr. L. L. Moore, was a very massive bull by Mr. Rogers' 
Excellence, At the Royal Counties Show at Reading he 
headed the fine class of eight aged bulls, the yearling heifer 
Deodora being placed second in her class while the yearling 
bull Fire King 22135 was highly commended. The last 
named, however, was destined to attain high show-yard dis- 
tinctions and for several years took the chief place at all the 
leading shows, being three years champion at the Royal, while 

Q 



226 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

he was also very successful as a sire. Fire King was from 
Firefly, bred by Mr. R. S. Olver, Trescowe, Bodmin, and 
there is a good deal of the blood of this herd at Windsor. 
Iron King, bred by Captain Heygate, was on duty in the herd 
for a short time prior to his shipment to South America. 
The cow Truthful (by Trajan 8117, dam Torquise by Hotspur 
7028) was very successful, taking first at Royal shows in 1897, 
1898, and 1899. Admiral 23256, by Earlsfield, was another 
noted winner. Numerous prizes have also been awarded to the 
Herefords from the Royal Farms at the Smithfield and Birming- 
ham Fat Stock Shows. At Birmingham, in 1900, the grand 
Hereford steer of enormous scale and weight, which was then 
exhibited, won the One Hundred Guineas Challenge Cup as 
well as the championship and the Queen's ^^"150 Challenge 
Cup, at the Smithfield Club Show, for the best animal bred 
and fed by the exhibitor. Many other prizes have been won 
by the Herefords from Windsor both at the summer shows and 
at the fat stock exhibitions. 

BauCOTT. — Mr. Richard Shirley's herd had been in exist- 
ence since about 1834. In the earlier days of its history 
bulls from Mr. G. Johnston, Broncroft Castle, and Mr. Roberts, 
Ivingtonbury, were used. Since that time bulls from the best 
herds were carefully selected, but it is not necessary to 
give a full list of the sires that were in use. From 1859 to 
1867 Mr. Richard Shirley was very successful at the fat stock 
shows with steers got by Pilot 1036, Zoar 2355, and Marlow 
2104. At the Birmingham Show in 1859 a steer by Marlow 
was first in his class, gained the prize as best Hereford, and 
also prize as best steer at the show. He took the same high 
honours at Smithfield, when he was referred to in very com- 
plimentary terms in the Farmers' Magazine, his quality, 
symmetry, and style being especially commended ; he girthed 
8ft. 7ins. Zoar was the sire of two prize steers at Birmingham 
and London in 1865 and 1866, and Pilot was the sire of three 
prize steers at Birmingham and London in 1861, 1863, and 
1867. At the Stockonbury Sale two fine cows, Spot and 
Star, were purchased, and a number of cows were bought in 
1885 from Mr. Bowen, Corfton. The sires used included 
Horace 5th 6491, Substance 9287, and Downton Boy 4622. 
Horace 5th was sold to Mr. George Leigh for exportation to 
America. Twenty-two heifers and eighteen bulls went to 
Messrs. George Leigh and Co., Aurora, U.S.A. ; seven heifers 
to Mr. Cook, Brookmont, Iowa ; ten heifers to Messrs. Paton 
Bros., Genoa, Nebraska ; two bulls to Messrs. Fowler Bros., 
Kansas ; and two bulls to the Auckland Stud Company. 
The herd is now owned by Mr. T. J. Shirley. The principal 



m m^ 'PROPERTY OF 

KEM. COLLEGE LIBRAftV;' 




F/wi(J I'y F. BaM'age.] 



FLEMrsH Farm, Windsor. 





MBh' 








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Sheepcote Farm (Mr. P. Coats'). 

(HOLMER 22229, AND EnDAI.E 21366.) 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 227 

strains are the Nutty, Miss Morris, and Silky. Some of the 
leading sires used have been Gratitude 10020, Anxiety Horace 
10940 by Horace 5th, General 19430, Whitfield BuUer 21936, 
and Badminton 24366 sold to Mr. H. W. Wilson-Slator, White 
Hill, Edgvvorthstown, Ireland. Badminton was by Barry 
20459, and bred by Mr. J. W. Smith, Thinghill Court. As 
will be seen, prizes were won at the Birmingham and Smith- 
field Shows as long ago as 1859 up to 1888, from which date 
until 1897 animals were exhibited with success not only at the 
fat stock shows, but also at some of the summer meetings. 

Berrington Hall. — TheherdofSirF.Cawley,Bart.,M.P., 
Berrington Hall, Leominster, was started in 1903 by the 
purchase of two high-class young cows with heifer calves from 
the herd of Mr. Allen Hughes of Wintercott. Additions have 
been gradually made at the dispersal sales of Capt. P. A. 
Clive, M.P., Whitfield ; Mr. Rees Keene, Llanvihangel Court, 
Chepstow, and Mr. Richard Bach, White House, Onibury. 
The bull used in 1908 was Whittern Standard 21 124 from the 
Whittern herd, and a good deal of use has been made for the 
last three years of Sultan 19760, the property of Mr. Herbert 
Hall, and bred by Captain Heygate, Buckland. Among the 
prizes won have been, first for four cows with their calves at 
Leominster in 1907, and fourth for a yearling bull at Hereford 
April Show and sale 1908, the bull (Bellman) being sold for 
export. 

Brampton Bryan. — The herd belonging to Mr. Lawton 
Moore, at Brampton Bryan, was established in 1852, the chief 
families being the Sunbeam, Sunflower, and Merry Agnes. 
The sires used have included Baron Grove 9544, Excellence 
145 1 3, Vulcan 17053, Ever True 19400, Bonanza 21962, 
Brampton Standard 23922, and Eaton Sensation 24566, the 
last named being the present stock bull. The owner writing, 
recently, remarked that he had some difficulty in stating which 
tribe of cows had been the best breeders in his herd. For very 
many years he had been steadily drafting out of it, first those 
that were not eligible for the American Hereford Record, and 
for the last six years those that have not been eligible for the 
Argentine Hereford Herd Book. At present more than 
75 per cent, are descended from one cow, namely, Sunflower 
(Volume X., p. 225), sire Sir George 2765. She was bred by 
the late Mr. John Williams, St. Mary's, Kingsland, in 1865, and 
sold at his sale. In a few years Mr. Moore hopes to have 
the whole of his cattle descended from this cow. One of the 
finest bulls he has bred was Earlsfield 19387, which he sold to 
Her late Majesty Queen Victoria. He proved one of the best 
sires used at Windsor. Mr, Moore has his dam still ; she is 



228 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

now 1 8 years old and is breeding regularly. The best female 
that has been bred and exhibited was Brampton Agnes 23rd, 
first and champion at the Royal in 1906. The owner has 
won many other first and second open prizes. A large number 
of bulls have been exported from the herd to Argentine and 
Uruguay ; the best and highest in price were Brampton Home- 
land 23922 and Brampton Banner 24436, 

Brinsop Court. — This herd was begun by Mr, P, N. 
Edwards, father of the present proprietor (Mr. Dearman 
Edwards), when he came to the farm in 185 1. During the 
time he continued to manage the herd he always used pedigree 
sires, amongst them a very superior bull Wellington, bred by 
Mr, P. Turner, and Frugality 1997, bred by Mr, Gibbons and 
the sire of Horace. Mr. Edwards has purchased several 
cows and heifers from the herds of Mr. Britten, Stapleton 
Castle ; Mr. Turner, The Leen ; Mr. Pitt, Chadnor ; Mr. Nott, 
Buckton Park ; the late Mr, T. Carwardine, Stockonbury ; 
and Mr. J. Searle, Cornwall. The earlier sires in service 
included Defender 5866, first prize bull in his class at the 
Royal at Reading, and Hiero 7707, bred by Mr. P. Turner, 
The Leen, got by The Grove 3rd. The principal tribes have 
been Ada, going back to Wellington 11 12, Daisy to Frugality 
1997, Miss Wintercott to Paddock TJi, Cherry to Wellington 
1 1 12, Rose to Wellington 11 12, and Ringdove to Son of Con- 
fidence 367, etc. 

BrOADWARD, — Mr, James Edwards, formerly of Twyford, 
Pembridge, and now of Broadward, Leominster, began his 
herd about 1901, Ten cows were purchased from the cele- 
brated Court House herd belonging to Mr. John Price at the 
sale in 1901. Other cows were secured at Dewsall, and at 
The Whittern, The sires used have been Carbineer 19926, 
Lively Lad 22967, and Twyford Legacy 26547, Mr, Edwards 
has been very successful with the herd. He bred and sold to 
His Majesty the King the bull Twyford Corrector, now in the 
Windsor herd. He has also, during the past two years, sold 
many high-priced cattle for export, while the herd is one of 
great merit, the animals being of the choicest blood. 

Bryngwyn. — The herd, that belonged to Sir James Rankin, 
was established in 1883 by purchases at very high prices from 
Chadnor Court, The Leen, and Stocktonbury. From these 
three celebrated dispersions Mr. Rankin, as he then was, took 
away some of the finest breeding animals offered, 30 of 
them averaging not far short of ;^I40 each. The herd took 
a good position in the show-yard, its honours having included 
the first prize for the best four breeding cows at the Hereford- 
shire Agricultural Society's Show at Monmouth and the first 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 229 

prize for yearling bulls at the Royal at Preston in 18S5. A 
reference to the principal animals acquired will be found in 
the notices of the herds of Messrs. Turner, Pitt, and Car- 
wardine, and they need not again be enumerated. They 
comprised many of the best animals at these auctions, full of 
the choicest blood. At the Stocktonbury sale Mr. Rankin, 
failing to secure Lord Wilton, purchased his son, Lord 
Grosvenor 7804, out of Verbena. Lord Grosvenor was the 
first prize bull calf at Newport in 1882, and the price paid for 
him was 650 guineas. The two-year-old Royal Grove 9157, 
bred in the herd, the second prize-winner at the Royal Show 
at Preston, was got by The Grove 3rd, and out of Duchess 2nd 
by Spartan. He was sold at a high price to go to U.S.A. 
Sir James Rankin sold nearly all his herd in 1894, and now 
keeps only a few Herefords. 

BUCKENHILL. — This herd was commenced by the present 
owner, Mr. R. Phipps, in 1884, from the celebrated Lord 
Wilton blood, and since that time there has been brought 
into the herd some of the best blood obtainable, the chief 
strains being those from Court of Noke, Wintercott, De 
Winton, The Rodd, Hampton Court, and The Leen. Particular 
care has been taken by the present owner to select sires from 
the best stock and suitable for the herd, a method which has 
led to the production of numerous prize-winners, while high 
prices have been obtained for many of the animals. The 
leading bulls used in the herd since the commencement have 
been Prince 15579, Victor, Toronto ^S/S^' Prairie Chief 17430, 
Locarno 20797, and Pyon Brilliant 23086. The principal 
prizes obtained have been : Nonsuch, first, Herefordshire and 
Worcestershire Shows, 1904 and 1905 ; first. Royal Counties 
Show, Guildford, 1904 ; first, Royal Agricultural Society of 
England, 1904, and reserve for champion prize ; first, New- 
port, 1904. Furious, first, Herefordshire and Worcestershire, 
1904 ; first, Bath and West of England, 1905 ; second, Here- 
fordshire and Worcestershire, 1905. For steers the following 
prizes have been won : Beefsteak, first, Herefordshire and 
Worcestershire Agricultural Show, 1905; second, Birmingham 
Fat Stock, 1905 ; Sirloin, first, Smithfield, 1905. Favourite, 
first, Birmingham Fat Stock, 1907 ; first, Smithfield, 1907 
(this steer was afterwards sold to Sir R. Cooper, and took 
first. prize at Smithfield in Class 6 in 1908) ; first, Birmingham 
Fat Stock in Class i in 1908. Enchanter, third, Birmingham 
and Smithfield, 1907. Flashlight, first, Birmingham Fat Stock, 
1908 ; second, Smithfield, 1908. Plumper, first, Smithfield, 
1908 ; second, Birmingham, 1908. High prices have been 
secured for animals for export, The herd at the present 



230 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

time is of considerable size, and the locality and pastures 
seem particularly well suited to this breed of cattle. 

BUCKLAND.— It was in the year 1898 that Major E. N. 
Heygate, father of Captain E. L. A. Heygate, the present 
owner, laid the foundation of the Buckland herd by the purchase 
of a few typical animals of old-established strains. The first 
bull used was Ironclad 14628, bred by Mr. A. E. Hughes in 
1889, by Hiero 7707, dam Lofty by Rudolph 6660, and full of 
the blood of Horace. He proved a valuable sire, and several 
of his sons and grandsons were subsequently used in the herd, 
amongst them being Iron Master 17318, Iron King 18884, I^n 
Duke 20717, and Iron Prince 20719. Other bulls used in the 
herd included Fine Lad 194 14 by Rupert 16366, Success 
21792 by Clarence 15944, Coronet 23968 by Baronet 20456, 
Eaton Bobs 21349 by Protector 19660, and Cameronian 
23934 by Cherrystone 22031. Cameronian was bred at Buck- 
land, and as his dam was Cambria by Iron King, and his 
sire Cherrystone, was half brother to Iron Duke, he had the 
blood of Ironclad on both sides of his pedigree. He held an 
unbeaten record in the showyard, his principal successes being 
champion of the Royal Show, reserve champion of all breeds 
at Viscount Tredegar's, and first prizes at the Bath and West, 
Herefordshire and Worcestershire, Shropshire and West Mid- 
land, Welsh National and other shows. The female portion of 
the herd is composed of lengthy, short-legged, typical cows, 
noted for their milking properties. The Cheriy family is the 
most numerous, and several other favourite strains are well 
represented, nearly all the females being the result of home 
breeding. 

Claston. — The herd belonging to Mr. W. H. Davies was 
originally started at Hill End, Weston Beggard, from cows 
obtained from his father, Mr. Thomas Davies, Pigeon House, 
Weston Beggard. Among the sires of these cattle were 
Reuben 4923, Faithful 5899, and Warrior 8150. In 1895, Mr. 
W. H. Davies purchased the whole of Mr. W. H. Godwin's 
herd at The Femes, Lugwardine, which he removed to Livers 
Ocle. Mr. Godwin's herd had been built up with the aid of 
Mr. J. T. Pinches, by the purchase of the best cows that could 
be obtained from the Showle Court, Leen, Court of Noke, 
Monkbury, The Rodd, Court House, The Bage, and other 
noted herds. Subsequently additions were made from the 
herds of Mr. R. O. Rees, Bronllys Court, Mr. W. M. Haywood, 
Mr. Marston, Lady Arbour, and from that at Chadnor Court. 
The herd has supplied many animals for export, on one 
occasion sixty having been consigned to South America in 
one lot. Amongst the many good bulls used in the herd have 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 231 

been Patriarch 7898, Duke 11177, Hannibal 16753, Protector 
18030, North Western 18503, Admiral 191 83, Dormington 
21336, Defiance 20369, Don Pedro 23392, Lysander 23590, 
and Obelisk 21637. The herd has produced many animals 
that won high honours, many successes being gained at the 
spring shows of the Royal Dublin Society, as well as at those 
of the Royal Agricultural and other Societies. Amongst the 
most noted of these prize-winners were the bulls Obelisk, Sir 
Pearce, North Western, and Admiral ; and the cows Countess, 
Marian, Blossom 17th, and Julia 3rd. 

Clehonger Manor. — The formation of Mr. Richard H. 
Ridler's herd was commenced in i860. Females either entered 
in, or eligible for the Herd Book, from Volume V., were pur- 
chased from the best herds of the day. Bulls from leading 
breeders have been used, Garibaldi 1261, bred by the late Mr. 
George Pitt, Defiance 1957, from Mr. Benjamin Rogers, The 
Grove, Nestor 3275, bred by the late Mr. Philip Turner, Master 
Benjamin 2636, Sir Robert 4 1 3 1 , bred at Wintercott, half brother 
to Winter de Cote, a Royal winner ; Rustic, from Adforton, a 
Royal winner, Recorder 7205, containing the blood of the 
celebrated Grateful 4622, a Royal winner; Vulcan 12754 
from Lynhales ; Reginald 21703, by Protector 19660, a Royal 
winner, sold for i^ 1200; Philip 20921, own brother to Britisher 
1 926 1, sold for 800 guineas, a Royal winner, and in 1908, 
Fusil 24612, by Fusilier 21042, bred by Captain Heygate, was 
in service. The blood contained in the early part of the herd 
was much the same as Lord Wilton 4740, but not in just the 
same order, and the latter part contains that of Albion 1 5027, 
a Royal winner, whose dam was bred by Mr Ridler. The 
herd usually numbers nearly a hundred females. A number 
of bulls have been sold, some for exportation. 

Croome Court. — The Earl of Coventry has proved a 
true friend of the Herefords, and few breeders have con- 
tributed more to the success of the breed in the show-yard 
than the proprietor of the Croome Court herd. Lord Coventry's 
reminiscences of Mr. John Price's herd at Ryall have already 
been quoted. His lordship, writing in 1886, said: "Before 
I farmed at all it was the custom to take the cattle to graze 
during the summer months in the deer park, and amongst 
these agisted cattle of all sorts there were usually a few — 
perhaps half a dozen — Herefords to be seen. The park- 
keeper noticed that these always improved and went out in 
better condition than the others, and he frequently called my 
attention to the circumstance. So when I began to farm for 
myself about eleven years ago, I bore this in mind, and bought 
a few Herefords to run side by side with Shorthorns. I soon 



232 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

found out that my land suited the former breed best ; and 
when a trial of some years convinced me of the accuracy of 
first impressions, I disposed of the Shorthorns, and have since 
kept only Herefords. They are a good beef-making breed, 
and for early maturity I do not think they can be excelled. 
I sell my young bulls annually at Hereford, and have sent 
some to Buenos Ayres and other places abroad. The steers 
are sold to the butcher at from one year and six months to 
two years old ; one realised £^4 1 5^. at Tewkesbury Christ- 
mas market, not quite one year and ten months old." In the 
foundation of the herd, Lord Coventry, like many other 
breeders, was indebted to the stock of the late Mr. Wm. 
Tudge, of Adforton. At the dispersion of the Adforton herd 
in September, 1 877, there were purchased nine animals, headed 
by the prize-winning cow Giantess, acquired for 140 guineas. 
Giantess, calved in July, 1872, got by Sir Roger 4133, dam 
Haidee by Battenhall 2406, and thus full of the Sir David 
blood, had gained the second prize at the Royal Show at 
Liverpool in 1877. After her successful career at the breeding 
shows, she was exhibited at Smithfield in 1883, when she 
weighed 20 cwt. 3 qrs. 2 lbs. From Giantess Lord Coventry 
bred the noted Good Boy 7668 and Golden Treasure, and the 
trio secured the first prize as the best group at the Royal Show 
at York in 1883, perhaps the highest honour that can be 
obtained by a breeder. At the dispersion of the late Mr. R. L, 
Burton's herd at Longner in 1881, several purchases were 
made, including the two-year-old heifers Rarity 13th and 
14th at 115 guineas. These were lineally descended from 
Lord Berwick's Pigeon tribe, which traced directly to Mr. 
Knight's Cherry tribe, and they have been very prolific. The 
herd was further augmented by selections from Mr, J. H. 
Arkwright; Mr. T. J. Carwardine; Mr. W. Taylor; Mr. 
Roberts, Trippleton ; Mr. T. Rogers, Coxall ; Mr. Taylor, 
Thinghill Court; Mr. P. Ballard, Leighton Court; Mr. 
Downes, Maesmawr ; Mr. Myddleton, Llynaven (now of 
Beckjay) ; Mr. Jones, Broadstone ; Mr. Wicksted, Shaken- 
hurst ; Mr. Turner, The Leen, etc. The bull Fisherman 5913, 
bred by Mr. Rogers, Coxall, achieved great distinction in the 
show-yard, and was also most successfully used as a sire. He 
was got by Conservator 5265, dam Beauty by Langdale 3203, 
and was a frequent prize-winner, having been first at the 
Royal at York and second at Shrewsbury. Besides Fisher- 
man there was Good Boy ySGS, by Fisherman and out of 
Giantess. In 1884 he was first at all the principal shows ; and 
although he was defeated at the Royal, by Mr. Price's Hot- 
spur 7028 in a very close contest, he won the champion prize 




Croome Court (Earl of Coventry 







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Photos l>y ;/'. H. Biistitt.] 

Garxons (Sir J. R. G. Cotterell, Bart.). 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 233 

over all breeds at the Oxfordshire Show in 1885, defeating 
the Shorthorns — Royal Ingram, Self Esteem, Snowflake, and 
other celebrities ; and this victory was confirmed at Newport 
in November of the same year, where Royal Ingram and 
Self Esteem again competed amongst the Shorthorns, Maid- 
stone being among the remaining Herefords. Good Boy 
also won the champion prize for the best bull in the Shorthorn, 
Devon, Sussex, and Hereford classes at the Royal Counties 
Show at Southampton, and the special prize at the Worcester- 
shire Agricultural Show for the best bull in the Hereford 
classes, and a silver medal for the best animal bred in 
Worcestershire or Warwickshire. He was also first at the 
Herefordshire Show in 1886 for bull and offspring. Golden 
Treasure, a daughter of Giantess and Mareschal Neil 4760, 
proved herself in repeated contests to be the premier Hereford 
show cow of her day, having been first at the Royal at 
Shrewsbury and Preston, in addition to numerous other 
honours. She also won the champion prize at the Oxford- 
shire Show, 1885, for the best cow or heifer in the yard, 
beating Snowflake, etc. Other fine animals have been Plum 
Jam, by Fisherman, the third prize two-year-old heifer at 
Preston ; and Symmetry, by Good Boy, the first prize 
yearling at Brighton and second at Preston, Bertha, bred by 
Mr. Mason, Comberton, got by the celebrated Commander 
4452, was the second prize winner at Brighton. There are 
also several very fine specimens of the Rarity family and 
many other prize-winners. The herd has continued to be 
successfully exhibited, some of the most prominent winners 
having been bred in it. Succeeding Good Boy as a sire came 
his son. Rare Sovereign 10499, a noted Royal winner; also 
Mr. A. P. Turner's Viscount 18646 and his son Mercury 20192, 
Mr. J. H. Arkwright's Home Office 20073, Mr. R. S. Olver's 
Fortunio 21396, Gold 22170, and Mr. Faber's Queen's Guard 
23995. Maxwell 24155, bred by Mr. A. P. Turner, has been 
used, while Glittering Gold 24628, Rabbi 24918, and Lama 
23550 are also among the recent sires, several of them having 
been successfully exhibited. Of the females which have 
helped to maintain the reputation of the herd were Rose- 
water, Ladywood, and Ranee, highly successful winners, also 
Madame, Merriment, and many others. 

DOWNTON Hall.— The herd maintained by Sir William 
St. A. Rouse Boughton, Bart, at Downton Hall, near Ludlow, 
was started in 1885 with cattle purchased chiefly from Mr. B. 
Rogers, Pembridge, Mr. Boughton Knight, Downton Castle, 
and Mr. Tudge, Adforton. The strains of blood represented 
by the old Lily and Spark families have been most successful 



234 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

in the herd, which has been kept up to a high standard by the 
use of superior bulls. These included amongst their number 
Royalist 3rd 16958, a very successful sire, by Royalist out of a 
cow by Cicero 1 1077. At one of the shows of the Hereford Herd 
Book Society three sons of Royalist 3rd were placed respectively 
first, second, and third on the prize list in a class of 72, 
whilst the following year he sired the first and third winners in 
a class of 60 at the same show. Among the many noted 
animals got by this bull were Lady Betty, champion female at 
the Royal Show 1905, Tedstone President 18631, and Royal 
Hero 18067, both of which won first prizes at the Royal, Bath, 
and West, and Shropshire and West Midland shows. Other 
bulls that made their mark in the herd included Gold Box 1 5339 
by Knight of Leinthall 1 1367, G.W.R. 22189 by Royal Rupert, 
Prince Albany 23072, a grandson of Albion 15027, and Beres- 
ford 23901 by Newtype 23028. These were followed by 
Garrison 24615, a son of Commandant 22040, out of a cow 
of Mr. Stephen Robinson's Silk tribe. In 1908 the bull 
Minotaur by Monksilver was purchased after winning at 
Dublin first prize, the special prize as one of the best group 
of three Hereford bulls, and the Hereford Herd Book Society's 
Challenge Cup as the best animal, the property of a resident 
in Ireland. He also won first prize at the Show of the Here- 
fordshire and Worcestershire Society the same year. No cattle 
from this herd were exhibited previous to 1903, in which year 
Lady Betty commenced her career of prize winning which 
ended in taking the championship of the Royal Show. Four- 
teen of the cows that compose the breeding herd have since 
then won prizes at important shows. 

DUXMOOR. — Mr. John Tudge's herd at Duxmoor, Craven 
Arms, was commenced in 188 1, and comprises specimens de- 
scended from the Lady family, from which Lord Wilton 2740 
was bred, and the old Darling family. Darling (Volume IX. 
page 274) having been dam of four first prize Royal 
winners, then the property of his father, Mr. W. Tudge, 
Adforton. The sires used have been Hartington 5358, 
Ancient Briton 15034, Alton 1 1877, Viscount Rupert 19789, 
Albany 20434, Wonder 2587, Standpoint 13747, and Ramcses 
2nd 24238. Prior to his occupation of Duxmoor, Mr. John 
Tudge's opportunities for bringing out high-class Herefords 
were few, as the farm he then had was small, but he occa- 
sionally showed a good one, such as Alton 11877, a Royal 
winner, sold for exportation to South America. This bull was 
sire of two of the heifers that early distinguished themselves 
from the Duxmoor herd, these being Golden Pippin and 
Pretty Face, both prize-winners. Golden Pippin was the dam 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 235 

of Horace Wilton, which was first at Viscount Tredegar's 
show at Newport, and was sold at a high price to go to 
Queensland. She was also dam of another Newport winner, 
Lady Horace Wilton, and of the noted prize heifer Princess 
May. Other famous prize-winners shown from the Duxmoor 
herd, which for several years was exhibited with remarkable 
success, were Pimpernel, Miss Gift, Rubella, Rutheen, Wilton 
Star, Lady Duxmoor, Rustic Maid, Princess Royal, Albany, 
Royal Gem, Bracelet, Shotover, British Queen, and Royal Shot. 
The prizes gained included champions and reserve champions 
at the Royal, Royal Counties, Newport, Herefordshire, and 
Worcestershire, and Mr. Tudge was breeder of the champion 
at the Royal Show, Sydney, New South Wales, in 1903, 1904, 
and 1905. A portion gf the herd at Duxmoor was sold by 
Messrs. A. and D. Edwards in 1907. The bull Royal Shot 
went to Mr, R, Christison, Queensland, for 100 guineas ; and 
Mr. Jonas Webb gave 200 guineas for the bull Wonder for 
export to New South Wales ; Captain Braga, Uruguay, paying 
the same amount for the bull His Majesty. The average was 
;^4i 1 95-, The sires recently used have been Wonder 25871, 
Standpoint 19747, and Rameses 2nd 24238. 

EVESBATCH Court. — This herd was founded in 1901 by 
Mr. Joseph Rowlands, who selected eight cows from the herd 
of Mr. A. R. Firkins, Paunton Court — namely, Minnie i8th 
by Hampton Court 8707, Curly 38th by Isinglass 173 19, 
Gamester Beauty 17th by Hilarity 8734, Oyster Girl 25th by 
Ophir 18974, Oyster Girl 26th by Lurdan 20175, ^""^ Curly 1st 
by Lurdan 20175 — all of Hampton Court blood, and the two 
cows. Strawberry 2nd and Strawberry 3rd by Julius 16786, of 
Mr. George Pitt's blood. The next purchase of importance 
was the acquisition of eight cows and a bull calf at the dis- 
persal of the famous Whittern herd. These were Silver Dale 
by Grove Wilton 2nd 13845 (the dam of the noted cow Silk- 
weed), Peloria by Diplomat 18328 (a magnificent breeder), 
Patrinia by Albion 15027, Gwynneth Gwyn by Pioneer 14025, 
Mr. J. Price's Galatea by Major Domo 20179, Mafir by Centurion 
19929 (a son of Albion 15027), Corona by Major Domo 20179, 
Sister Maisie by Curly Boy 17793 (^ wonderfully good thick 
heifer and a great prize-winner) ; and the bull calf Royal 
Standard 24260, dam the Royal winner Silkweed, sire Curly 
Boy 17793, thought by many to be one of the most beautiful 
calves of recent years. All these animals are of The Leen, 
Stocktonbury, and Wintercott blood. Next came Bountiful 4th 
by Albion 15027, and her daughter Hendre Bountiful by 
Rougemont 20296, the latter proving an acquisition, as she 
not only won prizes at the Royal, Bath and West, and 



236 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Herefordshire and Worcestershire shows, but turned out an ex- 
cellent breeder. At the sale of the noted Hampton Court herd, 
Mr. Rowlands purchased representatives of most of the families 
comprised in the catalogue, among them being Beauty 23rd 
by All England 19200, Beauty 27th by Whitfield Roberts 
21880, both members of the famous Hampton Beauty strain ; 
Ivington Lass 46th by All England 19200, tracing to Hare- 
wood Beauty bought by the late Mr. Arkwright in 1835 ; 
Pretty Maid 12th by Graspan 20668, and Pretty Maid 13th 
by Whitfield Roberts 21880, tracing to the noted cow Old 
Silver by Lottery 410 and Oyster Girl 30th by Graspan 20668. 
In addition, the bull Field Piece 23431 out of the celebrated 
prize cow Pearl 15th was bought. In 1905 the cows Loretta 
by Royalist 4th, Morning Star by Royalist 4th and of the 
famous Anxiety blood, Loving Cup by Lionel 22310 (an ex- 
cellent heifer, both a breeder and prize-winner), and the heifers 
Fairy Queen and Heartsease by Royal Rupert 20976, were 
bought at the dispersal sale of the Stonebrook House Here- 
fords belonging to Mr. Thomas Fenn. There are also two 
cows of great quality bred by the late Mr. E. Yeld by Lead 
On 16800. At the late Lord Glanusk's sale Taormina by 
Ceylon 19930, her daughter Syracuse by O. C. 21687, Joyous 
by Q. C. 21687, out of Merry, own sister to Taormina, Dolly 
by O. C. 21687, ^T^om Playtime by Plato 16271, and the grand 
old cow Miss Mary 2nd by Overseer 16249, of Chadnor Court 
blood, were purchased. Besides the above-mentioned families 
there are also other smaller ones, but Mr. Rowlands's aim in 
the foundation of the herd has been that the preponderating 
blood should be either Horace 3877 or Lord Wilton 4740, 
and a careful perusal of the individual pedigrees of all the 
animals in the herd, which comprises 100 head, would disclose 
the fact that many of them have double or more crosses of 
both of these famous bulls in their pedigrees. The chief sires 
used in the herd have been Clarence 1 5944, a great getter ; 
Royal Standard 24260, the sire of some beautiful heifers ; 
King Edward 24095, bred by Mr. W. Tudge ; Primate 23676, a 
bull of great scale and a good getter; and Tumbler 17588, 
whose career of usefulness probably extended over a longer 
period than that of any other bull in the history of the breed. 
He was by Cubic Measure 14447, ^^^ Stately by Strafford 
14946. He had four crosses of The Grove 3rd 5051, to which 
bull he bore a marked resemblance. Although Tumbler was 
nearly sixteen years old in 1908, his stock were as good as 
ever, and Mr. Rowlands had in that season twenty-three cows 
in calf to him. Sir Roland, dam Loving Cup by Lionel 
32310, sire Tumbler 17588 ; ancl Evesbatch Marvel by Wonder 



fiSM. 










"^^^.'^ 



r:,otobv A. If. Dc Ati,.\ 

TiMBLER 175SS (Bred by Mr. D. H. Powell). 




Photo by G. II. Parsons.^ 

Perton 24S62 (Bred by Mr. H. J. Dent). 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 237 

25871, dam Albania by Albany 20434, a son of Albion 15027 
— were selected to follow this sire. The owner has been 
unable to part with any heifers, but several bulls have been 
sold to South America, and many bought by home breeders. 
Mr. Rowlands has won prizes at all the leading shows, being 
especially successful in 1907. 

Eyton-ON-Severn. — This herd has been continued by 
Mr. G. H. Meire since 1883, when he succeeded to it. Nearly all 
the cattle are descended from the original females with which 
his father, the late Mr. T. L. Meire, commenced in 1829 to 1833, 
and of which particulars are given elsewhere. No unregistered 
bulls have ever been used, and no females from the herd have 
been offered for sale for stock purposes, but many bulls have 
been sold privately. Mr. G. H. Meire told us, that, in the 
opinion of the late owner of the herd. Speculation 387 was by 
far the best stock-getter and the best bull used in the herd. 
Oxen by him won at Smithfield Show about 1842, when all 
breeds were shown in the same class. As next best it is 
believed Franky 1243 should be placed. He was the sire of 
the Smithfield Club champions, one of which was not bred by 
the late Mr. Meire, although he bred the sire and dam's sire. 
Members of Mr. Meire's family have at different times estab- 
lished in the Shrewsbury district fine herds of Herefords, but 
his is the only one of them remaining. The old herd of his 
family, owned by his uncle, Mr. Samuel Meire, Berrington, 
was swept away by pleuro-pneumonia about the year 1843. 
The carcase of the bull Speculation is reported to have weighed 
more than a ton. 

Writing in 1908, Mr. Meire said: "From time to time 
fresh blood has been obtained from Messrs. Turner, Car- 
wardine. Pulley, Tanner, Sir John Cotterell, and others. 
Probably my best sires have been Valour 20384, and 
Sanscrit 3rd 1 1654, both bred at home. Anxiety Arthur 8204 
was very impressive. I do not make it a practice to breed 
stock bulls for sale, but occasionally neighbours select bull 
calves. This is a working herd ; after being grazed two 
summers the bullocks are sold fat at two years old. No 
females have been offered for sale for stock purposes. They 
are all descended from home-bred dams as far back as at 
least 1833." 

Ffrwdgrech, Brecon. — Mr. J. D. D. Evans writes: 
•* I have been able to trace further records of the herd founded 
by the late Mr. D. Evans about 1875. Of the earliest pur- 
chases no trace remains. The first record I find is the purchase 
of five cows at the sale of Mr. Yeomans, Llowes Court herd, 
in 1886, and a couple at his Old Weir sale. Next some 



238 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

purchases were made at the sale, in 1889, of Mr. J. Handley's 
herd at PontwilHam, but Httle trace remains of these. In 
1892, Mr. Evans bought six cows and heifers at the sale of 
Sir J. Rankin's Bryngwyn herd. Of these a cow, Laura, then 
a three-year-old heifer, has left a great mark on the herd. In 
1895 this cow had twin heifer calves, both of which turned out 
excellent breeders, their progeny being good without excep- 
tion, and several of them winning prizes at the Bath and West 
of England, the R.A.S.E., Lord Tredegar's Newport, Hereford, 
and Worcester, besides numerous prizes at the local shows. 
In 1894 Mr. Evans purchased some useful animals at Mr. 
R. O. Rees' sale. The sires Lulham, and farther back 
Carbonel, and others appear in their pedigrees. In 1896 two 
cows were bought at the sale of Mr. Arkwright's Hampton 
Court herd, namely, Hampton Rose 19th, and Beatrice i6th, 
the former a particularly well-bred animal. These two strains 
are still prominent in the herd, and have secured many prizes. 
Mr. Evans also bought at the sale of Mr. Bridgwater's 
Porthamel herd, and more recently, two cows at the Whittern 
sale of Mr. Green's herd. Stock bulls used include animals 
bred by Sir J. Rankin, Messrs, J. H. Arkwright, W. Tudge, 
R. Green, and others, and trace from bulls such as Post Obit 
1 1 542, Lord Roberts 21547, Letton Hardwick 16806, Lulham 
13234, etc. Lord Kitchener 22974, bred by Mr. W. Tudge, has 
been used since 1903, and his place is now filled by Linacre, 
26257 by Pearl King, bred by Mr. A. E. Hughes." 

FiNSTALL Park. — Mr. J. B. Brooks' herd was started in 
1902 by the purchase of twelve in-calf cows from the herds 
of the following late breeders, viz. Messrs. R. Green, The 
Whittern ; H. Haywood, Blakemere, and Jos. Maddocks, 
Llanwarne Court, while in the spring of 1903 the bull Cele- 
bration was selected from the herd of Mr. H. W. Taylor, 
Showle Court. He was sired by the noted prize-winning bull 
Sorcerer 20339, ^ -'^o" o^ Clarence 15944, his dam being a 
granddaughter of Maidstone. He was used as the stock bull 
up till the autumn of 1906, when, a change of blood being 
required. Natal was purchased from Mr. H. J. Bailey of 
Rowden Abbey, at the Hereford March sale. His sire was 
Statesman, dam Natalia by Pagan, and thence tracing to 
Clarence. The herd numbers about thirty head. Numerous 
prizes have been won, and several young bulls and heifers 
exported to the Argentine, North America, and Australia. 

Garnons.— Sir J. R. G. Cotterell favours rs with the 
following notes as to the formation of his herd : He had long 
intended to breed pure Hereford cattle, believing they were 
more suitable to his land than Shorthorns, a small dairy herd of 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 239 

which had been previously kept exclusively, but he was for 
some time undecided whether to buy pure-bred good-looking 
cows irrespective of pedigree, or to buy the best animals he 
could find from leading pedigree herds. He eventually decided 
on the latter course, and he has not regretted it. Sir John 
secured the advice of that veteran judge of Hereford cattle, 
Mr. J. T. Pinches of Hereford, in the selection of most of his 
foundation stock. When he had to take over an adjoining farm, 
owing to the death of the tenant in 1900, he began to buy 
Herefords, obtaining a cow and calf of Mr. Ockey of Thruxton — 
going back to the old Garnons strain which he was particularly 
anxious to obtain— then several cows and heifers at Mr. R. 
Phipps' sale at Buckenhill, and three particularly good cows 
from Mr. W. M. Andrew of Monkhall, who, at that time Sir John 
thinks, had as good a lot of cows as any one in the county ; 
two heifers from Mr. W. Morris of Dewshall, and two peculiarly 
good heifers from Mr. J. R. Hill of Orleton. The first stock 
bull was Ricardo 20957, fro"^ ^i"- Powell of The Bage, a very 
old-established herd ; he developed into a very fine animal 
of grand masculine type, winning first prize at the Hereford- 
shire and Worcestershire Show at Hereford, in bull, cow, and 
offspring class with Rose and Rameses, and reserve for 
champion in 1902, while in 1903 he was second at the Bath 
and West, Hereford and Worcester, Royal Counties, and Shrop- 
shire and West Midland shows. In 1901 there was an oppor- 
tunity of making a selection at the dispersal of the well-known 
herds of Leinthall and Court House. He bought some half- 
dozen at the former sale, and at the latter a two-year-old 
heifer Sylph, the dam, by Rameses 23100, of the steer which 
won first in his class, Breed Cup, Elkington Challenge Cup, 
Webb Challenge Cup, and champion of the show at Birming- 
ham, 1907; he weighed 17 cwt. i qr. 23 lbs. at two years seven 
months. The cow Britannia was bought at Mr. A. Rogers' 
dispersal sale, and four others at the Hampton Court sale 
in 1904. In 1902 a rather small but veiy thick and compact 
bull, Marcellus 22353, was bought from Mr. Turner, The 
Leen ; he had been second at the Shropshire and West 
Midland show, and third at the Herefordshire and Worcester- 
shire, and was not shown again. He was in service several 
seasons, and was the sire of some capital stock. The following 
bulls were subsequently used in the herd : Rameses 23100 by 
Ricardo 20957, 2nd Herefordshire and Worcestershire, 2nd 
Royal Counties, 2nd Shropshire and West Midland, 3rd Bath 
and West (1903) ; 2nd Royal Agricultural Society of England, 
2nd Royal Counties, 3rd Bath and West, 3rd Herefordshire 
and Worcestershire (1904). Priam 23674 by Ricardo 20957, 



240 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

2nd Royal Counties, 3rd Bath and West, 3rd Herefordshire 
and Worcestershire (1904) ; 3rd Herefordshire and Worcester- 
shire, 3rd Royal Agricultural Society of England (1905). 
Rameses H. 24238 by Rameses 23100, ist Royal Dublin, 
2nd Bath and West, 2nd Shropshire and West Midland, 2nd 
Herefordshire and Worcestershire, 2nd Royal Agricultural 
Society of England (1906). Old Sort 24826 by Rameses 
23100, 1st Royal Dublin (1907). At present (1908) All Right 
24348, a pure Hampton Court bull, though bred at Garnons, 
and Royal Ringer, second Hereford Herd Book Society's 
Show, 1908, bred by Mr. W. Griffiths, Aldersend, are in service. 
The herd numbers some forty-five breeding cows and heifers 
living out in the park all the year round, where there is plenty 
of water and shade. They come up to the yard about a month 
before calving, but otherwise are out all the year, having a 
little rough hay when snow is on the ground. 

HardwICK Court. — Mr. D. F. Powell's herd is chiefly 
descended from cows bred by the late Mr. J. H. Arkwright, 
Hampton Court, Beauty lOth, Silk 5th, and Ivington Lass 
1 6th. The Dolly family is descended from Delight i6th, bred 
by Mr. J. B. Lutley from the noted Hewer blood. Mr. J. 
Rowlands' famous old bull. Tumbler 17588, was bred by Mr. 
Powell and he was used by him three seasons. He was an 
excellent getter, and subsequently did good service in several 
herds, and in 1908 was in service in the Evesbatch Court herd, 
being then fifteen years old. 

Hardwicke Grange. — The herd belonging to Mr. Frank 
Bibby, at Hardwicke Grange, Shrewsbury, was established by 
the late Mr. James J. Bibby in 1889, with pedigree stock 
going back to the first volume of the Herd Book. Owing to 
the splendid shelter at the foot of the Clive Hill, the district 
has proved very suitable for breeding. The families in the 
herd were obtained from Mr. Crane, Benthall Ford ; Mr. 
Thursfield, Barrow ; Mr. Minton, Montford ; Mr. Green, Wig- 
more Grange ; Mr. Fenn, Stonebrook ; Mr. Hill, Orleton 
Court ; Captain Heygate, Buckland ; Mr. Tanner, Shrawar- 
dine ; and Mr. Keene, Llanvihangel Court, the cows possess- 
ing much of the Lord Wilton blood. The sires used have 
included Templemore 23787, Chancellor 24477, Brampton 
Barrier 23916, and Antonio 23867. The bull Templemore 
was a prize-winner at Shrewsbury and Ludlow, as well 
as at the Welsh National Show and at the Oswestry Show, 
where he won the silver challenge cup. Another of the 
stock bulls. Chancellor, is sire of some excellent heifers ; he 
is by Professor and on his dam's side is half-brother to the 
celebrated bull Cameronian. A considerable number of prizes 




H. W. Taylor. 

H. R. Hall. 

Sir W.m. Rouse Boughton. 



W. TuDGE (Summer Court). 
H. F. RrssELL. 
J. W. Smith. 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 241 

were awarded to specimens from the herd at Oswestry in 
1907. 

Hill House, Newton.— Mr. George Butters' herd was 
founded in 1891, two animals having been purchased from 
Mrs. Turner of The Lynch, two from Mr. H. C. Lambert, late 
of Risbury Court, and one from Mr. Stewart Robinson, Lyn- 
hales. Those bought from Mr. Lambert possessed a lot of 
the Hampton Court and Wintercott blood, one of them, Prairie 
Snowdrop, being by Prairie Star, a bull bred at Hampton 
Court, and the other, Senate Madeline, by Senate. The bulls 
used have been Newton 17395, Abductor 17636, Cheesecake 
18752, All England 19200, Graspan 20668, Spencer 20343, 
Greater Britain 21434, Scot 23134, Newton Tumbler 24813, 
and Sailor Prince 26465. A large number of prizes have 
been won since the bull Hero took first award at the Here- 
fordshire and Worcestershire Show at Leominster in 1900. 
One of the most successful prize-winners was the bull Viscount 
25856, which was awarded first and second at the Shrop- 
shire and West Midland in 1907, as well as first at the 
Herefordshire and Worcestershire Shows, and seconds at the 
Royal, Bath and West and Hereford Herd Book Society's 
Shows. In the same year the heifer Newton Belle won first 
and second at the Shropshire and West Midland, first at the 
Herefordshire and Worcestershire, and second at the Bath 
and West and Royal Shows. In 1908 the cow Dorothy, 
Volume XXXV. p. 229, took first prizes at the Herefordshire 
and Worcestershire and Welsh National Shows, seconds at 
the Bath and West and Shropshire and West Midland, and 
third at the Royal, whilst Sailor Prince was first at the Aber- 
gavenny, second at the Welsh National, and third at the 
Herefordshire and Worcestershire Shows. A considerable 
number of cattle have been exported to both North and 
South America, including the sons of Senate Madeline, Senate 
Spencer, Hero and Masterpiece, the heifer Newton Belle, and 
the bull Viscount. 

HiNTON. — This herd was founded by Mr. J. B. Parker at 
Stretford Court, Leominster, in 1886, with two cows purchased 
at the dispersion of Mr. S. Goode's herd at Ivingtonbury, 
Leominster, descended from the herds of Mr. Hill, Orleton, 
and Mr. Roberts, late of Ivingtonbury, and afterwards added 
to by cows purchased of Mr. J. P. Evans, Perryditch, and 
Mr. William Tudge, Leinthall. In May, 1906, the herd was 
transferred to Mr. Parker's son, Mr. A. J. Parker, on his taking 
the Hinton farm in the parish of Felton. Since the herd 
was started the following sires have been used : Langdon 
1 391 3, bred by Mr. A. E. Hughes, Wintercott ; Reuben 15628, 

R 



242 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

bred by Mr. Geo. Pitt, formerly of Chadnor Court ; Insurance 
19466, bred by Sir Charles Rouse Bough ton ; Pretender 20257, 
bred by Mr. A. P. Turner, The Leen ; Premier 23065, bred by 
Mr. Edgar Wight, Tedstone Court; and Corporal 25256, bred 
by Mr. S. Robinson, Lynhales. Several animals from the herd 
have been exported. 

Holme Lacy, Ashton and Marsh Hall. — After the 
division of the Ashton herd in 1876, mentioned elsewhere, Mr. 
Herbert R. Hall added few females to the portion of it he 
removed to Holme Lacy, other than those bred from the old 
strains. The bulls he chiefly used were Patentee 4003, Patentee 
2nd 6592, Adrian 5713, Dale Tredegar 5856, Defender 5866, 
Holme Tredegar 7016, Chancellor 5246, Hotspur 7726, and 
Thickset 8107. Patentee was bred by Mr. B. Rogers, The 
Grove, got by the renowned Sir Thomas 2228, dam Miss 
Stanton by The Grove 1764. Adrian was bred by Mr. 
S, C. Good, got by Disraeli 3006, from a cow by Severus 
2nd 2747. Dale Tredegar, bred by Mr. H. J. Bailey, Rose- 
dale, was sired by the splendid show bull Tredegar 5077, 
his granddam having been by Sir Thomas. Dale Tredegar 
was himself a Royal first prize winner, and was sold for 120 
guineas for exportation to New South Wales, where he gained 
the champion prizes. Defender, bred by Mr. H. Mason, was 
by the well-known Commander 4452, and was a Royal winner 
at Reading ; while Holme Tredegar, got by Dale Tredegar, 
was also a prize bull. Chancellor was a son of Horace, and 
was bred by Mr. John Price, Court House. He was exhibited 
three times, gaining first prize at the Hereford Show of the 
Bath and West of England Society, where he was sold at a 
long figure to Mr. Evans, Old Court. A good many of the 
cows acquired when the herd was divided were got by Pre- 
ceptor 4030, bred by Mr. P. Turner, The Leen, by the Royal 
first prize bull Bachelor 2941, bred by Mr. Robinson, Lyn- 
hales, and out of Eglantine. The stock sires used prior to 
1886 included Hotspur 7726 and Thickset. Hotspur, bred by 
the late Mr. Carwardine, got by Lord Wilton, dam Rosaline, 
and thus full brother to Mr. Adams Earl's celebrated Romeo 
6646, made his mark in the show-yard, having been first at 
the Royal at Preston, first at the Bath and West at Brighton, 
and first at the Herefordshire Show at Monmouth in 1885. 
He was sold at a very high price to go to America, but died 
during the voyage. His stock were very promising, and he 
was 'justly regarded as one of the best Lord Wilton bulls. 
Thickset, calved in October, 1881, was bred by Mr. W. 
Thomas, The Hayes, Cardiff. Mr. Hall sold largely for ex- 
portation, and won many prizes in addition to those already 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 243 

mentioned, his herd having supplied the first prize group of 
four cows at the Herefordshire Society's Show at Ledbury in 
1 884, while Pretty by Preceptor was second at the Royal Show 
at Preston for cow and produce. 

The present Ashton herd belonging to Mr. H. R. Hall, Junr., 
was started 1906, with cows selected from Mr. H. R. Hall, 
Marsh Hall, and Mr. R. W. Hall, late of Ashton, and now 
of Uphampton, Shobdon. The herd consists of about 80 
head, all bred from the herd of the owner's grandfather, 
Mr. W. Hall, which dates back for nearly a century, and may 
justly claim to be one of the oldest herds of Hereford cattle of 
which there is any record in existence, while some of the animals 
have been bred continuously on the same farm, and by the same 
family. Mr. Hall also purchased cows bred by Mr. A. Rogers, 
Mr. Andrew, Monkhall ; Mr. Turner, Walton ; Mr. B. Edwards, 
Strangworth, and others. 

The cows and three-year-old heifers in the herd in 1908 were 
by Tumbler 17588, Orleton Launcelot 16875, Professor 10466, 
bred by the late Mr. T. J. Carwardine, sire Lord Wilton 4740. 
Wetmore Wilton 4th 176 17, Abel King 20423, Degamvy 
18786, Assistant 23270, Victor 28387, Caractacus 20520, 
Prince Richard 17450, and the young stock by Pagan 2nd 
20912, bred by the late Mr. Aaron Rogers; Clinker 23354, 
bred by Mr. J. R. Hill. Orleton Court and Sultan 19760, 
bred by Captain E. L. A. Heygate. The last named was the 
winner of two first prizes at the Breeders' sales, and second at 
the Herefordshire Show at Bromsgrove, and in 1908 was at 
the head of the herd. Mr. Hall has only exhibited at local 
shows. 

The Marsh Hall herd of Herefords was bred from cows 
retained from Mr. H. R. Hall's sale at Holme Lacy, sired 
by the Royal winner Dale Tredegar 5856; Chancellor 5246, 
also a great winner, and Lord Grosvenor 2nd 132 15, with 
the addition of ten heifers bought from Mr. R. W. Hall, 
then of Ashton. These heifers were by Ashton Wilton 9523 
by Lord Wilton 4740, from the show cow Lovely by Preceptor 
4030, Lord Hampton 11417 by Hotspur 5246, Wilton Prince 
9429 by Lord Wilton 4740, from Pretty by Preceptor 4030, 
Chancellor 5246 by Horace 3877, and Horace Cremorne 10085, 
sire of Gay Lass. The last named was afterwards sold to go 
to Australia, where he was champion of the breed. Mr. Hall 
subsequently used the following sires: Rhododendron 105 31 
by The Grove 3rd 5051, Launcelot 139 17, bred by Mr. A. E. 
Hughes ; Orleton Launcelot 16875, Wetmore Wilton 4th 17617, 
Deganwy 18786, Chancellor 3rd 15934, Tumbler 17588, Abel 
King 20423, and Sultan 19760, winner of several prizes. Sultan, 



244 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

as has been mentioned, was, in 1908, at the head of the herd 
of Mr. H. R. Hall, Jun., at Ashton. 

Mr. Herbert R. Hall had a draft sale about ten years ago, 
when he gave up the Church House Farm, Orleton. He has 
now given up farming and sold the remainder of his cattle at 
Marsh Hall privately. 

HoPTON, Newtown, Montgomery. — Mr. Thomas 
Owen founded this herd by purchasing two cows at the sale 
of Mr. Aaron Rogers, The Rodd, in October, 1902 ; also one 
from Mr. D. Pryce at his Weston sale, and four at Edenhope, 
bred from the herds of the late Mr. T. Myddleton, Mr. W. M. 
Dawes, and Mr. R. Morgan, late of Bahaillon. Mr. Owen has 
been fairly successful, having won many prizes at the Mont- 
gomeryshire, Bishops Castle, and Aberystwyth shows. All the 
bull calves are sold for stock purposes. The sires used have 
included General 22881, Pretender 20257, Hopton Prince 
24674, Downton Bonanza 23991, and Brampton Severn. 

IviNGTON. — In 1908 Mr. J. K. Hyslop, who was closely 
associated with the formation and successful exhibition of the 
Herefords at Sheepcote, commenced the formation of his own 
herd at Ivington, purchases having been made from the stocks 
of Lord Coventry, Mr. H. J. Bailey, Mr. H. R. Hall, Captain 
E. L. A. Heygate, and Mr. J. Yeomans. 

IVINGTONBURY. — Mr. Richard Bright in the year 1899 
laid the foundation of the Ivingtonbury herd at Eaton Hall, 
Leominster, by the purchase of some pedigree cows from 
Mr. S. H. Atkinson and Mr. A. T. E. Savory, got by the 
celebrated sire Horace Hardwick 8748. In founding the herd 
extreme care was taken to select animals with pedigrees 
eligible for entry in the American Herd Books, obtaining at 
the same time strains of the best and most fashionable blood. 
On the occasion of the retirement of Mr. John Price, Mr. 
Bright took the Clearbrook Farm, Pembridge, where he 
established a pedigree herd of thirty cows. In 1904 he took 
the already noted farm of Ivingtonbury. Here he has estab- 
lished a herd of sixty breeding cows. The sires used in these 
herds have been Glencoe 17279, Marmion 28844, Little John 
23567, and Campaigner 23935. Mr. Bright also farms at Eyton, 
where he runs his young stock consisting of sixty or seventy 
head, and he is the owner of Old Fields, Leominster, which he 
retains for the convenience of his large business transactions. 
Before entering the show ring, Mr. Bright determined only to 
exhibit stock bred in his own herds, and in 1908 he showed 
a Royal winner in Ivington Bess ; she was first at the 
Herefordshire and Worcestershire show at Kidderminster, 
first at the Shropshire and West Midland, first at the Welsh 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 245 

National, and first at Lord Tredegar's show at Newport. He 
has also exhibited animals with success at the Birmingham 
and London shows. Good prices have been obtained for 
numerous young bulls and heifers for export to North and 
South America. In Volume XXXIX. of the Hereford Herd 
Book the entries from Ivingtonbury were the largest made 
by any single breeder. In the management of this exten- 
sive herd Mr. Bright is ably assisted by his son, Mr. Albert 
Bright. 

Kenswick. — The extensive herd belonging to Admiral 
R. F. Britten, Kenswick, Worcester, was commenced in 1894, 
and comprises choice specimens of the Liby, Lovely, Locket, 
Landscape, Miss Hartington and Cheesefat families, going back 
to the early Herd Books, and formerly bred at Wetmore by 
Mr. G. Smythies and Mr. Grasett. They are descended from the 
herd of the Rev. J. R. Smythies, who gained several prizes at 
the first Royal Show held at Oxford in 1839. The bulls now 
in service are Silver Star 21762, MacSweeney 25528, and Best 
Man 25144. Formerly the sires included John Bull 15414, 
Achilles 21 144, Romance 23725, Gerald 23403, Hartington 
8358, and Horace 4th. Admiral Britten secured most of the 
foundation stock from Mr. Grasett, who now manages the 
Kenswick herd. When he was at Wetmore, near Craven 
Arms, Mr. Grasett was a partner with Mr. Smythies. 

KiNNERSLEY Castle. — This recently established herd is 
one of which a good deal may be expected in the future, as 
Mr. de F. Pennefather has laid the foundation of a good herd 
by buying only animals from the very best strains. Most of 
the females have been purchased from such breeders as 
Captain Heygate, Buckland ; Mr. P. Coats, Sheepcote ; 
Captain Clive, Whitfield ; Mr. Smith, Gattertop ; Mrs. Hamlen 
Williams, Kingsland ; Mr. Tudge, Duxmoor, and other well- 
known breeders, the result being that the stock can claim 
relationship with nearly all the best-known Herefords of the 
past and present. Mr. Pennefather recently acquired from Mr. 
Bach, Onibury, the yearling bull Albert 25896, which has 
already distinguished himself by winning the first prize in the 
open class at Ludlow in 1908, as well as other prizes at the 
Shropshire and West Midland and the Welsh National show. 
Albert's sire was Albatross, bred at Hampton Court, he being 
therefore closely related to Mr. A. P. Turner's famous bull 
Lord Lieutenant. 

Knightwick Manor.— Mr. T. L. Walker started his 
herd in the year 1888 with two cows (Chara and Petrel) 
bought from Mr. J. R. Hill, Orleton Court, and many of his 
herd are descended from them. At Mr. Grasett's sale at 



246 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Wetmore in 1894, Mr. Walker purchased several cows and 
heifers, among them Languish 9th, Greensleeve 5th, Spot 5th, 
and Storrel 8th. He also bought a cow (Lelia) bred by 
Mr. R. O. Rees of Bronllys Court, winner of many first prizes, 
and she has done very well in the herd. Several heifers were 
bought from Mr. W. T. Barneby, Saltmarshe, among them 
Goodgirl, that has also bred some very good stock. Two 
cows. Royal Cynthia and Lady Pearl, were bought at Mr. 
E. Yeld's sale at Endale in 1900. Royal Cynthia's dam won 
several first prizes, and her grand-dam, Primula, was one of 
the best cows sold at Mr. P. Turner's sale at The Leen. 
Several of the best heifers are descended from Royal Cynthia. 
In 1902, at Mr. Edgar Wight's sale at Tedstone Court, he 
bought two heifers, Golconda and Ninety ; in 1903, at Mr. 
E. P. Davis's sale at Kyrewood, he bought a heifer, Luna, 
descended from Mr. G. Child's herd, Court of Noke, and at 
Mr. Speakman's sale at Birley Court, the cow Birley Conceit 
and two heifers, Birley Ella and Birley Maud, were selected. 
Birley Conceit was bred by Mr. A. P. Turner, The Leen, and 
the two heifers are descended from his herd The principal 
sires used have been Prospect 14061, bred by Mr. A. Rogers, 
The Rodd, Kington ; Grenadier 12 181, bred by Mr. J. R. 
Hill, Orleton Court, R.S.O. ; Endale Bachelor 16699, bred by 
Mr. E. Yeld, Endale, Leominster; Igniter 17894, bred by 
Mr. W. T. Barneby, Saltmarshe, Bromyard ; Ruler 16365, bred 
by Mr. R. Keene, Llanvihangel Court, Chepstow ; Cheesecake 
18752, bred by Mrs. M. T. Heygate, Buckland, Leominster; 
Twin 16450, bred by Mr. T. Powell, The Page, Madley, Here- 
ford ; Sea Captain 25756, bred by Mr. W. T. Barneby, Salt- 
marshe, Bromyard. The bulls in use in the herd are : 
Laureate 4th 24105, bred by Mr. G. H. Green, Wigmore Grange; 
Prince Edward 23074, bred by Mr. Wm. Tudge, Leinthall, 
Ludlow ; Samson 24269, bred by Mr. A. P. Turner, The 
Leen, Pembridge R.S.O. ; and Gambler 20639 (winner at 
the Royal), bred by Mr. W. T. Barneby, Saltmarshe, Brom- 
yard. 

Leinthall Earls, Kingsland. — Mr. H. Bowkett started 
breeding pedigree Herefords in 1901, by purchasing at con- 
siderable cost twenty cows which conformed to his require- 
ments. These cattle are now represented in the herd by the 
Satin and Lady families of Mr. J. Price's Court House 
strain, Mr. R. J. Penhall's Cinderella, Mr. J. P. Apperley's Pink 
Rose and Cowslip, Mr. A. Rogers' Adelaide and Petted Pansy, 
Mr. Pitt's Lavender, Mr. A. P. Turner's Geraldine, Mr. F. 
Evans' Bounty, Mr. P. Turner's Gipsy, Mr. Child's Christmas 
Rose, Mr. Gibbons' Bella, Mr. Green's Maggie and Cherry, 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 247 

and Mr. R. S. Griffiths' Ada, Nancy, Lilly and Lovely Lass 
families. The bulls in service in 1908 were Game Cock 
25375, and Ivington Boy 24079. The herd usually numbers 
about one hundred head. 

Leintiiall and Summer Court. — Mr. Wm. Tudge com- 
menced a herd at Coston Hall in 1869 with stock got from his 
father (the late Mr. William Tudge, Adforton), while the use of 
the Adforton bulls was obtained. The herd was largely in- 
creased shortly after Mr Tudge's removal to Leinthall in 1876. 
At the Adforton sale about a dozen first-rate cows and four 
bull calves were selected. With the exception of a few animals 
purchased at Mr. Longmore's sale, Mr. Tudge wisely clung 
closely to the Adforton blood, and the principal families now 
in his herd are the Adforton Ladies, Bonnies, and Darlings. 
What the Lady and Bonnie tribes are capable of doing as 
breeders was shown by the two grand bulls Lord Wilton 4740 
and Regulator 4898. Besides the Lady and Bonnie families, 
Mr. Tudge also, as has been remarked, owned specimens of the 
Adforton Darling family, as well of The Grove Rose family. 
The Longmore cattle at Leinthall were also exceedingly well 
bred. The herd in 1886 comprised Roseleaf, by Lord Hythe 
3937, dam Rosebud by Sir Thomas 2228, and her two sons, 
Prince Rose 7 191 and Leinthall, both third prize winners at 
Royal Shows, and her daughter Rose of Leinthall. Other 
cows were Victoria, bred at Adforton, by The Doctor 5045, 
and descended on the dam's side from the old Adforton cow 
Darling ; Red Rose, bred by Mr. Longmore, by Cannon Ball 
4399, descended from a cow by Young Walford 1820; Cin- 
derella, also by Cannon Ball ; Rustic, bred by Mr. Longmore ; 
Belladonna, bred at Adforton, dam of Regulator 4978 (a remark- 
able breeder), and her daughter Bella ; Regalia, a daughter of 
the Darling cow Victoria and Downton Grand Duke ; Butter- 
cup, of the Mayflower tribe, by Pirate, purchased at Mr. 
Turner's sale at The Leen ; Rhea, by Romulus 5542, out of 
Rhoda by Sir Roger 4133 ; Day Dream, by Cannon Ball, own 
sister to Ethel, sold to Mr. Culbertson, and considered one of 
the best cows in America ; Rebe, by Napoleon, and her 
daughters Rowena and New Year's Gift, by Auctioneer, 
winners of the first prize at the Royal Show at Preston in 
1885 as best cow and offspring; Minnie, by Lord Wilton 
4740, dam the splendid cow Mermaid 2nd, afterwards sold to 
the Hon. Mr. Pope, Canada, at a high price, and a frequent 
prize-winner at the Dominion shows. Among other bulls 
used were Leinthall, 8801, by Auctioneer 5194, dam Roseleaf; 
the prize bull Prince Rose, out of Roseleaf and got by Weston- 
bury; Auctioneer, and Lord Wilton. These are only a few 



248 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

of the numerous prizes gained by Mr. Tudge, who has sold 
a large number of cattle for exportation. 

The herd at Leinthall, containing so much of the old Ad- 
forton blood, was sold in September, 1901, by Messrs, A. and 
D, Edwards and Messrs. H. F. Russell and Son, owing to the 
owner retiring from the farm after a long and successful career. 
The highest price for a cow was £162 15^., given by Mr. 
C. T. Pulley for Barbara ; for a two-year-old heifer, ;^94 loj-., 
by Mr. George Leigh for Peggy Primrose ; for a yearling 
heifer, ^^157 los., by Captain Scarlett for Lady Barbara; for 
a heifer calf, £^y ^s., by Mr. Theodore Barnaby for Barmaid ; 
for a bull, £ZA^ ioj-., by Messrs. Firkins for Happy Christmas, 
and for a bull calf, £6^ is., by Mr. Hayter for Jack Tar. The 
average for 27 cows with 20 calves was £yd> ^s. ; 9 two-year- 
old heifers with two calves, £67 is. ^d ; 14 yearlings, 
;^53 lys. 6d.', 13 bulls, £^0 5 J. M. The sale realized 
;^45I9 4s., the average for 85 cattle being ^^"53 3^. ^d. 

Mr. Tudge's present herd at Summer Court is only a small 
one of about 23 head, 18 of which are of the old Adforton 
and Leinthall blood, but that they maintain their old form 
and character is well proved by the breeding in it of Rob 
Roy 24953, the champion Hereford bull of 1908. His dam. 
Golden Blossom, was a daughter of Gold Box 15339, and 
one of the old Adforton Beauty family that bred Marmion, 
Regulus, Regulator, etc. This was the strain of blood which 
later on produced Ancient Briton, the champion of America, 
Golden Blossom in 1907 had a very nice heifer by Lord 
Lieutenant 22323, and as he and Commandant 22040 (sire of 
Rob Roy 24953) are both by the same sire, and both of 
Hampton Court blood, she should prove a valuable breeder. 
Another of Gold Box's daughters of the Beauty and Belladonna 
strain in the herd is Leinthall Belle, a daughter of Leinthall 
Beauty, a double first prize Royal winner by Rupert 16366, 
one of the old Darling family, and her dam Barbara, by 
Ancient Briton 1 5034. Another of the matrons of the herd 
is Kathleen by a son of Ancient Briton from Togus by 
Auctioneer 5194, and one of the old Darling family. l3arling 
bred four first prize Royal winners. One of Kathleen's 
daughters. Lady Roberts, by Lord Roberts 21547, a"<^ Sham- 
rock, a daughter of Commandant, are now (1908) breeding in 
the herd, as also is another daughter of his from Bertha, dam 
of Golden Blossom. Royal Daisy 5 th, a very big, straight, good- 
looking cow, is one of Mr, Ben. Rogers' sort, her dam. Royal 
Daisy, by Assurance 5193, winner of first R.A.S.E. and first 
B. & W.E., and was from Daisy 2nd, by The Grove 3rd 5051, 
and her dam, Daisy, by Sir Thomas 2228, was an own sister 



WtOPERTY OF 

R KM. COLLEGE IIBRAW3 




COiMMANUANT 22040 (Mr. S. Kobiiison's). 




Ancient Briton 15034 (Bred by Mr. W. Tudge). 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 249 

to Sir Roger 4133, the sire of Lord Wilton 4740, Giantess, 
Regulus, etc. Lyonia, by Major Domo 20179, was bought at 
The Whittern sale, and goes back to some of the oldest blood 
at The Leen. She is the dam of Di Vernon, by Rob Roy, 
that won first B. & W.E. and second R.A.S.E., 1908. Royal 
Rameses 26456, by Rameses 2nd 24238, his dam. Royal Gem, 
a Royal and B. & W.E. winner, was bred by Mr. John Tudge 
of Duxmoor, Craven Arms, and is a very big, level, dark- 
coloured bull, likely to make a valuable sire and show animal. 

Llanwern Park. — Mr. D. A. Thomas, M.P., founded his 
herd at Llanwern Park, Newport, Mon., in 1903, selections 
having been made from the herds of Lord Llangattock, Captain 
E. L. A. Heygate, Messrs, Rees Keene, Wm. Thomas, H, R. 
Hall, and R. G. Griffiths, subsequent additions having been 
made by purchases at the sales of The Whittern, Hampton 
Court, Hendre, Twyford, and Paunton Court herds. The 
majority of the cattle trace their descent in several directions 
from such noted sires as Lord Wilton, Horace, Ivington Boy, 
Albion, The Grove 3rd, Rose Stock, Regulus, Sir Thomas, and 
Spartan, The sires used have included Fine Lad 194 14, Robin 
Hood 2 1 72 1, and Pole Star. The herd has won many prizes 
during the past few years at the Royal, Bath and West of 
England, Welsh International, Herefordshire and Worcester- 
shire, and other leading shows. 

Llangoed Farm.— Mr. H, A. Christy's herd was started 
in 1904, by the purchase of six heifers in and with calf from 
the herd of Mr. R, W. Hall, Ashton. Further purchases have 
included some of the Court House Lady strain, which are 
doing well, and cows have been bought from Mr. Cleasby, 
Penoyre, Brecon, the late Mr, E, Farr, Court of Noke, the 
late Lord Glanusk, Captain Clive, and Mrs. Hamlen Williams, 
Kingsland. The bulls used have been Romulus 231 13, bred 
by Mr. R. W, Hall; Boniface 21963, bred by Mr. J. W. 
Smith, Thinghill, and used previously in the herd of Mr. J. 
P. Prosser, Frivithel Court, Three Cocks ; and Galaxy, bred 
by Mr. Phipps, by Locarno. The stock bull at the head of the 
herd in 1908 was Eaton Bobs 21349, one of the best sons of 
Protector 19660. Eaton Bobs was previously in the herd of 
Captain Heygate, Buckland, Leominster. 

Lodge Farm, Nazeing. — When Mr. Ralph Palmer took 
this farm in Essex into his own hands in the summer of 1881, 
he had to keep a few Hereford bulls prior to shipment to 
Jamaica. Seeing how heartily they did, he asked Mr. J. H. 
Arkwright of Hampton Court to send a truck-load of common 
heifers in calf. These cost £\2 \os. per head. He took the 
calves from them and sold the dams, after fifteen months' run, 



250 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

as fat stock at 26 guineas. Mr. Palmer's experience of the 
breed was so satisfactory that he decided to form a herd, and 
in 1882 and 1883 bought pure-bred heifers from Mr. S. J. 
Holder; Mr. W. J. Smith, Gattertop ; Mr. P. W. Morris, 
Shucknall ; Mr. F. Piatt, Barnby Manor ; Mr. Hankey, Brein- 
ton ; Mr. Powell ; Mr, Carwardine, Stocktonbury ; and Mr. 
Hughes. The Lord Wilton bull Rose Stock 6651 was one of 
the sires in service, and others have been Sophison 18615, 
Simon 23149, and Challenger 26(XXD. Mr, Palmer, writing in 
1908, says his herd is and was small, and he had been most 
successful with Mr. H, W. Taylor's bull Crown Prince 
8464, He used to exhibit in the yearling heifer class at the 
Royal, and in 1892 and three years previously was a prize 
winner, while he was always in the short leet. But he found 
his cattle were not of the same scale as some, and gave 
up showing. His sales were local or into Warwickshire, and 
always for crossing purposes. Latterly, the male calves have 
been kept and fed as bullocks. 

Lower Eaton, — Although two or three cows were pur- 
chased as long ago as the year 1885, it was not until six years 
later that the real foundation of Mr. C. T. Pulley's herd at 
Lower Eaton was laid. In that year, the late Sir Joseph 
Pulley bought two or three cows and heifers at the Leinthall 
sale, one of these heifers, Coronis by Royal Horace 12630, 
subsequently becoming the ancestress of several of the most 
famous animals the herd has produced. From the Monksbury 
Court sale, at about the same period, came Peggy Wilton, a 
granddaughter of Lord Wilton. She also, when put to the 
bull Bear 10974, became the dam of several noteworthy 
animals. In 1894 the heifers Broady 20th and Silly Girl, both 
by Post Obit 1 1 542, were purchased at the Stretton Court sale, 
whilst two years later Blossom i6th by Isinglass 173 19 was 
obtained from Hampton Court. 

The great event in the history of the herd was the purchase 
in 1898 of the bull Protector 19660, from his breeder Mr, Allen 
E. Hughes. The name of Mr. Hedley Jones, who has been 
responsible for the care of the herd during the whole of its 
existence, is inseparably connected with that of Protector, for 
it was he who subsequently negotiated the sale of the bull to 
the United States at the record price of ^1,200. Calved in 
1897, Protector 19660 was the son of Albion 15027 and New- 
ton Plum by Rudolph 6660. As a calf Protector won first at 
the Herefordshire and Worcestershire, second at the Bath and 
West, and first at the Royal show. The following year he 
was not exhibited, but in 1900 he came out again and won 
first at the Shropshire and West Midland, second at the Bath 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 251 

and West, first and championship at the Royal Counties and 
Herefordshire and Worcestershire, first at the Royal show, and 
first and championship of all breeds at Lord Tredegar's show 
at Newport. During this time Protector was being used exten- 
sively in the herd, and as his calves increased in number, the 
short pedigree cows were gradually weeded out. Protector 
was then sold to go to the United States, leaving behind him, 
amongst others, two excellent sons, the half-brothers, Eaton 
Defender 12th 20602 and Eaton Champion 2135 1, to take his 
place. Although the first of these two did much good in the 
herd, it was Eaton Champion that made the greatest name, 
for, like his sire, he became a famous showyard winner, taking 
first, second, or champion prizes upon every occasion that he 
went out. His dam was Coronis 2nd, the daughter of one of 
the foundation cows. 

The herd passed into its present ownership in 1901, when 
the cows Lottie, the dam of Lady Lottie 2nd and 3rd and of 
Eaton Chancellor 26083, all noted prize winners ; Dart, the 
dam of Eaton Truant, Eaton Success, and Eaton Garnet ; as 
well as Ashleaf, dam of many winners, were purchased at the 
sale of Mr. J. Price's herd. Other good cows were obtained at 
the sales held by Messrs. H. Haywood, E. Yeld, R. Green, and 
W. Tudge, among them being Barbara by Ancient Briton 
15034, Wavering by Gamecock 18370, Lady Leila by Major 
Domo 20179, all of which have proved good breeders. 

Eaton Champion 2135 1 was used for three years, during 
which he sired a remarkable number of prize-winners. He 
was followed by Glendower 2nd 22169, Eaton Masterpiece 
25315 and Eaton Truant 25320, all three Royal prize-winners. 
The herd, which usually consists of about thirty-five cows, has 
in eight years won sixty-six prizes at the great shows, and no 
less than twenty-four bulls and fifteen cows and heifers have 
been exported. 

Lynch Court. — The herd of Mr. W. H. Evans at Lynch 
Court, Pembridge, was begun in 1894. The principal tribes 
are the Empress, Dowager, Nutty, and Princess. Among the 
sires used have been Wideawake 18 183, Letton Hardwick 
16806, Longlivity 16176, Fusilier 21402, Scout 25754, and Abel 
King 20423. The herd is strongly impregnated with Horace 
blood. The bull Horace was used in Mr. Evans' father's herd 
with great success, and was sold to Mr. Piatt for ;^500. 

Lynhales. — The Lynhales herd was established by Mr. 
Stephen Robinson in 1865. In September of that year a 
number of heifers were purchased at the sale of Mr. Roberts, 
Ivingtonbury. Spinster was the first number in Mr. Roberts' 
private catalogue. She was one of four heifers that gained 



252 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

first prize in 1862, with her sire Sir Thomas 2228, at Ludlow 
and Leominster, and was dam of the Royal winner Bachelor, 
bred by Mr, Robinson and used at The Leen. There were 
also purchased at Ivingtonbury Prize Daisy by Sir Benjamin 
1387, Princess Royal by Sir Thomas 2228 (a prize-winner at 
Leominster, Worcester, and Hereford in 1863), Duchess of 
Gloucester by Sir Thomas 2228, Rose of Warwick by Lord 
Warwick 2093, Fairmaid 2nd by Master Butterfly 13 13, 
Frailty 3rd by Sir Thomas, with others having in their veins 
the Sir Benjamin and Sir Thomas blood. In 1869 the herd 
was strengthened by the purchase of three heifers from Mr. B. 
Rogers, The Grove, viz.. Rose by North Star 2138, Spark 4th 
by Longhorn 3216, and Damsel 5th by Longhorn 3216. The 
last-named cow bred Horatius 5390 by Horace 3877. Mermaid 
by Luxury 3233, dam of the grand cow Mermaid 2nd, sold for 
exportation, continued breeding at 15 years old. In 1875, 
Cherry 19th by Prizeman 4063, was bought from Mr. Green, 
Marlow. She produced eight live calves. The earlier sires 
used at Lynhales have included Sir Thomas 2128, Douglas 
2505, Luxury 3233, The Major 3514, Provost 4067, Bachelor 
2941, Regulus 4076, Moorcock 6078, Horatius 5390, Valerius 
6229, Highland Laird 7015, and Rose Stock 6651. In 1885 
there were upwards of 50 breeding cows and heifers in the 
herd, including 12 by Regulus, 11 by Horatius, four by Rose 
Stock 6651, and one by Highland Laird 7015. Two cows 
were purchased at the Leen sale — Primrose by Dauphin 3058, 
and Diana by Spartan 5009. Animals have from time to time 
been sold to American breeders. Among the sales in 1885 
were three cows and calves to Mr. R. Green, The Whittern, 
ten heifers to Mr. Pearce Ellis, six heifers shown at the Royal 
(five of which were prize-takers), and six bull calves to Mr. W. 
E. Britten for exportation. In 1887 the cow Blue Bell was 
bought at Mr. W. Tudge's dispersal sale, and became the 
foundress of one of the leading tribes now existing in the 
Lynhales herd ; as also did Silk 17th bought at Hampton 
Court ; Regina, from Mr. J. Tudge's Carol, from Mr. W. E. 
Britten's herd ; and Madge from that of Mr. Penhall. From 
the Hampton Court herd have recently come four members of 
the noted Pearl and Ivington Lass families. Amongst the 
most notable bulls that have been used in the herd since 
the publication of the foregoing particulars, have been Pearl 
Cross 16882, bred by Mr. J. H. Arkwright, by Rose Cross 2nd 
14865, and Commandant 22040, bred by Mr. J. H. Arkwright, 
by Rodney Stone, 19692. Commandant became the sire of 
many prize-winners, including Major 24763, champion at 
Herefordshire and Worcestershire, and reserve champion at 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 253 

the Royal show of 1906 ; Pearl King 24192, champion at the 
Royal, 1907 ; and Rob Roy 24953, champion at the Royal, 
1908 ; these three championship- winners all coming from dif- 
ferent herds. Many prizes have been taken by the Lynhales 
cattle since the year 1884, these honours including two firsts 
and reserve championship at the Royal, three firsts and cham- 
pionship at the Herefordshire and Worcestershire show, first 
and breed prize at the Birmingham show, besides firsts at the 
Bath and West, Shropshire and West Midland, Smithfield, and 
Leominster shows. Cattle have been sold to go to North and 
South America and Australia, as well as to His Majesty the 
King of Spain. The herd was taken over in its entirety 
by Mr. Stewart Robinson from Mr. Stephen Robinson, in 
February, 1908. 

Marlow Lodge and Wigmore Grange. — Mr. J. B. 
Green established the Marlow Lodge herd upwards of sixty-six 
years ago with animals bred by the late Mr. Thomas Jeffries and 
Mr. John Hewer ; those acquired from the former being by 
Sovereign 404, and those from the latter by Mark 424. Subse- 
quently he made purchases from Mr. Jones, Lower Breinton, 
and Mr, Perry, Monkland, at their sales in 1847. The cows and 
heifers bought at Mr. Jones' sale were by Lottery 2nd 408, 
Defiance 416, Berrington 435, Peter Simple 342, and Discount 
339. At the same time Mr. Green bought the bull Zest of Ox- 
ford 2352 by Lottery 2nd 408, dam Lady Oxford, winner of the 
first prize at the first meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society 
of England at Oxford in 1839. This bull was used for a number 
of years at Marlow. The cows and heifers bought at Mr. 
Perry's sale were by Goldfinder 383, Derby 209, Monkland 552, 
and Commerce 354. Reference to the Herd Book will show 
the individual merit of these bulls. For many years Mr. 
Green had a farm in Gwernaffel, at which he kept about 80 
pedigree breeding cows and heifers. The following bulls were 
principally used at Gwernaffel: — Sir Benjamin 1387, Load- 
stone 3213, Agriculturist 1842, Lord of the Manor 2622, 
Zealous 2349, Renown 2719, and Character 2nd 301 1. When 
Mr. Green gave up this farm, he had sales in 1874, when the 
cattle (including between 30 and 40 young calves, making a 
total of 121 head) averaged ^^44 lis. 8<3^., the highest price 
being 130 guineas. 

In the year 1877 Mr. J. B. Green took his nephew (Mr. 
G. H. Green) into partnership, and the herd was then 
maintained in the joint names of Messrs. J. B. and G. H. 
Green until the death of the former, when Mr. G. H. Green 
became sole owner. The sires in service at Marlow included 
Mars 7844 by Regulus 4076, Spartan 5009 by Silver Boy 3019, 



254 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Gamit 8639 by Conjuror 5264, and Merry Monarch 5466 by 
Triumph 3rd 42 1 1. Messrs. Green were seldom exhibitors in the 
show-yards, not considering it wise to sacrifice size for that pur- 
pose. They ahvays bred large, bulky animals, with plenty of 
quality and room to make heavy weights. They sold four-year- 
old heifers that weighed over 1 5 score per quarter (1200 lbs.), and 
a young bull, 14 months old, killed on account of accident, had 
weighed over 10 score per quarter (800 lbs.). Messrs. Green 
were always in the habit of keeping the favourite old cows 
as long as they would breed. The following are a few notes 
as to remarkable incidents in the old days of the herd :— 
Governess by Sovereign 404 was 33 years old when she was 
slaughtered, having produced 30 calves. Her offspring reached 
great ages. Zealous 2349 was in regular service until his 15th 
year, when, owing to the effects of foot-and-mouth disease, he 
had to be slaughtered. Dowager bred regularly until 18 years 
old. Lady and Curly, the former producing 16 calves, the 
latter 17, were sold to the butcher when 19 years old. The 
cow Duchess by Zealous 2349 was purchased by the late Mr. 
R. L. Burton at Mr. J. B. Green's sale at Gv/ernaffel in 1874 
for 130 guineas. She was repurchased by Messrs. Green at 
the late Mr. Burton's sale at Longner in 1881, and was dam 
of Duchess I2th, sold as a yearling to Mr. Thomas Clark, 
Beecher, U.S., for whom she obtained first honours at the 
Illinois State Fair. Lady 8th by Zealous was dam of Royal 
1 6th 6655, sold as a yearling to Messrs. Earl and Stuart, 
Indiana, U.S.A., and won numerous prizes at the American 
State Fairs. Cherry 4th by Zealous was dam of Cherry 24th, 
that gained first prize at the Shropshire and West Midland 
Show in 1878, and first in her class at the meeting of the 
same Society in 1879, when she was also first at the Hereford- 
shire Society's show. She was sold to Mr. F. Morgan, Hereford 
Park, Illinois, and during the numerous times she was shown 
in America she was, with only one exception, placed first. 
The herd is now kept at Wigmore Grange by Mr. G. H. Green, 
and comprises specimens of the Spangle, Lady, Gem, Lilac, and 
Vanity tribes. Leading sires have been Argon 18209, Menut- 
ton 17365, Spark 35th 23167, and Gold Dust 23463. It 
numbers about 120. 

Marston. — Mr. H. Langston's herd was started in 1869 
with four two-year-old in-calf heifers, obtained from Penny- 
worlod Hall, bred by Mr. Williams. These were afterwards sent 
to bulls at The Grove and Leen and served by Sir Thomas 
2228, Silver Boy 3419, Grove 2nd 2556, Grove 3rd 5051, 
and Spartan 5009. Then The Grove bull Cheerful 6351 was 
bought ; after that. Chieftain 9702, bred by Mr. A. P. Turner, 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 255 

Gay Lad 13081, from Mr. J. Price, Court House, Pembridge, 
then Clerk of the Crown 15 193, and The Abbot 24330, bred by- 
Mr. R. Bright, from Court House blood. Mr. Langston has 
never gone in for showing. 

Marsh Brook House.— Mr. Frederick R. Hill com- 
menced breeding Herefords on his own account in 1898, pro- 
curing a few of the choicest bred heifers at the dispersion sale 
of his father's stock at Felhampton Court. At the dispersion 
sale of Mr. W. M. Dawes' herd at the New House, Craven 
Arms, a very fine old cow, Marion 2nd, and two heifers, 
Pink Coral and Pleasure, were purchased, being selected 
on account of their pedigrees tracing back through the Fel- 
hampton Court strains — Marion 2nd was by Premier 12523 ; 
dam Merry Maid (Volume XX., p. 284), by Merry Monarch 
5466 ; and going through a long line of sires, principally of 
John Hewer's breeding, to Clungunford 869A. Marion 2nd on 
the female side, goes back through Bloomer by Bronte 4380. 
A cow of this same family was sold by Mr. John Hill in 1884 
to the Government Farm at Ontario, Canada, foriJ"ioo. She 
was Bloomer by Reuben 4923. Pink Coral has for grand- 
sire Rare Monarch 14078, bred by the Earl of Coventry, 
by his prize-winning sire Good Boy j66S. Rare Monarch was 
an own brother to the Earl of Coventry's Rare Sovereign. It 
will be seen from these notes that by the purchase of the two 
heifers Pink Coral and Pleasure, the Felhampton Court Cronk- 
hill strain is being perpetuated. At the dispersion sale of 
Mr. R. Morgan, Bahaillon, several good females were selected 
on account of their good milking qualities, notably, Druidess, 
by Jupiter 179 12 ; this cow bred Druid, by Vexer (21842), 
which bull Mr. Hill sold to the Government farm at Naivasha 
British East Africa. It is Mr. Hill's intention to breed up a 
herd of milking Herefords. The Dawes cows are particularly 
good dairy cattle, and also carry plenty of flesh. It is worth 
mentioning that Mr. John Hill sold, when at Felhampton, a 
cow of the Cronkhill Duchess family — Lord Benvick's strain — 
to a purchaser in America, where she won first prize as the best 
dairy cow against all breeds. One of the same family was also 
sold to the Honble. F. G. Wynn, of Glynllivon, Carnarvonshire, 
from which he bred a bullock that took prizes at Birmingham 
and Smithfield fat stock shows, proving that they combine milk- 
ing and feeding qualities. To perpetuateand improve the milk- 
ing property of his herd, Mr. Hill has now a bull in service, 
bred by Mr. White, Zeals, Wilts. This bull is Nimrod (Volume 
XXXIX.) by Prince Charles 23681, and goes back to the prize- 
winning milking Hereford cow Prettyface, bred by Mr. J. 
Tudge, Duxmoor, which gave seven gallons of milk a day. 



256 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

MONKTON Court, — This herd was founded by the late 
Mr. Henry Smith at Bidney, near Leominster, about a hundred 
years ago. The herd was first registered in 1880, Volume 
Xn., when three cows, Beauty and Darky, by Colaba 5825, 
and Grace, by Lucas, were entered with their produce. A 
few females have been added to the herd, namely. Bashful, by 
Pertly, from Mr. J. Burlton's sale at Luntley ; Pigeon, by 
Deacon, from Mr. T. Powell, The Bage ; Dewdrop, by Victor, 
from Mr. G. Pitts, Chadnor ; and Primrose, by Garfield 2nd, 
bred by Mr. A. E. Hughes, Wintercott. From these and the 
three cows mentioned above, the present herd of about 60 
breeding cows have been raised. The sires recently used in 
the herd are Robert 14857 and Leander 16146, both bred by 
Mr. J. Smith ; Fairfax 145 19, bred by Mr. S. P. Turner ; John 
Bull 1 8414, bred by Mr. J. Tudge, Duxmoor ; Majestic 20831, 
bred by Mr. J. W. Smith and sold to head Mr. Charles 
Armour's herd in the States; Brigadier 21969, bred by (!apt. 
E. L. A. Heygate ; Forest Lad 24035, from The Whittern 
stock, bred by Mr. Hamlen-Williams ; and Zingari 25884, 
bred by Capt. E. L. A. Heygate. All three were sold for 
export to Uruguay. The herd bull is Eaton Chancellor, bred 
by Mr. C. T. Pulley, winner of the ^20 prize at the Hereford 
Bull sale. He is by Eaton Champion and out of Lottie, 
purchased at the Court House sale. The Beauty family have 
been the most successful breeders. Beauty 63 1, Volume XX HI., 
by Zulu Chief 1 3th 9474, bred nine heifers, six of which were 
sold for export and one to His Majesty the King. Beautiful, 
by Bashan, was champion female at the Herefordshire and 
Worcestershire show at Hereford, 1902, and first at the Royal 
at Carlisle, 1903, and was a daughter of this cow. Blossom 568, 
Volume XXIX., by Leander 16146, a granddaughter of old 
Beauty, has been a noted breeder, her produce including Fair- 
boy, second at the Royal, 1903 ; Fairland, second at Newport 
Show, 1904, third at the Royal, 1906, and sold to Mr. T. R. 
Thompson ; Bellona, first in yearling heifer class at Derby 
Royal, 1906, also first at Herefordshire and Worcestershire 
Show, 1906, and second at Bath and West at Swindon. 

MONTFORD. — This herd was commenced in 1856 by the 
late Mr. Henry Matthews, and the bulk of it was bought by 
the present proprietor Mr. T. S. Minton in 1876. Among the 
sires used previous to his ownership were Milton 2 114, Early 
Purl 3084, and Vanquisher 5102, and since then Prizeman 
4063, England's Glory 5314, Broadstone 5236, Assistant GySS, 
by Osman Pacha 5489, dam Miss Chance 3rd by Grateful 4622 
(the dam of the champion bull Archibald 6290), Launcelot 
7772 by The Grove 3rd 5051, dam Belle by Spartan 5009, 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 257 

Captain Grove 13923, Czar 12054, Aberdeen 21 141, Hendre 
Albion 22206, British Hero 19262, and Royal Standard 24266. 
The tribes represented are the Beauty, from Mr. Bentham ; 
the Cherry, from Mr. Carwardine, Stocktonbury ; and the 
Countess and Duchess, from Mr. H. Matthews, Montford. 

MORETON Jeffries Court.— This herd, now belonging 
to Mr. J. P. Leake, was started in the year 1890, with cows 
purchased privately from the herd of Mr. N. F. Moore, Sutton, 
Hereford, and at Mr. R. Bridgwater's dispersion sale at Great 
Porthamel. The first sire used was Benvolio 15084, bred by 
Mr. T. Fenn, by Viscount Wilton 11824, dam Bravura, bred 
by the Earl of Coventry, and winner at the Royal in 1901, 
and sires from the principal breeders have since been bought, 
great care being taken in their selection. In 1903 Mr. 
Harry Leake retired from Moreton Jeffries, and the herd was 
taken over by the present owner, and managed upon the 
same lines. Bulls by such noted sires as Tumbler 17588, 
Bage Protector, Commandant, etc., have been used, a son of 
the last named being in service in the herd in 1909. The 
herd has always been kept in a healthy breeding condition 
and has never been exhibited. Animals have been exported 
to both North and South America, and cows and heifers sold 
as foundations for fresh herds at home. 

Onibury. — The herd belonging to Mr. Frank D. Bach 
was founded in 1897 by the purchase of 24 females at the 
dispersion sale of his father's herd, the late Mr. Francis Bach. 
They comprised eight yearling heifers by Lord Lulham 13937, 
eleven cows and five heifers by Lord Lulham 13937, Knight 
of Leinthall 11 367, and Viscount Wilton 11824, and in calf to 
the well-known bull Gold Box 15339. Gold Box was success- 
fully used in the herd of Mr. W. Tudge, Leinthall. He was 
the sire of Happy Christmas 21442, sold at the Leinthall sale 
for 330 guineas, and grandsire of the 1908 champion bull Rob 
Roy 24953. Gold Box was subsequently sold when an old 
bull for 120 guineas. Knight of Leinthall 11 367 was the sire 
of Gold Box. A few females have since been introduced into 
the herd. In 1902 two cows were selected from Ivingtonbury, 
the one bred by Mr. R. Davis and going back to the Hampton 
Court herd, the other tracing her descent from Sir James 
Rankin's herd. In the same year four cows were purchased 
at Mr. A. Rogers' sale at The Rodd. In 1904 Mr. Bach 
attended the sale of Mr. S. H. Armitage's herd. The herd 
was formerly the property of the well-known breeder Col. Sir 
R. Bridgford, and Mr. Armitage had purchased it by valuation. 
Here Mr. Bach bought Madeline and the yearling heifer 
Melody, both by Ardcarn. Ony Top, a son of Melody, won 

S 



258 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

first as a yearling bull at the Shropshire and West Midland 
Show in 1907, and another son, Ony Jasper, was purchased 
by Mr. John Tudge, Duxmoor. The same year (1904) Mr 
Bach bought two heifers from Mr. William Tudge. The one, 
Whittern Lass, was out of a cow sold at the Whittern sale, the 
other was a descendant of Bella Donna, the dam of Regulator 
4898. In 1905, at Mr. Thomas Fenn's sale, a yearling heifer 
of the Lady Adforton blood was purchased, and the same 
year two heifer calves were obtained at Mr. David Pryce's sale 
at Great Weston, near Montgomery. In 1908, at the dis- 
persion sale of his brother's herd at the White House, Onibury, 
Mr. Bach bought three cows, two heifers, and two calves. 
The three cows were Ony Beeswing, winner of third prize at 
Ludlow Show in 1908, by Ony de Beers ; Ony Beatrice 3rd, 
whose dam and granddam were first at Ludlow in 1889 ; and 
Ony Baroness, winner of first prize at Ludlow in 1906, by 
Gold Box. These were in calf to the prize-winning bull 
Albert, sold at the White House sale for 140 guineas to Mr. 
de F. Pennefather. The two heifers. Gay Lass and Ony 
Birthday 2nd, won second prize for yearling heifers at Ludlow 
in 1908. The heifer calf, Loo Choo, and the promising bull 
calf, Limerick, completed Mr. Bach's purchases at the White 
House sale. Limerick was by Laddie 24703, bred by Mr. 
A. P. Turner, and his dam by Gold Box 15339. The sires 
used in the herd have been as follows: — 1897-8-9, Sterling 
191 14, bred by Sir Charles Rouse Boughton, Bart., sire 
Royalist 3rd 16958; 1900, Francis 13800, bred by Mr. J. H. 
Yeomans, sire Favourite, 6430 ; 1900, Ony Long Tom 20904, 
bred by Mr. Richard Bach, sire Bicton Hero 18244; 190I) 
Hopeful i8th 173 1 1, bred by Mr. G. H. Green, sire Dauphin 
31st 15239 ; 1902-3, Longlivity 16176, bred by Mr. A. T. E. 
Savory, sire Horace Hardwick 8748 ; 1903-4, Wintercott Lad 
23245, bred by Mr. Henry Haywood, sire Wintercott 21 129 ; 
1905-6-7-8, Whitfield Roberts 21880, bred by Capt. P. A. 
Clive, sire Monarch 18959. Whitfield Roberts weighed 
26 cwt. He was the sire of Ony Top, winner of first prize 
at the Shropshire and West Midland Show in 1907, and of 
Mr. Dent's two-year-old Royal winner in 1907. 

Orleton Manor. — Mr. J. R. Hill's herd was founded in 
the year 1842 by his uncle, Mr. Richard Hill, of Golding Hall, 
Salop. He started with a few females, and those in the herd 
at the present day trace back to three cows, including Cockey, 
bred by himself at Milton before that date, by Sir Andrew 183, 
a noted prize winner in his day ; Stockton by Dayhouse 299, 
another noted sire, and Church-House, bred by Mr. Heming 
of Kingsland, and also by his bull Sir Andrew 183. Mr. R. 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 259 

Hill was very successful in the showyards from about 1856 to 
1876, having bred Claret 1177 and Milton 21 14, and winning 
first prize at the Royal two years in succession with each of 
them. Candidate 1164, Pearl Diver 4009, and the heifer Star 
were all Royal winners, and sold by him to go to Australia. 
With Lady Ash he won the gold medal at the Smithfield 
Show in i860, and for many years he took first prizes for 
steers and cows there. Smce his uncle's death, Mr. J. R. 
Hill has not exhibited to any extent, but he has sold a great 
many young bulls and heifers for exportation to the United 
States, South America, and a few for South Africa and France. 
The bulls that have been in service in the herd during the 
last twenty years are Orleton Monarch 14005, bred by Mr. J. 
Price, Court House, Pembridge ; Renovator 16930, bred by 
Mr. Tudge of Leinthall ; Twin 16450, bred by Mr. T. Powell, 
The Bage; Macbeth 21566, and Samson 24269, both bred by 
Mr. A. P. Turner, The Leen, Pembridge, All the cows now 
in the herd are by the three last-named bulls, and in the 
spring of 1908 he bought a yearling bull of great size, Twyford 
Gladiator, from Mr. Edwards of Twyford, sired by his famous 
bull Carbineer 19926. 

Paunton Court. — This herd, the property of Mr. F. W. J. 
Firkins, was established in 1896. The animals purchased were 
from the herds of Messrs. B. Rogers, The Grove ; G, Pitt, 
Chadnor Court ; J. G. Beaven, and J. H. Arkwright, Hampton 
Court. The sires used have included Tumbler 17588, Happy 
Christmas 21442, Curly Boy 17793, Lurdan 20178, and 
Clarence 15944, the present stock bull being Constitution 
25250. It will be seen that five of the most notable bulls of 
the last fifteen years have been purchased and used in the 
herd, viz. Clarence, Lurdan, Curly Boy, Tumbler, and Happy 
Christmas, all of which sired a great number of winners at 
the leading shows. Tumbler's stock have wonderful scale, 
coats, heads, and backs. The old bull is now (1908) seventeen 
years old, and looking wonderfully healthy and well, showing 
his splendid constitution. He was sold for ^^90 a short 
time ago. 

Penoyre. — Mr. Richard D. Cleasby's herd traces back to 
cows of the Bright Tulip, Dainty and Lady blood by Gem- 
mesco 8647, a son of The Grove 3rd 5051, Cremorne 4th 
6375 and Lord Wilton 4740. Amongst the bulls used at 
Penoyre have been Overseer 16249, Block Test 17694, Volun- 
teer 19790, Pleasant 20247, Promoter 23077, Winter Oats 
23246, and Hampton 24056. A considerable number of prize 
animals have been bred in the herd, and in the year 1901 the 
female championship of the Royal Show was won at Cardiff 



26o HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

by Dainty lOth a cow of Mr. Cleasby's breeding, sired by 
Overseer 16249. [Mr. Cleasby died in 1909.] 

Perton Court, Stoke Edith.— Mr. Henry J. Dent's 
herd was established in 1902 and comprises representatives 
of Mr. J. H. Arkwright's noted Lively and Gamester Beauty 
strains ; and Mr. R. Green's (Whittern) noted Prudence from 
which many Royal winners have been produced. Cows also 
came from Mr. John Price, Court House ; Mr. Aaron Rogers, 
The Rodd; Mr. E. W. Caddick, Mr. Thomas Fenn, Lord 
Glanusk, Mr. J. T. Turner, etc. The sires used have included 
Peer 18006 a sire of successful show stock, and Macbeth 21566 
bred by Mr. Turner, The Leen, also the sire of Royal and 
other winners. The two-year-old bull Perton 24862, bred by 
Mr. Dent, was winner of first prize at the Royal Show at 
Lincoln in 1907, and reserve for champion ; first at the Bath 
and West, and Herefordshire and Worcestershire in the same 
year, besides other prizes. He was sold for exportation for 
South America to Messrs. Hughes. 

POSTON Court, Peterchurch. — Mr. John Pearce's herd 
was started in the year 1878 from cows bred by his late father 
at Snodhill Court, and afterwards increased by purchases made 
at the sale of the late Mr. J. Davies, Blakemere. Mr. Davies 
had always the privilege of using the sires belonging to the 
late Mr. Henry Haywood of Blakemere House, and the cows 
purchased were all by his bulls. A further purchase of four 
cows and heifers at the sale of Mr. W. H. Addis, Whitfield 
Court, near Ross, brought some very successful breeding cows 
into the herd, among them being Lemon Girl descended from 
the herd of the late Mr. B. Rogers, The Grove, Pembridge, and 
Blanche 3rd descended from the herd of the late Mr. H. C. 
Williams, Weirend, near Ross. 

PiPTON. — Mr. W. M. Price's herd was started by the pur- 
chase at Mr. Bennett's sale, at Monkhall, in 1893, of Primrose 
(Volume XIX., p. 215) by Hector 5691, by Regulus 4076, 
dam Buttercup 6th by Cupid 5283, by The Grove 3rd 5051. 
Although she bred only three heifers, they have proved to 
be one of the best strains in the herd. The heifer calf Mis- 
take 7th by Prinz Ernest 15 591 was obtained the same year. 
In 1894, Spot 3rd (Volume XXII., p. 229) by Dutchman 
6923, dam Spot by Sir Roger 2nd 4993, granddam by Sir 
Thomas 2228, bred by Mr. B. Rogers, The Grove, was pur- 
chased at a draft sale of Captain Beavan, Penrhos, Kington, 
and founded a valuable strain. In 1896, at Mr. R. W. Bridg- 
water's sale at Porthamel, were purchased Brownie Stanway 
(Volume XXIX., p. 518) by Lulham 13234, tracing back to 
the Royal winners Romulus 5543 and Stanway 2790. This 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 261 

cow started one of the best strains in the herd, Wild Mint 
4th by Bondholder 1568, Ladylift 3rd by Letton Hardwick 
16808, her fourth dam by Lord Wilton 4740, and Blossom by 
Bondholder 15868. In 1897 Letitia (Volume XXIX., p. 518) 
was added. She was by Horace Long 161 13, dam by Whittern 
Grove 10843, bred by Mr. A. E. T. Savory, Letton Court. 
Other additions included: in 1898 Peggy (Volume XXVIII., 
p. 609) by Lulham 13234, dam Barbara by Sir Roger 4133, 
the sire of Lord Wilton 4740, bred by Mr. R. O. Rees, 
Bronllys Court. In 1901 Kate (Volume XXXVII., p. 646) 
by Saint David 18078, bred by Mr. W. Williams, Porthamel. 
In 1902 Lucy 3rd (Volume XXXIII., p. 203) by Jester 17904, 
bred by Mr. R. Davies, Brierley ; also Polly 4th (Volume 
XXXV., p. 601) by Clarence 6th 193 16, bred by Messrs. 
Andrews and Notley, Ivingtonbury. In 1903 Miss Molly 
(Volume XXXII., p. 276) by Block Test 17694, by Pearl 
Cross 16882, dam Miss Mary 2nd by Overseer 16249. ^iss 
Mary 2nd was a noted prize winner. The principal sires used 
were Saint David 18078 by Lulham 13234, bred by Mr. R. O. 
Rees, Bronllys Court, and purchased at the sale in 1894, He 
proved a very impressive sire, his progeny were full of quality, 
level-fleshed on short legs, and he was retained in the herd for 
several years ; King Charles 20752 by the Royal winner Iron 
King 18884, bred by Captain Heygate, Buckland ; Tugela 
21065 by Saint David 18078, dam Brownie Stanway by Lulham 
13234, which though in-bred, was of average size, having long, 
level hind quarters, exceptional character and quality, with a 
typical head, and was a winner of several first and champion 
prizes; Happy Boy 24052 by Happy Christmas 21442, dam 
Posy (Volume XXXI., p. 353) by Cardinal 11980, Posy the 
dam of the Royal winner Daisy, bred by Messrs. Firkins, 
Paunton Court; Romeo 18570 by Statesman 14938, bred by 
Mr. A. P. Turner, The Leen, very muscular, on short legs, with 
a capital head ; he was used until 1908, when he was thirteen 
years old. Nine heifers were sold to the late Mr. Britten for 
export to Mr. C. W. Armour, Kansas City, U.S.A., in 1903, all 
by Saint David 18078. Several young bulls have since gone 
to South America. The herd averages one hundred, and it 
has done remarkably well in the showyards during the last 
eight years. With 116 exhibits it has won 46 first prizes, 
42 seconds, 17 third or reserve, also championships and 
specials. 

Rush Court.— The herd belonging to Mr. G. D. Faber, 
C.B. M.P,, was started at Rush Court, near Wallingford, Berk- 
shire,in 1901, by the purchase from Mr. John Price, Court House, 
Pembridge, of seven cows and two heifers, with the bull Lord 



262 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Roberts 21545. In the same year, a cow and two heifers were 
obtained from Mr. W. Tudge, Leinthall. The cow Alexandra, 
Volume XXXL p. 573, has been the best breeder in the 
herd, whilst Saucebox 5th has also done good service. Ten 
heifers, all very well bred, and nearly all from the Young 
Rose family, were lately purchased from Mr. H. R. Evans, 
Court of Noke. The principal sires used have been Lord 
Roberts 21545, Prime Minister 23069, Curly Boy 17793, and 
Rob Roy 24953. The last named bull was unbeaten at the 
Shows of 1908. The herd has won sixty-one first, second, 
and third prizes, among the most successful animals being 
Prime Minister, Rob Roy, Ivy Lass, Secret Service, My Queen, 
and Loose Strife. The following is a list of bulls exported 
from the herd : Handy Man, Hardy Norsman, Boxer, Prime 
Minister, Deliverance, Queen's Messenger, Coronet, Heliogram, 
Barber, and Queen's Guard. 

Saltmarshe Castle. — The first pedigree Hereford pur- 
chased for Mr. W. T. Barneby's herd was Jewess at the 
Chadnor Court sale in 1883. Then came Prince Arthur 
1 1554 at the Stocktonbury sale. They produced Rebecca, the 
dam of Depositor 17721, a splendidly backed bull, a prize 
winner, and a good getter. In 1884 several females were 
purchased from the Monkhall herd, and in the year following 
Bellona of Adforton blood was purchased at the Hereford 
Cattle Breeder's sale. The same year at Brockhampton Lady 
Cow 3rd, from old Ladybird, also from Adforton, was bought, 
as well as five females of Hewer blood, descended from Gipsy 
Girl, a favourite of her breeder. In 1886, at the Breeders' 
sale, Ivington Lass 21st, of Hampton Court blood, founding 
a most useful family. In 1887 followed Lady Lucy, de- 
scended from Princess Alice 4th, by Sir Thomas 2228, 
founding a family of excellent breeders. In the same year 
followed the Sparks and Damsels of The Grove blood ; also 
Clarice of Ivingtonbury origin, full of Sir Benjamin blood. 
In 1888" came the Curly and Orange Blossom families of 
Hampton Court blood. In 1890 Orange Blossom by The 
Grove 3rd, and her daughter, by Grand Duke of the Lemon 
family, from The Grove. Orange Blossom at 15 years of 
age produced twin heifers (her last produce), one of which was 
sold for £^0 to Mr. Scott of U.S.A. The same year seven 
heifers were purchased from the Wintercott herd. In 1895 
was added Gamester Beauty 14th of Hampton Court blood, 
from which was produced Gambler 20639, ^ Royal winner. 
In 1901 purchases were made at the Lienthall and Court 
House sales. The leading sires used have been — Prince 
Arthur 11554 from Stocktonbury; Iroquois 7039 by Lord 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 263 

Wilton; Hiero 7707 by The Grove 3rd; Banker 143 16 by 
Rare Sovereign ; Happy Hampton 16097, champion during 
the year 1895 ; Newdigate 18498, bred at Hampton Court ; 
Ruler 16365, full of Sir Benjamin blood ; General Buller 
20648, purchased at the Leinthall sale ; Nelson 21625, from 
the Wintercott herd ; and Rougemont 20296, descended from 
the old Jeffries blood. Prizes have been won at the Royal, 
Bath and West, Herefordshire and Worcestershire shows ; as 
well as at the Birmingham and London Fat Stock shows. A 
group of five won the Grand Prix, Paris International Exhi- 
bition, 1900. Exports have been made to North and South 
America, South Africa, France, and other countries. The 
herd comprises 50 to 60 cows, with their produce. The pur- 
chases were all made and the herd managed up to the present 
date by Mr. J. W. Millyard, estate agent for the owner. 

Sheepcote Farm, Clifford. — The Sheepcote herd of 
Hereford cattle, the property of Mr. Peter Coats, was founded 
during the latter part of 1899 and the beginning of 1900 by 
the purchase of a few cows from the most noted herds, and has 
been replenished with periodical selections of females from the 
most eminent breeders. At first several cows were purchased 
from Mr. A. Rogers, The Rodd, and Mr. E. Yeld, Endale, 
from the last named coming the dam of the noted bull Endale 
21366, which was still being used in the herd in 1908. From 
Miss Bulmer, Aylestone Hill, was purchased the cow Rowena 
7th, the dam of Holmer 22229, ^ bull which won fourteen first 
and three champion prizes. At Viscount Tredegar's show in 
1903 he was champion of all breeds, and was then exported 
to South America for £600. From Mr. J. Price, Court House, 
two cows and the bull Bage Protector 21 167 were purchased, 
the bull being used in the herd with great success. Other 
very fine cows and heifers came from Mr. L. T. Turner, Walton 
Court, a heifer. Pretty Lass by Prince Richard 17450, having 
produced several prize-winners ; in fact this tribe is one of the 
best in the herd. From the noted herd of Mr. W. Tudge, of 
Leinthall, a few more cows were obtained, the sires of these 
being Gold Box 1 5339, Rupert 16366, and the dams by Ancient 
Briton, King George and King Arthur. From The Whittern 
herd came the cow Lemonia by Diplomat 18328, and from 
Hampton Court the famous cow Pearl 15th by Montezuma 
18486. This is another of the best strains of blood in the 
herd. Pearl 15th being dam of Pearl King 24192, that was 
champion at the Royal at Lincoln before being sold to the 
Argentine for a high price. From the Chadnor Court herd 
two cows and two heifers were obtained, the cows being by 
British Protector 21 219 and Lord Wilton 4740 respectively, 



264 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

and the heifers by Tugela 21065. The sires used in the herd 
have been Bage Protector 21 167, Endale 21366, Fusilier 21402, 
Happy Hampton 24658, out of Pearl 15th by All Fours 22697, 
and recently the bull Milton 25571 by Lord Lieutenant 22323 
has been added from Mr. A. P. Turner's herd at The Leen. 
The prizes won by the herd include 113 firsts, 55 seconds, 
25 thirds, 12 champions. 

Shelsley Bank. — The herd that belonged to the late 
Mr. W. H. Cooke, The Green, Stanford Bridge, Worcester, 
and is now owned by Mr. J. G. Cooke-Hill, Shelsley Bank, 
Stanford Bridge, was established by the purchase of the cow 
Polyanthus by The Grove 3rd, 5051, in calf to Lord Wilton 
4740. The produce was Grove Wilton 3rd, 11295, sire of the 
champion bull of all breeds at Newport, in 1901 Grove Wilton 
4th, 13846. The leading sires used were Golden Minor 12 168, 
Ruler 16365, Centurion 19928, Gambler 20639, and General 
BuUer 20648 (the last named two having been Royal winners). 
The late Mr. W. H. Cooke bred and exhibited a yearling 
bull, Shelsley by Gambler 20639, that won first at the Royal in 
1908 and at other shows. Mr. Cooke had also won, with stock 
bred by himself, five championships of the Herefords at Bir- 
mingham and Smithfield. Since Mr. J. G. Cooke-Hill became 
owner of the herd, which he did in October, 1908, on the death 
of Mr. W. H, Cooke, he has purchased the bull Eaton 
Sovereign by the Royal winner Glendower 2nd, 22196, from the 
herd of Mr. C. T. Pulley. 

Showle Court. — Mr. H. W. Taylor has not permitted 
the reputation of the Showle Court herd to decline since he 
succeeded his father as a breeder. On the contrary, he has 
added to the fame of what has been for many years one of the 
most successful herds in the country. Its composition has 
been sketched in a preceding chapter. Mr. Taylor's early 
selection of a sire was most fortunate. This animal, Franklin 
6961, was calved in 1881, bred by the late Mr. Carwardine at 
Stocktonbury, got by Lord Wilton 4700, dam Coral by Rodney 
4907. He made a decided impression on the Showle Court 
herd, and Mr. Housman, in the official report of the Shrews- 
bury Show, was justified in saying that the style and quality of 
his offspring seemed to mark him as a sire whose influence was, 
perhaps, not less powerful for good than that of Lord Wilton 
himself Unfortunately he died in 1884, when only three years 
old, so that his stock were more distinguished by merit than 
for numbers. Of the more celebrated animals that were in 
the herd, about 1885, a few may be enumerated. Adelaide, 
own sister to Modesty, was second to her at the Royal at York. 
She was by Tredegar, from Lovely, by Tenant Farmer 2806. 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 265 

Modesty won three first prizes at Royal shows at Derby, 
Reading and York. Rosamond, by Taunton 5035, from 
Monkton Beauty 3rd by Mercury, was third at the Royal at 
York (where Mr. Taylor's herd supplied the first, second, and 
third prize winners in the cow class), first, with offspring, at 
Shrewsbury, first at Dublin, and second at Southampton in 
1885. Modesty, Rosamond, and Adelaide, with Monkton 
Beauty 3rd, gained the first prize as best four cows at the 
Hereford County Show in 1882. Vanity 4th, by Adamant 
5710, is dam of Vanity 7th, Empress, out of Young Beauty, 
and got by Tredegar, was second at the Royal at Bristol, and 
won prizes at several other places. Lady Ledbury, from 
Beauty by Holmer 2043, ^"d got by Mercury 3967, being own 
sister to Tredegar, was purchased at Mr. Piatt's sale at Barnby 
Manor in 1883. Duchess 4th, by Tredegar, was the dam of 
Maidstone 8875. The heifer Vanity 7th was adjudged the 
champion female two years in succession at the Hereford 
County Show, and was also first at the Royal shows at 
Shrewsbury and Preston. The celebrated bull Maidstone 
was one of the best of his time. He was first six years in 
succession at Royal Shows, and gained several champion 
prizes. Both Maidstone and Vanity 7th were by the Lord 
Wilton sire Franklin. Many prizes have since been won, 
some choice specimens having been exhibited nearly every 
season from this fine old herd. The tribes now represented 
are the Hazel, Beauty, and Vanity. In addition to the sires 
already mentioned, the leading ones have been Victorious 
1 1820, Admiral 12797, Cavalier 9682, Bombardier 12869, 
Restorer 19681, Sorcerer 20329, Black Pearl 21957, Home 
Office 20073, Descender 22823, Jack Wilton 23532, and 
Briton 21973. 

Shrawardine. — Although a herd of pure-bred Hereford 
cattle had been kept at Shrawardine by the late Mr. James 
Crane for more than 50 years, the foundation of the present 
herd (which in 1886 belonged to Messrs. Crane and Tanner) 
was purchased by him in 1868 at the Hopton Castle sale. 
The subsequent introductions were acquired from Mr. T. 
Rogers, Mr. S. Jones, Mr. T. Fenn, Downton ; and in 1884, to 
obtain an infusion of the Lord Wilton blood, two females — 
Cassandra, by Lord Grosvenor 7804, a son of Lord Wilton 
4740, and Kathleen, breeding to that sire — were selected at 
the Stocktonbury sale. The bulls in service included Launce- 
lot 7772, bred by Mr. P. Turner, The Leen, by The Grove 3rd 
5051, dam Belle, of the Moreton tribe, and Good Boy 5942, 
bred by Mr. Aaron Rogers, The Rodd, by the champion bull 
Grateful 4622, from Lady Bertha by the Royal first prize 



266 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

bull Stalhway 2790. Bulls have been sold to Mr. J. Bell, 
Buenos Ayres ; Mr. Ned Price, U.S.A.; The River Plate 
Land and Farming Company, and heifers have gone to 
several of these buyers, as well as to Mr. W. B. Ives, Sher- 
brooke, Quebec. Mr. Tanner, writing in 1908, says: "One 
of the most impressive sires used in this herd was Statesman 
14938, first at the Royal and other leading shows, bred by 
Mr. J. Price, Court House, and purchased from Mr. Arthur 
P. Turner, The Leen. Other noted sires used have been 
Royalist 3rd 16958, sire of two champion Royal winners. 
Royal Horace 12630, Sirdar 19694, Captain Grove 15923, 
and Major Domo 20179, bred by the late Mr. R, Green, The 
Whittern. The bull in use in 1908 is Commandant 22040, 
sire of Pearl King 24192, Rob Roy 24953, and Major 24763, 
all Royal winners. He was bred by the late Mr. J. H. Ark- 
wright, Hampton Court, and purchased from Mr. S. Robinson, 
Lynhales." Mr. Tanner has only exhibited at local shows, 
and has won Lord Windsor's challenge cup for the best bull 
in the district classes twice at the Shropshire and West Mid- 
land Shows at Shrewsbury. 

Stansbatch.— Mr. David Rogers' herd at Stansbatch, 
Staunton-on-Arrow, is a branch of the herd of the late Mr. 
Benjamin Rogers, The Grove, which was started at Doluggan, 
Radnorshire, in 1837, with heifers by Cupid 198 and Batch 468, 
the late Mr. B. Rogers afterwards moving to The Grove, where 
he was a breeder of Herefords nearly 50 years. In 1867, at 
the sale of the late Mr. Monkhouse, The Stow, he purchased 
Sir Thomas 2228 for 390 guineas, the highest up to that time 
given for a Hereford bull. The Grove 3rd 5051, sire Horace 
3877 out of Blossom by Sir Thomas 2228, was bred by Mr. B. 
Rogers at The Grove, being calved on Nov. 5 th, 1874, and 
was used by him up to the year 1882, when the late Mr. Philip 
Turner, The Leen, purchased him. He was sold at the dis- 
persion of The Leen herd for 380 guineas to go to America, 
where he afterwards made ;^I400. The Stansbatch herd is 
descended from that of the late Mr. Benjamin Rogers prior to 
his sale in 1886, commencing with General 11258 as a sire 
bought in at that sale at 70 guineas. Mr. D. Rogers has since 
selected sires from the best blood obtainable, among them 
Jacob 5th 13153; Confidence 21298, Linguist 22965, from the 
Court House herd, and Free Trade 24605, a son of Monarch 
18959. 

Staunton Old Court. — Mr. R. Edwards' herd was 
founded by him in 1881 by the purchase of the cow Rose 
of Whitney 2nd of the Rev. H. Dew's breeding, and the same 
year at the dispersion sale of the late Mr. W. E. Britten at 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 267 

Stapleton Castle, the cow Sparkle of the noted Spark family, 
belonging to Mr. B. Rogers, The Grove, and sired by King 
of the Lilies 3892 out of that noted cow Queen of the 
Lilies (first R.A.S.E. Manchester, and bred by Mr. J. Rea, 
Monaughty) was purchased. Broken Horn 4th by Com- 
mander 4452 was bought at Mr. H. Mason's sale at 
Comberton in the year 1882. Subsequent purchases included 
the heifers Cowslip and Cowslip 2nd, descended from the 
Cowslip family of the late Mr. J. Taylor, Stretford Court, and 
Lydia Lass 2nd, of the late Mr. A. Rogers' breeding, and 
belonging to the Lady Court Lass family. Lady Cow nth, 
was descended from the well-known strain of cattle bred by 
Mr. Tudge, which produced the noted sire Lord Wilton 4740, 
and other noted winners. The latest additions to the herd 
include the cow Floris, from Flora Mac Ivor by Waverley 
8155, and tracing back to one of the oldest families at The 
Leen, and Fair Lady, a granddaughter of Mr. T. Fenn's Fine 
Lady, winner of many prizes, whose ancestors on the dam's 
side go back to the old Monaughty blood of Mr. J. Rea. It 
will be seen from the foregoing that this herd is composed of 
some of the oldest and best blood registered in the earliest 
volumes of the Herd Book. The first animal exhibited was 
Magnet 887^, out of Broken Horn 4th. This bull won first 
prize at the Herefordshire show at Ross, in 1887, second 
R.A.S.E., Newcastle-on-Tyne, second and reserve for Cham- 
pion against all breeds at the Royal Counties show at 
Bournemouth, where he was only beaten by Lord Coventry's 
bull Good Boy y668, first and champion, Crickhowell, and 
many other prizes. Magnet was used with success in the 
herd for three seasons, and sired several prize-winners, in- 
cluding Psyche, first Royal Cornwall, Helston, second Bath 
and West, Rochester, first Lord Tredegar's show, and first 
London (Smithfield). In 1890 Sheriffs Sunlight, dam Sparkle, 
won first prizes at the Herefordshire and Lord Tredegar's 
shows, second at the R.A.S.E. at Plymouth, and many other 
prizes, whilst Shaftesbury 11676 was second at Herefordshire, 
Shropshire, and West Midland shows. Shaftesbury was also 
used in the herd, and was sire of Cocoon, winner of first at the 
R.A.S.E., Chester, Bath and West of England, and Hereford- 
shire Shows. Beryl, out of Bangle, and sired by Sheriffs 
Whittern Grove 16900, was a noted winner, and was awarded 
first at Lord Tredegar's show as a calf, first at the Herefordshire 
and Worcester, Bath and West, Shropshire and West Midland 
Shows 1895, first R.A.S.E. Leicester, Bath and West, Here- 
fordshire and Worcestershire, Shropshire and West Midland, 
and Glamorgan shows in 1896. Liberty 189 19 by Royal 



26S HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Marquis 18069, out of Lady Cow nth, won first at the Bath 
and West in 1 898. Royal Marquis 18069, by Sheriffs Whittem 
Grove 16900, was an impressive sire, and was used two seasons, 
as was also Magnet 3rd 9573. Confidence 21298, bred by Mr. 
R. S. Olver, and sired by Clarence 15944, left some heavily 
fleshed smooth cows in the herd. The bull in use in 1908 was 
Long Staunton 2nd 24733, an animal of great scale, bred by 
Mr. Edwards. Many animals have been exported from the 
herd to North and South America, and the bull Westward Ho 
12772 by Magnet, out of Rose of Whitney 2nd, was purchased 
for France, and was awarded second prize at the International 
show at Paris in 1889. Westward Ho sired the bull Brian 
1 5 120, winner of first and championship of all breeds at Paris 
in 1892. Magnet 8873 was sold for exportation to South 
America, and won second prize at the Palermo show in 1890, 
only being beaten by his former rival Maidstone 8875. 

Tarrington (Alders End). — One of the oldest existing 
herds is that of Mr. William Griffiths, Alders End, Tarrington. 
Founded about the year 1846 by Mr. S. Griffiths at Brierley, 
near Leominster, it came into the possession of its present 
owner in 1876. The first registered sires used were Rambler 
1046 and Wellington 1 1 13, both of which were also employed 
by the late Mr. T. Edwards at Wintercott. Since the herd 
has been located at Alders End the following bulls have been 
in service : —Wilton Boy 11846, Hermit 14599, Bellman 12851, 
Bruce 18258, Iron Master 17318, Robin Hood 21721, Change 
Ringer 24478, and Privateer 25674. The herd has a numerical 
strength of about one hundred head. 

The Farlands, Lingen. — Mr. John Hamar's herd is 
really a continuation of the one founded by his grandfather 
(Mr. T. Myddleton, sen.) at Llynaven about the year 1830, 
and carried on later with such remarkable success by the 
late Mr. Myddleton, of Beckjay fame. He removed the herd 
with him back to his old home at Llynaven, and at his death, 
in 1897, Mr. Hamar took over the farm and purchased ten 
females of the best strains, including the Annie tribe, which 
produced the champion cow of America, and the Gillyflower 
tribe which produced Marplot, used so successfully at Llynaven 
and The Leen, Out of fourteen bulls used by Mr. Hamar 
twelve have subsequently been exported to South America, 
and include Gallant, first at the Hereford Herd Book Society's 
Show ; Crcesus, second at Hereford, bred by Lord Coventry ; 
Mechanic, first at Hereford H.B.S., also bred by Lord Coventry ; 
Broadside, first at Hereford, bred by Mr. J. W. Smith ; and 
Pirate, second at Leominster. Many bulls bred in this herd 
have also been exported. Mr. Hamar does not go in for 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 269 

showing, but several bulls bred by him have been successful 
at the Royal and other shows. The bull in use in 1908 was 
Restorer, bred by Mr. Barneby of Saltmarsh. 

The Field, Hampton Bishop.— This herd, the property 
of Mr. Ernest E. Morris, is descended, in a measure, from that 
of his late father at Stapleton Castle, Presteign, a few females 
having been reserved at the dispersion sale in 1896. Since 
then females have been purchased from Messrs. T. Powell, 
The Bage; the late T. Myddleton, Llynaven ; W. Tudge, 
Leinthall ; T. Fenn, Downton ; and Capt. P. A. Clive, 
Whitfield. The herd in 1908 consisted of about eighty head, 
some thirty calves being reared annually. The sires prin- 
cipally used have been Buckton Unionist 18738, bred by 
Mr. T. Nott, Buckton Park ; Pirton Cross 20245, of Hampton 
Court Blood, by Red Cross ; Prosperity 21679, bred by Mr. 
T. Powell, The Bage ; Blakemere H. 23297, bred at Blake- 
mere, and by Wintercott 21 129, sold for exportation at the 
late Mr. Haywood's sale for 350 guineas. In 1908 a young 
bull of great promise was purchased privately at a high figure ; 
all the cows and heifers being in calf to him. This bull was 
directly descended from the Court House herd, being out of 
a daughter of the famous cow Lottie, the dam of the first- 
prize yearling at the breeder's sale in the spring of 1908, 
where he was purchased for 175 guineas by Mr. J. Smith, 
Monkton. A few bulls from this herd have been sold for 
exportation to South America. Mr. Morris does not show 
much, confining his exhibits to the local Christmas fat shows, 
where he has been fairly successful. 

The Hayes, Sully.— The well-known herd belonging 
to Mr. William Thomas, The Hayes, Sully, Glamorgan, was 
established in 1858. Its leading families comprise the 
Gazelles, Hardys, Victorias, Gladys, etc. Among the sires 
used have been Goldfinder 2nd 959, Horace 2nd 4655, 
Columbus 9731, King John 201 14, and Perfection 22450. 
This herd has always been very carefully managed and is of 
high uniform merit, while it has supplied many breeders with 
choice and valuable strains during the long period it has been 
so successfully maintained. 

The Hill and Court of Noke. — In 1844, when the 
herd of Mr. Theophilus Salwey, Ashley Moor, was sold, the late 
Mr. H. R. Evans, Swanstone, purchased two heifers — one by 
Young Trueboy 1475, from Lovely by Ashley Moor White Bull 
870 ; the other by Ashley Moor 791, from Primrose by Ashley 
Moor White Bull 870. They both traced, on their dam's side, 
to the herd of Mr. T. A. Knight, Downton Castle, of which a 
detailed account will be found in an earlier chapter. The 



270 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

descendants of these formed the Lovely and Primrose families. 
The Rose family came from the herd of Mr. Edward Price, 
Court House ; and that of Silver, crossed with bulls of the 
Knight-Sawley stock, has produced several prize-winners. 
Bulls from Chadnor Court, Monaughty, Court House, and other 
first-class herds have been used, and in the late Mr. Evans' 
possession a very high position was taken in the show-yard, 
among the winners being Lady Oxford, subsequently sold to 
Mr. Gibson, Reedy Creek, Inverell, New South Wales, who 
shortly after her arrival in that colony refused ;^700 for her. 
She was by Chieftain 2nd 19 17, from Beauty, a descendant of 
Lovely. Prince of Wales 4069 by the same sire, and from 
Lofty, a cow of the same family, after gaining first prize at 
Hereford was sold to the Hon. James White of Martindale, 
Hunters River, Sydney, and was considered one of the best 
bulls ever imported into New South Wales, his stock proving 
first-rate. This bull was a grandson of Stately 2nd, a Royal 
winner of whom the late Mr. Henry Corbett remarked in his 
paper upon "Heads," in the "Journal of the R.A.S.E."— 
" One of the kindest heads I ever saw on a Hereford was that 
of Stately 2nd, the property of Mr. Evans, Swanstone." 
When, on the death of her husband, Mrs. Evans removed to 
The Hill, she took the herd with her, and under her manage- 
ment, assisted by her son, Mr. H. R. Evans, the stock main- 
tained their high character, although showing was rarely 
resorted to. Animals were sold to go to the Royal herds at 
Windsor as well as to foreign breeders. The herd was again 
moved in 1906, Mr. H. R. Evans taking it with him to Court 
of Noke, Staunton-on-Arrow, where he has continued to 
breed upon the same lines as formerly. Amongst the most 
successful sires used have been Harold 5958, Sir Felton 9283, 
Pyon Surprise 10481, Truant 15758, Endale Grove's Hope 
17246, Longfellow 18454, Donovan 18796, Lord Sutton 20162, 
whilst at the present time (1909) Gilderoy 20653, by Mr. A. P. 
Turner's Pagan 185 10 out of his champion heifer Gwendoline, 
and Pyon Gauntlet 24910, by Gilderoy, are in service. 
The last-named was bred by Mr. Evans, and won a number 
of prizes at the summer shows of 1908, being reserve for the 
championship at the Bath and West Show of that year. Of 
late years a considerable number of prizes have been won at 
the Royal and other shows. Bulls have been exported to all 
parts of the world. The herd usually consists of about forty- 
five breeding cows. 

The Leen.— Mr. A. P. Turner, now at The Leen, founded 
his herd at Strangworth, near Pembridge, in 1 8y6, by select- 
ing twelve cows and heifers from the herd of his father (Mr, 




Lord Liku i k.\am 22^2^ (.Mr. A. P. Turner's). 




Shotover (Mr. John TudgeV). 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 271 

Philip Turner, The Leen). As has already been mentioned 
the original herd was established in 1780 by Mr. A. P. Turner's 
great-grandfather, Mr. James Turner, Aymestry Court, and has 
been bred from the same stock by his grandfather, Mr. Philip 
Turner, Aymestry Court, and his father, Mr. Philip Turner. 
Few crosses have been introduced except through the purchase 
of bulls. At the sale of his father's herd, Mr. Turner pur- 
chased three cows — Belle by Spartan, Lemon by Hildebrand 
4646, and Comely by Prince Arthur 3345, together with her 
heifer calf Camelia by The Grove 3rd 5051. Belle traced 
back to a cow purchased from Mr. Hayton, Moreton, by Mr. 
P. Turner when he begun breeding in 1839. ^^- ■^. P. 
Turner was anxious to obtain this cow, as he had none of her 
tribe in his herd, and she proved to be a good breeder. The 
sires used up to 1885 had been Spartan 5009, bred at The 
Leen, by Silver Boy 3419, bred at Cronkhill, out of Eglantine, 
by Bolingbroke 1883; Corsair 5271, bred at The Leen, sire 
Dictator by Regulus 4076, dam Rhodia by Subaltern 2794 ; 
Pirate 6105, bred at The Leen, by Corsair 5271, dam Dorcas 
4th by Leominster 3910 (Pirate was first at the Royal Show 
at Derby in 1881, and won numerous first and special prizes 
at other meetings in 1880 and 1881) ; The Grove 3rd 5051, 
bred at The Grove, by Horace 3877, dam Blossom by Sir 
Thomas 2228. The Grove 3rd is referred to in the notice 
of Mr. P. Turner's herd. The price at which he was sold at 
the sale at The Leen (810 guineas) was the highest that had, 
up to that time, been paid for a Hereford ; his son Rudolph 
6660 having made 700 guineas. Other bulls used were 
Hogarth 7714, sire The Grove 3rd, dam Helena by Corsair 
5271 ; Osman Pacha 5489, bred by Mr. John Price, Court 
House, by Truro 5677; Assurance 5193, bred by Mr. Car- 
wardine, Stocktonbury, sire Longhorns 471 1, dam Florence by 
De Cote ; and Sir Edward, purchased by Mr. A. P. Turner at 
the Stocktonbury sale for 185 guineas. The last-named was 
by Lord Wilton 4740, dam Delight by Sir Frank 2762. The 
fame of The Grove 3rd is well known, and both Spartan and 
Corsair left some beautiful young cows. The tribes repre- 
sented included the Aymestry Court strains from Daisy, May- 
flower, Fairmaid, and Almond ; the Wigmore Grange tribe 
descended from Beauty by Old Court 306, and introduced 
into the herd in 1854 ; the cow Belle and her heifer Hyacinth 
by The Grove 3rd, of the Moreton tribe ; and Lemon, tracing 
back to The Grove herd. Sales were made to Messrs. 
Burleigh and Bodwell, Maine, U.S.A. ; Messrs. Gudgell and 
Simpson, Missouri, U.S.A. ; Messrs. Nelson and Son, Liver- 
pool, for exportation to U.S.A. ; Messrs. George Leigh and 



272 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Co., Illinois, U.S.A. ; Hon. M. H. Cochrane, Hillhurst, Canada ; 
and various other foreign and home buyers. In the spring of 
1884, twelve bull calves were sold by auction, and averaged 
£8^ Ss. 3^. each. Four were purchased by Messrs. George 
Leigh and Co. for exportation to U.S.A., and the remainder 
were distributed among home breeders. Three of the bulls 
made 150 guineas each. Prior to 1885 Mr. Turner took The 
Leen farm, which is larger than the one he previously occupied, 
and he was for some years unable to part with any females, 
but several bulls were sold. In 1882, at the Herefordshire 
Show, and at the Shropshire and West Midland Show, Mr. 
Turner gained first prize for best four yearling heifers with 
Ethel, Beatrice, Rosina, and Hawthorn ; in 1883 he was also 
first at the Herefordshire Show for four yearling heifers with 
Portia, Bertha, Victoria, and Nina, being second at the Royal 
at York with Portia ; in 1884, at the Herefordshire Show, he 
was, for the third time, first for best four yearling heifers with 
Kathleen, Hilda, Violet, and Millicent, taking the same high 
honour at the Royal at Shrewsbury. In that year, at Lord 
Tredegar's Show at Newport, he was first for yearling heifers 
with Kathleen. At the Herefordshire Show in 1885 he was 
second for four yearling heifers with Estelle, Eugenie, Hor- 
tense, and Galatea. Kathleen was second at the Royal at 
Preston in 1885, and gained first and champion prizes at Lord 
Tredegar's Show at Newport. The prize for four yearling 
heifers at the meetings of the Herefordshire Agricultural 
Society has been given by the Hereford Herd Book Society, 
and Mr. Turner won it, as we have seen, three years in 
succession. 

Referring to the preceding account Mr. A. P. Turner, 
writing in 1908, says : Two tribes mentioned, viz. the Moreton 
tribe and the Lemon tribe have both died out, and the present 
herd is entirely composed of the Aymestry Court strains from 
Daisy, Mayflower, Fairmaid, Almond, and the Wigmore 
Grange tribe, descended from Beauty by Old Court 306, intro- 
duced into the herd about 1854. The following bulls have been 
purchased, and extensively used in keeping up the herd since 
the last History of the breed was published: — Merlin 7851 
(a son of The Grove 3rd), bred by the late Mr. P. Turner, 
and purchased from Mr. R. S. Olver, in Cornwall (Merlin 
is mentioned in the account of the Trescowe herd) ; Statesman 
14938, bred by Mr. John Price, of the Court House, Pembridge, 
winner of the first prize at the Royal Agricultural Show at 
Plymouth, and champion male at the Herefordshire Show at 
Malvern, in 1890, when only a yearling ; Marlplot 13963, bred 
by Mr. T. Myddleton of Llynaven, sire Mars 17th, 7844, dam 




TiiK Li.KN (Mr. A. 1'. Turner 




PROPERTY OF 

Ml. COLLEGE LlBRAfflC* 




Flwto hy ir. H. Bitsthi. 

Court Housf, Pkmiiridok (Mr. John Price). 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 273 

Gillyflower 3rd by Horace 3877; Clarence 15944, bred by 
Mr. G. Child, Court of Noke, got by Merlin 7851, dam 
Sprightly by Warrior True 10804 ; Pagan 185 10, bred by Mr. 
Aaron Rogers, of The Rodd ; Perthshire 20919, bred by Mr. 
Henry Haywood ; and Lord Lieutenant 22323, bred by Mr. J.' 
H. Arkwrightof Hampton Court, got by Rodney Stone 19692 
dam Beauty i6th by Good Cross 14569. Lord Lieutenant 
has left a great impression on the herd, and still stands at the 
head of it. Many of his sons and daughters have been sold for 
exportation, so that many of the older cows have been 
retained in the herd longer than was formerly the custom in 
order to mate with this bull. No female stock have been 
exhibited since 1895, but a number of prizes have been 
awarded to the young bulls. Very little change has been made 
in the management of the herd. The few male calves made 
into steers are sold to the butcher before they are eighteen 
months old. 

The Lowe.— The herd at The Lowe, Pembridge, was 
begun originally about fifty-eight years ago by the purchase of 
a cow from Mr. J. S. Bannister, Weston. Her produce were 
put to bulls bred by Mr. Bray, Lower Haven ; Mr. Cranston, 
Little Dilwyn ; and Mr. Burlton, Luntley Court. A cow of 
the Tomkins blood was bought from Mr. Merrick ; and one 
from Mr. Bryan, Lyonshall, bred by Mr. Rogers, Coxall. 
Other cows were purchased from Mr. Higgins, Norton 
Canon, and Mr. Turner, The Leen. The bulls used were 
from the herds of Mr. Burlton, Luntley Court ; Mr. Langston 
Marston; Mr. A. P. Turner, The Leen; Mr. B. Rogers! 
The Grove; and Mr. J. Morris, Lulham Court. The bull 
from The Grove was Cheerful 6351 by The Grove 3rd 5051, 
and that from Mr. Morris, Tokar 9319, awarded reserve 
number at the Royal at Shrewsbury. A bull by the Lord 
Wilton sire Torro 7313 was purchased at the Ivingtonbury 
sale. The present herd at The Lowe, belonging to Mr. John 
Bounds, was commenced in 1880, the principal family being 
that of Lily, descended from Queen of the Lilies, champion at 
the Royal Show in 1869. The chief sires used have been 
Cheerful 6351, Lysander 18467, Major Domo 20179, Shamrock 
26006, Pembridge 22446, and Hampton 26198. 

The Willows.— This herd is a successor to The Grove 
herd started at Doluggan, Radnorshire, by Mr. Benjamin 
Rogers, father of the present owner, in the year 1837, with ten 
heifers, six by Batch 468, and four by Cupid 198. On these 
he first used Sovereign 2nd 1739, and continued for nearly 
fifty years to use the best bulls of the day, including Sir 
David 349, Sir Benjamin 1389, Sir Thomas 2228, The Grove 

T 



2/4 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

3rd 5057, Mr. Benjamin Rogers bought sires and sold bull 
calves at record prices. In 1886 he had a herd of nearly 
200 head, and held a draft sale of 100, dividing the remaining 
herd between his two sons, Mr. David Rogers, Stansbatch, 
and Mr. Benjamin Rogers, now living at The Willows in 
North Herefordshire, who has of late years given his atten- 
tion to the production of the best Hereford beef, and has 
bred many of the best bullocks seen in the neighbourhood 
that generally make about the same number of pounds as 
they are m.onths old. Some of the sires used with success 
have been Charity 4th 7480, Reliance 20952, Jolly Boy 3rd 
22942, and Whitfield Willow 24319. 

Thinghill Court. — The herd belonging to Mr. John 
W. Smith at Thinghill Court was founded in 1877, purchases 
having been made from the late Mr. W. Taylor, and from the 
herds of Mr. G. Pitt, Chadnor ; Mr. J. H. Arkwright, Hampton 
Court ; Mr. J. Price, Court House ; and Mr. S. Robinson, 
Lynhales. The sires used have included High Minister 1879, 
Victorious 11820, Hero 15374, Argon 18209, Barry 20459, 
Perfection 22450, Benefactor 22730, and Sandringham 22551. 
This large and valuable herd usually numbers about 120 
females. 

Trebarried Hall. — Mr. J. F. Ricketts' present herd at 
Trebarried Hall, Talgarth was founded in the year 1889 at 
the dispersion sale of the late Mr. J. Handley, Portwilliam, 
Brecon. Other purchases were made from the herds of 
Mr. R. O. Rees, Bronllys Court ; Mr. D. Rowlands, Balance 
Titley, Herefordshire ; R. W. Bridgwater, Great Porthamal, 
Breconshire ; the late C. Ricketts, Trebarried ; the late 
E. Farr, Court of Noke, formerly of Pipton Three Cocks, 
Breconshire ; Capt P. A. Clive, Whitfield, Herefordshire ; 
and Mr. D. Evans, Fwnvdgrech, Brecon. The best strains 
of blood are the Giantess and Nymph, Royal Muriel, 
tracing back to the Stocktonbury, Adforton, and Grove herds. 
Other noted families are Gladys Peggy from the herd of the 
late Mr. C. Ricketts, Trebarried, also Broady and Crystal 
from the herd of the late Mr. E. Farr, Court of Noke. Bulls 
used in the herd included Lulham 13234, Churchwarden 15942, 
Cyfartha Janitor 14452, Royalty 18074, De Ocle 19984, 
Longhope 22317, Trebarried 23206, Eldorado 23410 (bred by 
J. F. Ricketts, sold for export), and Nelson 23641. The bulls 
now being used are Trademark 26533, bred by Mr. W. T. 
Barneby, Saltmarshe Castle, and Orbe 26355, bred by Mrs, 
Hamlen Williams, Kingsland, Herefordshire. 

Uphampton and Ashtox.— An account has been given 
of Mr. W. Hall's herd at Ashton. It has also previously been 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 275 

mentiohed that when Mr. Hall retired in 1876, the cattle were 
taken by his two sons, Mr. Herbert R. Hall, at Holme Lacy 
and Mr. Robert W. Hall, then at Ashton. When Mr. W. Hall 
retired, he possessed a remarkably fine herd of cattle. The cows, 
which numbered about 70, were nearly all by the wonderful 
stock-getter Artist 2934, a son of Sir Benjamin 1387. They 
were characterised by wide, open horns, broad fleshy backs, and 
great scale. After the herd was divided many of the best cows 
had to be disposed of in consequence of abortion, and several 
of the young stock died from blackleg. The cause of these 
maladies was not discovered. Subsequently, however, the herd 
progressed satisfactorily, and when specimens have been brought 
into competition they have made a very creditable appearance. 
From 1876 to 1886 the following bulls were used in the Ashton 
portion of the herd : — Preceptor 4030, bred by Mr. P. Turner, 
The Leen, by the Royal winner Bachelor 2941 and from 
Eglantine, her owner's favourite breeding cow, Cremorne 3rd, 
bred by Mr. Goode, Ivingtonbury ; Adrian, bred by Mr. Good, 
Aston Court ; Chancellor 5246, bred by Mr. Price, got by 
Horace, and Wilton Prince 9429, bred by Mr. Herbert R. 
Hall, Holme Lacy, by Lord Wilton, from Pretty by Preceptor 
4030. From 1882 to September, 1885, Mr. R. W. Hall 
gained 17 first and 12 second prizes, his most successful 
achievements having been with the cow Lovely and her twin 
daughters Dorothea and Theodora, got by Lord Wilton, and 
forming one of the prettiest groups ever seen in a show-yard, 
Dorothea and Theodora were first and second at the Royal 
Show at Shrewsbury in 1884, and Lovely and her twin calves 
were first at the Royal at Reading in 1882, besides gaining 
numerous other prizes. It may be mentioned that Lovely was 
calved on March 31st, 1876, and thrice brought twin calves. 
Her own merit, regular breeding, and the excellence of the 
calves she produced when in show condition entitled her to 
rank as one of the best cows of the breed. Mr. R. W. Hall, 
formerly at Ashton, and now at Uphampton, writing in 1908 
says that besides having disposed of a large number of 
females to home breeders and in Ireland, he has sold many 
bulls and heifers for exportation to North and South America 
and Australia. He has not exhibited very much of late years, 
but when he does he generally gets in the prize list, while on 
several occasions he has done very well indeed at the Breeders' 
Sales and Shows at Hereford in the spring of the year, having 
won second prize with a yearling bull Spencer 23774 in a class 
of 140 bulls. This bull realised the highest price at auction, 
and was sold to Messrs. Drabble Bros., Uruguay. He was the 
fourteenth calf of his dam Rosetta at 14 years old. The 



^^6 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

system of management is the same as of old, but Mr. Hall 
keeps all the bull calves he possibly can and sells them either 
to home breeders or to go abroad. 

Wall End.— The herd at Wall End, Monkland, Leo- 
minster, the property of Mr. W. H. Brown Cave, was estab- 
lished in 1859 by his father the late Mr. John Cave. The 
principal families are the Croft and Curley, with the addition 
of the Winnie family from the Westonbury sale in 1 878, the 
Beauty family from Mr. N. F. Moore, Sutton, in 1892, and 
Bonny Beauty from Mr. William Tudge, Leinthall, in 1901. 
The chief sires used have been Bilbury 5224, Major 6555, Sir 
Henry 11700, Gaiety 13071, General 16725, President 17432, 
Scottish Chief 16378, Baronet 24378, and Field Marshal 23429. 
Prizes have been won at the Royal Agricultural Society, Bath 
and West, Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Shropshire, West 
Midland, Lord Tredegar's, Birmingham Fat Stock, Leominster, 
and Ludlow shows. Exports have been made to North and 
South America, all the cattle being eligible for, and entered 
in, the North and South American Records. 

Westfield House.— Mr. W. M. Haywood established a 
herd at Westfield House, Hereford, from the stock of his 
father, the late Mr. H. Haywood, of Blakemere House, which 
is referred to in a former chapter. The tribes are descended 
from Beauty by Preston 2688, Pauline by Standard Bearer 
3471, and Wellingtonia by Sir Thomas 2228. The leading 
sires used have been Wintercott 21 129, Bedlamite 23894, 
Weapon 25052, and Birthday 25148. 

Westonbury. — This herd passed to Mr. William Stanway 
Russell from his father in the spring of 1907. It was founded 
by Mr. Russell in the year 1878 by the purchase of cows 
at the sale of the late Mr. Child, of Westonbury, and 
formerly of Wigmore Grange. The greater number of the 
animals forming the herd trace back to Miss Street by The 
Count 2262 and Hilda by Dauphin 3058. Two heifers were 
purchased at The Whittern sale of the late Mr. R. Green. 
Four cows were purchased at the Monkhall sale in 1906. 
These trace back to Primrose by Cantab 717, from the cele- 
brated herd of the late Mr. Monkhouse, The Stow ; Prettymaid 
by Turpin 300, from the Adforton herd of the late Mr. Tudge ; 
and Beauty by Cholstrey, from the herd of the late Mr. Rea, 
Monaughty. The Westonbury herd has won, up to 1908, 
about 100 prizes, including 7 first, 3 second, and 3 champion 
prizes at the Birmingham Fat Stock show ; 4 first, 4 
second, and 5 champion prizes and gold medal at the Smith- 
field Fat Stock show ; first with bull and two heifers at the 
Royal at Nottingham, 1888 ; and numerous prizes at the 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 277 

Leominster, Ludlow, Shropshire and West Midland, and 
the Herefordshire and Worcestershire shows. For several 
years in succession steers were sold to her late Majesty 
Queen Victoria, one being reserved for the best steer of all 
breeds at the Birmingham and Smithfield Club shows. Mr. 
Russell was the breeder of the steer exhibited in Lon- 
don by Mr. John Wortley in 1900, the winner of the champion 
prize and gold medal for the best beast in the yard at the 
Smithfield Club show. The value of the prizes won by this 
steer at Norwich, Birmingham, and London in 1900 was ;^3I5. 
The bulls recently in service include Horace Hardwick 
8748, a notable stockgetter, bred by Mr. John Price, late of 
Court House, Pembridge ; Stockton Wilton 8078, one of the 
best sons of the renowned Lord Wilton, and bred at Stockton- 
bury ; Peer 18006, bred by Mr. S. Robinson, Lynhales ; Soudan 
22592, from The Whittern herd ; and Taurus 25015, bred by 
Mr. A. P. Turner, The Leen. The bull at the head of the 
herd in 1908 was Admiral 20432, a massive, heavily fleshed 
animal, bred by Mr. John Price. A number of animals have 
been sold for exportation to Australia, the United States, 
Uruguay, Canada, and the Argentine, the chief purchasers 
being Mr. Stuckey, Mr. K. B. Armour, Mr. George Leigh, 
Mr. McCulloch, Mr. R. J. Penhall, and Messrs. Liebig's Extract 
of Meat Co. The number in the herd varies from 100 to 120 
head. 

Weston Court. — Mr. Thomas Morris, Weston Court, 
Pembridge, commenced his herd in 1880. The principal 
families are from Perfection by Sir Thomas 2228, bred by Mr. 
T. Roberts, Ivingtonbury ; and Gipsy Queen by Challenge 
3005, bred by Mr. J. Price, Pembridge. The leading sires 
used have been Astley 5192, Weston 14894, Gift 17866, 
Horace Hardwick 8748, and Fine Lad 19414. The herd is 
thus one of very superior breeding, and has produced many 
fine specimens. 

WiNTERCOTT. — Mr. Allen Edwards Hughes has enhanced 
the celebrity of Wintercott as a breeding establishment since 
he acquired the herd, and his name is rarely absent from the 
prize lists of the principal shows. As to the strains repre- 
sented in the herd a few notes will be found elsewhere. 
Among the animals at Wintercott in 1886 several of the 
more celebrated were Beatrice 4th, out of Beatrice by Com- 
mander 4452 ; Bluebell, also by Commander, and from a 
half-sister of Beatrice ; Beatrice 3rd, by Tredegar 2nd, dam 
Beatrice 2nd ; Spangle 6th, by Tredegar 2nd from the prize 
cow Spangle ; Laurel 3rd, by Commander ; the Royal winner 
Modesty, by Commander ; and Beatrice 2nd, by Royalist, the 



278 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

first prize-winner at Liverpool. Her son, Sergeant- Major 
9199, was a favourite bull in America, and kept alive the fame 
of his sire Rudolph 6660, whose death was such a loss to the 
herd of the Wyoming Hereford Association. Rudolph was 
bred by Mr. P. Turner, The Leen, got by The Grove 3rd 5051, 
dam Primrose by Spartan, and, after leaving some excellent 
stock at Wintercott, was sold by Mr. Hughes to go to America. 
Linnet, by Commander, from Laurel by Winter de Cote, was 
the dam of Ladybird, the first prize yearling heifer at the 
Royal Show at Preston in 1885, but which has since died. 
Others were the fine old cow Sonnet, by Leominster 3rd, from 
whom the Spangle family is descended ; Purity by Royalist ; 
Newton Plum by Rudolph, dam Plum 3rd ; Snowdrop by 
Rudolph, from Spangle 6th ; Luna by Commander. One of 
the most valuable cows in the herd was Plum 3rd, by Com- 
mander. She was dam of President 611 1, sold to Mr. Coch- 
rane after winning first prizes at the Royal, Bath and West, 
and Shropshire and West Midland Shows. Her next bull calf 
was Iroquois, by Lord Wilton, in Mr. Arkwright's herd at 
Hampton Court ; then she produced Washington, by Rudolph, 
which, after winning first prize at the Royal Show at Shrews- 
bury, went to head the herd of the Iowa Company. The four- 
year-old Sunflower, by Commander, dam Spangle 4th, first 
prize winner at the Royal and several other shows, was much 
admired for her wealth of flesh, symmetrical form, and rich 
coat of hair. Sunflower gained the champion prize over all 
breeds as best cow or heifer at the Bath and West Show in 
1886. Washington left very fine stock. Garfield 2nd was bred 
by Mr. Price, Court House, got by Old Court 6086 (a son of 
Horace 3877), dam Plum 3rd, by Challenge 3005A. Through 
him and Rudolph the Horace blood was pretty freely infused 
into the herd. 

The present herd at Wintercott consists entirely of cattle 
belonging to the Plum, Barmaid, Myrtle, or Lovely families, the 
first-named being most numerously represented. Of the many 
noted bulls that have had a place in the herd, one of the most 
impressive of recent times was Albion 15027, winner of first 
prizes during three successive years at the Royal and other 
great shows. He was bred by Mr. N. F. Moore, and got by 
Bruce 13646, and was the sire of a large number of prize- 
winners. Pearl King 24192, by Commandant 22040, and 
bred by the late Mr. J. H. Arkwright, was another of the 
most successful of recent sires. He was sold to go to South 
America, after having won first and championship at the 
Royal Show at Lincoln. Only bulls possessed of long pedigree 
are ever used in the Wintercott herd, Mr. Hughes believing 



SOME NOTABLE HERDS IN ENGLAND 279 

that even a second-rate bull having a good pedigree is prefer- 
able to the most symmetrical animal in which this qualification 
is wanting. The list of prizes won by the herd since 1857 is 
too lengthy to be detailed here, but the following honours 
taken during 1908, constitute a typical example of the suc- 
cesses gained. The heifer Lemster Plum was first and 
champion at the Royal, Bath and West, Herefordshire and 
Worcestershire, and first at the Royal Counties shows ; the 
bull Portrane won firsts at the Bath and West, Leominster, 
Herefordshire, and Worcestershire, and third at the Royal 
and Welsh National Shows ; Newbury was first at the Bath 
and West, Welsh National, and Leominster, and second at 
the Royal, Royal Counties, and Herefordshire and Worcester- 
shire ; whilst Puissant and Linacre both took firsts at the 
March Show at Hereford. 

WOOFFERTON. — This herd was established in 1835 at Stoke 
Farm, Tenbury, by the late Mr. Thomas Rawlings (father of 
the present owner, Mr. John Rawlings), his cattle being of 
great size and heavily fleshed, comprising a few mottle faces. 
In 1847 the management came into Mr. John Rawlings' hands. 
Sir John 3454 left a decided impress on the herd, and both 
he and Sir John 3rd 3456 were the sires of prize-winners. 
Longbow 3214, a son of Mr. J. B. Green's famous cow 
Governess, was also used. At The Leen sale Marcus 7840, 
a son of The Grove 3rd, was purchased, and Pipton Sovereign 
6603 was in use. Several animals have been sold to Messrs. 
Leigh and Co., U.S.A. With reference to his herd during the 
last twenty years Mr. Rawlings writes that he sold some to 
Mr. Geo. Leigh, 111., U.S.A., Mr. Thos. Fenn, Brakes Farm, 
Downton Castle, Ludlow, also a bull and cow and calf to Mr. 
D'Etchegoyen for France in 1890. The late Mr. R. Green, 
The Whittern, Kington, bought six cows and calves from him 
which all turned out well, and bred many of his winners. 
Mr. Rawlings also sold to the late Mr. E. Baldwyn Childe, 
Kyne Park, Tenbury, six two-year old heifers, and the yearling 
bull Good Sovereign 13101 to Mr. Thos. Fenn, who exhibited 
him at the Paris Exhibition in 1888, getting first prize and gold 
medal. In 1901 Messrs. P. and G. E. Hughes took a heifer 
and calf and two two-year-old heifers, and later an old bull for 
export to South America. In 1902 the Earl of Dudley pur- 
chased ten yearling heifers, six going to Witley Court Home 
Farm, and four to his farm in Oxfordshire, He sold for export 
to Australia two in-calf heifers and two bull calves, and to the 
late Mr. W. E. Britten for Messrs. Armour and Co., America. 
Every year a few yearling bulls have been sold to home 
breeders. No cattle except stock bulls are bought. These 



28o HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

have included Sir Harry 6690 ; Marcus 7840 ; Iroquois 2nd 
1 1 35 1 ; Lord Hampton 11417 ; Pipton Sovereign 6603 ; King 
Arthur 17324; and Magician 22346. Old bulls which can be 
turned out with the cows are usually bought, Mr, Rawlings 
believing that calves come better than when a yearling or 
two-year-old is used, and moreover the bulls keep their 
condition better. King Arthur 17324 was used five seasons, 
and worked until he was 14 years old. The cattle are never 
exhibited except at local shows, Mr. Rawlings not liking to 
spoil his best females for breeding purposes by over-feeding. 

Zeals, Wilts. — Mr. W. J. S. White's herd, so famous 
for its milking properties, was begun in the year 18 19 by 
the purchase of pure-bred Herefords from the most eminent 
breeders. Subsequent additions included the cow Quickset by 
Sir Thomas 2228, bought at Mr. Roberts' sale at Ivingtonbury. 
Among the sires used were Hero 2040, bought from Mr. T. 
Edwards, Wintercott ; Young Hopeful 5701, bred at Zeals, 
dam Quickset by Sir Thomas 2228, sire Berrington 2414, by 
Sir Thomas 2414 ; Justice 5404, bred by Mr. J. D. Allen, out 
of the magnificent cow Queen of the Lilies ; Helianthus 4641, 
bred by the Earl of Southesk ; Garnet 5928, from a half-sister 
of Lady Blanche, a Royal winner, bred by the late Mr. Warren 
Evans, Llandowlais, by Cheerful 5254, Bulls have been sold 
to home breeders, and five cows were disposed of to Messrs. 
Burleigh and Bodwell for exportation. Mr. W. J. S. White 
has not recently exhibited his stock, but in former years a 
great number of prizes were won by the Zeals herd. The 
herd is quite exceptional in its character, on account of the 
close attention that for so many years has been devoted to 
the milking qualities. Mr. White, writing in 1908, mentioned 
that he was then using the bull Eaton Garnet 26085 purchased 
from Mr. C. T. Pulley ; he is out of Dart, bred by Mr. John 
Price, Court House. He added that the home trade for his 
bulls has been exceptionally good for several seasons past. 
Within the past three years he has sent nearly forty bull 
calves into Cornwall alone, and many to different districts in 
South Wales and other parts of the country, A detailed 
account of this remarkable herd is given in Chapter X. 



CHAPTER IX 

THE BREED'S EXTENSION AT HOME AND ABROAD 

The Hereford breed has attained a good name and firm 
position in many parts of this country beyond its own native 
districts, while in foreign lands it has won favour which is 
rapidly extending, its wide distribution in the United States 
especially having been wonderful. This is not to be wondered 
at, for the inherent properties of the breed render it well 
worthy the attention of all cattle owners whose main purpose 
is the production of high-class beef. 

A striking feature in the history of Hereford cattle is the 
remarkable loyalty of the Herefordshire farmers to their 
county breed. From generation to generation the farmers of 
Hereford have clung to the old love of the county, priding 
themselves upon their fine herds of " White faces," which 
they have cultivated with eminent skill and success, giving 
little heed to the vaunted merits of other varieties, never for a 
moment wavering in their affection. This speaks well both 
for the men and the cattle ; the cattle are good, and the 
Hereford farmers have had the sense to stick to them. Those 
valuable properties which have planted the breed so firmly in 
the affections of its old supporters, cannot fail to win fast 
friends for the "White faces" wherever they put in appearance, 
and it may be safely predicted that " in fresh fields and 
pastures new," as well as in its old haunts, the breed has 
before it a brilliant and useful future. 

It may be mentioned here that from 1890 to 1908 the 
Hereford Herd Book Society has granted 3264 certificates of 
exportation to foreign countries and the colonies. Within the 
last four years exports have been made to the Argentine, 
Uruguay, Brazil, Chili, United States, Mexico, Australia, New 
South Wales, Queensland, New Zealand, South Africa, British 
East Africa, Russia, and France. 

Some notes are given regarding the spread of the breed, 
and reference may first be made to what has been done in 
Scotland and Ireland, following with a sketch of progress in 
the British colonies £ind in foreign countries. 



282 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 



Scotland 

Although the breed has never attained an extensive 
footing in Scotland, it has been reared with success in several 
districts north of the Tweed. The late Mr, Lumsden, Auchry 
House, Aberdeenshire, was, perhaps, the first to take Hereford 
cattle to the far north. Writing to Mr. Thomas Duckham 
in 1863, he said : " I have been a breeder of Hereford cattle 
25 years, and continue to do so, as I find they pay better for 
their keep than any other breed, or at any rate than those I have 
tried against them, viz. Shorthorns and Aberdeens." He found 
the Herefords hardy and well adapted for the northern 
climate. He was able to bring them to the highest condition 
with grass and turnips without the aid of cake or grain ; and 
while he had never been able " to raise either the pure Short- 
horn or the cross with the Shorthorn and the Aberdeen, above 
216 stone of 8 lbs. at four years old, he had raised the cross 
cow between the Shorthorn and a Hereford bull to 238 stone." 
Mr. Lumsden purchased his first Hereford cows at the Hereford 
October Fair, and he subsequently procured six well-bred 
cows and bulls from leading breeders. He was specially 
careful as to the selection of his bulls, some of which were 
obtained from Mr. Hewer. The famous bull Sir David 349 
was taken by him to the far north of Scotland, where he 
proved so valuable as a sire that he was purchased by 
Mr. Turner, Noke, and brought back to his native parish, in 
which he did noble service, becoming the sire of the celebrated 
Sir Benjamin 1387, and other noted animals. Sir David was 
no doubt much better for his sojourn in the cold bracing 
regions of the north, from which he returned full of health and 
vigour. The last bull Mr. Lumsden used was Cato 1902, bred 
by Mr. Duckham. For some time after the death of 
Mr. Lumsden, the herd was continued by his son Mr. F. C. 
Lumsden. Some choice young bulls were reared in the 
Auchry herd, and for these there was a fair demand among 
the neighbouring farmers for whom, with the mixed bred cows 
of the district, they produced an excellent class of fattening 
cattle. 

Another Aberdeenshire landowner, Mr. Harvey of Car- 
nousie, Turriff, bred Herefords for some years, and was likewise 
very successful with them. He made his first purchases in 
1868, and these consisted of Carnousie 3004, bred by Mr. Duck- 
ham ; Fair Maid 7th, bred by Mr. J. Gregg, Fencote Abbey, 
Leominster: and Rona, bred by Mr. P. Turner, The Leen, 
Pembridge. 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 283 

In the year 1869 the Earl of Southesk founded a choice and 
valuable herd at Kinnaird Castle in Forfarshire, where the 
" White faces " throve admirably and were greatly admired for 
their symmetry, substance, and wealth of good flesh. In 
response to an application the late Earl of Southesk in 1885 
favoured the authors with an account of his herd, which is 
appended in full. His lordship wrote — 

" It was in 1869 that I began to form a herd of Herefords. 
My herd of Polled Aberdeen- Angus had been swept off by 
rinderpest in 1865, and in making a new venture in high breeding 
it occurred to me that the English breed I had so long admired 
might thrive on my then home farm, the Haughs of Kinnaird, 
the rich soil and old red sandstone formation seeming to be 
suitable for such cattle, while the winter climate was not 
particularly severe. 

" With this idea I attended the Bath and West of England 
Show at Southampton, and there bought from Mr. Allen of 
Tesbury (her breeder) the first prize cow Queen of the Lilies, 
with a bull calf at foot, for ^^120, conditionally on her remaining 
the property of the seller till after the approaching Royal 
Agricultural Show at Manchester. On that occasion also she 
was easily winner of first honours in the aged class. People 
said she was the best Hereford cow in England. At Manchester 
I bought from their breeder, Mr. Tudge, Adforton, Ostorius, 
first prize yearling bull, and Diadem, first prize two-year-old 
heifer. These animals all reached Scotland in safety. Soon 
afterwards I made various purchases of females of the same 
breed, and eventually established a pretty large herd. The 
best cows, perhaps, after those just mentioned, were Emily, 
bred by Mr. Tudge, and Queen of Hearts, bred by Mr. T. 
Rogers, Coxall. 

"The two Queens (in no way nearly related) were large 
cows, and, by comparison, high on the legs ; but the Queen 
of the Lilies was far more symmetrically formed, especially 
about the quarters, than the other, and might be quoted as an 
almost faultless specimen. Diadem and Emily were lower set, 
smaller, and rounder in type. The latter had double-curved 
horns, resembling those common in the Highland breed, and 
was extremely pretty, though not on a par with Diadem. All 
of these (especially the prize-takers) displayed the ample white 
bosom so characteristic of the Herefords and so beautiful, as 
well as the vast table-like back and quarters, which are found 
in the best specimens of the breed, unaccompanied with much 
tendency to patchiness. Emily and Queen of the Lilies (if I 
rightly remember) were good milkers ; but as a rule the cows 
are not remarkable in that way ; perhaps rather the reverse. 



284 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

" My young first prize bull Ostorious was a fine-looking 
animal, though not on a level with the prize cows. Unluckily 
he proved a disappointment, being useless as a breeder, except 
as regarded one oldish cow, which alone proved capable of 
winning his attention. From Mr. Tudge, however, we borrowed 
an extremely serviceable bull named Orleans, which sired the 
herd until King of the Lilies, the bull calf bought with his 
dam at Southampton, was mature for use. Orleans was a 
characteristic sample of the breed — short in leg and excessively 
(to unaccustomed eyes, ludicrously) long in body — ' long as a 
rope-walk,' to quote from the old proverbial description of a 
perfect Hereford bull. King of the Lilies, his successor, was 
perhaps, less lengthy, but of size and substance, very level and 
symmetrical, an entirely handsome animal, good all over. I 
was offered 150 guineas for him, but declined to part with him 
until the general sale of the herd two or three years afterwards, 
when he brought 130 guineas. He was a very sure and good 
stock-getter while with us, and I lately saw a Hereford sale 
catalogue where his name was mentioned with praise as a still 
useful sire. 

" In the year 1874, determining to give up my large home 
farm, it became necessary to part with the Herefords. The 
experience of these five years justified the belief that no 
breed could be better adapted for our soil and climate ; for a 
more healthy, prosperous, true-breeding herd than mine all 
along showed itself, it would be almost quite impossible to 
find. Time hardly served for breeding prize-winners, yet the 
only animal we exhibited, Desdemona, Diadem's daughter by 
Orleans, bred at the Haughs of Kinnaird, won the Royal 
Agricultural Society's first prize as a three-year-old heifer at 
Hull in 1873. She was very much like her dam ; low, round, 
and level, and of remarkable symmetry and sweetness, as 
may be seen in her portrait in the ninth volume of the 
Hereford Herd Book. She fetched only 60 guineas at 
the sale — far below my expectations ; but the distance from 
the Hereford districts, and the isolation of any northern herd 
(for except by a few in Aberdeenshire the breed is, I believe, 
unrepresented in the north), form terrible obstacles to a 
breeder in our part of Scotland. There was not only the diffi- 
culty of getting more than bare market prices for high-bred 
animals if sold at home, or inadequate prices for those that 
may be sold elsewhere, but the impossibility of meeting 
temporary needs by exchanges of bulls' services with neigh- 
bouring breeders. Of this we had experience in the case of 
Queen of the Lilies, after Orleans returned to his owner, his 
successor, King of the Lilies, her own son, being the only 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 285 

available bull. This piece of in-breeding had a curious 
result — the cow, who had previously produced none but bull 
calves (in some six or seven calvings) now produced a heifer, 
perfect to all appearance, but with an internal defect which 
caused its early death. After this I bought (as assistant to 
King of the Lilies) a bull named Cato — a good animal, but of 
much less style and breeding than either of the others used in 
our herd — and to him Queen of the Lilies resumed her habit 
of producing male offspring. 

"My sale in 1874 was conducted by Mr. Thornton, and 
there was no lack of buyers from England. The prices were 
fair, as prices then ranged, but somewhat below our expecta- 
tions. The best bull of my own breeding, Helianthus 4641, 
got by King of the Lilies out of Queen of Hearts, fetched 
50 guineas ; I have lately (1885) heard of him as still in service 
and well spoken of in the Hereford counties. King of the 
Lilies was secured at the sale by Mr. W. E. Britten of Stapleton 
Castle, Hereford, for 135 guineas; Helianthus going to Mr. 
John White, Zeals, Bath. Several animals went to Aberdeen- 
shire, and others remained in my own part of Angus, where 
a few of them, or of their unmistakably marked descendants, 
may yet be seen. 

" Regarding the character and value of the Herefords as a 
breed, it would seem hard to speak too highly. As with other 
breeds, there is a vast difference between the improved and 
the unimproved Hereford. The latter (as I have seen it among 
the lots of feeding oxen we sometimes brought from England) 
is a coarse, rough, bony animal, whose ugliness is intensified 
by its conspicuous markings ; but the former in its female 
type is (to my eye) more absolutely symmetrical than any 
other breed ; exceedingly handsome likewise in its male type, 
though over long for abstract beauty — and in that case the 
rich red or auburn body-colouring strongly contrasted with 
the pure soft white of the face and chest and under-markings, 
seems to me as ornamental a garb amidst the proper sur- 
roundings of trees and hedges and fair green pastures as could 
well be conceived. It is needless for me to enlarge on the 
merits of Hereford cattle from the feeding point of view ; but 
it is right to say that our local butchers did not rank them as 
equalling in quality of meat either the Polled Angus, Aber- 
deen, or the Highlanders ; this, however, applied to ordinary 
oxen, not to those of special strains. Mr. Charles Lyall of 
Old Montrose, in my own district, was highly pleased with the 
first cross between the Hereford bull and the pure Shorthorn 
cow, having tried it on several occasions with much success, 
and I venture to believe that a similar Hereford cross with 



286 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

any good breed would have excellent results. I have been 
engaged in trying the experiment of crossing a few pure-bred 
Highland cows with a very promising pedigree Hereford 
yearling bull (Caradoc by name), lately procured from Mr. 
Hill of Felhampton's well-known herd. One other remark 
occurs to me ere ending these details of my short (too short) 
experience of the Here fords — they are wonderfully gentle, 
quiet, and good tempered. Orleans and Cato were types 
of placid tameness, and Caradoc seems to be of the same 
disposition. I can remember no show of ill-temper from any 
bull of the breed. With one exception the same may be said 
of the cows — the exceptional one having a dislike to all ivonien, 
though otherwise quiet enough — and special favourites like 
Queen of the Lilies, Diadem, and Desdemona had none of 
the capricious nervousness I have sometimes noted among 
petted cows of other varieties." 

The average obtained for the 43 animals sold at his lord- 
ship's sale was ^34 1 5^-. 6d. 

Many Scotch farmers have used Hereford bulls amongst 
Shorthorn and Polled crosses with excellent results, and it 
has often been remarked that a very large percentage of the 
produce of such unions exhibit the Hereford markings — 
notably the characteristic white face. The late Mr. R. 
Copland, Milton of Ardlethen, Aberdeenshire, was eminently 
successful with this cross, and he was good enough to favour 
us with the following notes as to his practice and experience. 
Writing in 1885, he said :— 

" My reason for beginning to use a Hereford bull was that 
my cattle were losing flesh and constitution. This was a very 
general complaint over the country. My cows were crosses 
from pure Shorthorn bulls and cross and Polled cows, the 
cross blood predominating ; so I resolved to try a Hereford 
bull in order to improve the constitution and put on more flesh. 
I applied to Mr. Gueriner, cattle salesman, London, to pur- 
chase a Hereford bull for me, and he sent me one bred by Mr. 
Hewer, Gloucestershire, which turned out a large animal, a 
sure stock-getter, light on his loins and thighs, but heavy on 
his fore-quarters. His stock very much resembled himself, 
and although a little rough, the steers when rising two years 
old were sold to the butcher for £26. After using the bull 
for two years, I ordered a bull and two heifers from Mr. 
Brebner, manager on the Queen's Farm at Windsor. They 
were very different from the former ; they were much smaller, 
but very much neater, and very apt to fatten — such was the 
difference that in two years of drought the grass was burned 
brown, and the Shorthorn crosses got leaner, whereas the 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 287 

Hereford crosses pasturing along with them could at any- 
time have been sent to the butcher. I got other four bulls 
and several heifers from the Queen's Farm, and they all did 
equally well ; but foot-and-mouth disease broke out amongst 
my breeding stock, and although I lost none of them, I found 
there was no use in keeping on my cows, as the greater part of 
them either slipped or had no calf, so that at last I had to put 
the most of them away. I sent four of the cows one day to a 
sale in Aberdeen, and they brought ^^"30 each. I never saw 
any breed leave their mark so distinctly as the Herefords did. 
I never had a calf from any cow after a Hereford bull that 
had not a white face and all the characteristics of a Hereford. 
The effects of the foot-and-mouth disease obliged me to put 
away upwards of 20 of my cows, but I have the Hereford blood 
in a good many of them still, and I am now crossing them 
with a Shorthorn bull, and I sold last year a pair of steers 
from these cows for ;^8o the pair." 

Recently Mr. J. Ernest Kerr, Harviestoun Castle, Dollar, 
secured some Herefords for experimental purposes. 

Ireland 

Hereford cattle have been bred in Ireland for more 
than a hundred years. Mr. Richard Molesworth Reynell, 
who went from England to manage the Irish estates of the 
Duke of Bedford (who was an enthusiastic admirer and active 
supporter of the Hereford breed), founded a herd of Herefords 
at Reynella, County Westmeath, about 1775, only nine years 
after Benjamin Tomkins bred his celebrated bull Silver. The 
establishment of the Farming Society of Ireland, and the large 
money prizes it offered, gave a great impetus to the introduction 
of improved stock in Ireland. At the earlier meetings of 
that Society, Longhorns were usually placed first in the list, 
and they appear to have held their own till about 1820, 
although the Shorthorns, the Herefords, and the Devons, 
patronised by Lord Farnham, were steadily increasing. In 
those days the October Fairs of the Society were held at 
Ballinasloe, and although the reports of many of these meetings 
have been lost, we find that Mr. Richard Reynell 's Hereford 
oxen were the admiration of the whole country, and that he 
received gold medals and prizes for the best ox exhibited in 
each of the years 181 3, 18 14, 18 15 and 18 18. Mr. Reynell 
had a celebrated imported bull called Farmer, with which he 
won the £^0 prize, and which, after declining many tempting 
offers for him, he sold to Mr. Battersby. That gentleman 
would seem to have had a high appreciation of the value of 



288 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

this famous animal, for when a friend offered him a noted 
thoroughbred horse in exchange for the bull, he replied that he 
" would not part with Reynell's bull for all the thoroughbreds 
in the country." Among others who were early breeders of 
Herefords in Ireland were Mr. Pollock, the Earl of Meath, 
Mr, J. Robinson, Mr. Thomas Robinson, Sir Hugh Crofton, 
Mr. John N. Gerrard, and Lord Castlecote. 

As to the strains of Hereford blood first introduced into 
Ireland there is no exact information. At that time the 
mottle-face variety were all the fashion, and the star of 
Benjamin Tomkins was in the ascendant. More than likely, 
therefore, it was the blood of this strain that was first trans- 
ferred to the pastures of Westmeath. From the glimpse we 
get of the early Reynella cattle through the records of the 
Farming Society it is evident that Mr. Reynell had established 
his herd of good material and had maintained it of high 
character. No records exist as to the Hereford herd which 
once browsed on the Earl of Meath's umbrageous parks at 
Kilruddery Castle, but the supposition that it was composed of 
Tomkins' mottle-faced sorts would seem to be well founded. 

We are enabled to be more exact as to the original blood 
in the herd of Mr. J. N. Gerrard of Gibbstown. That ardent 
admirer of Herefords was an extensive purchaser from the 
veteran breeder Mr. John Price of Ryall, whose herd was like- 
wise principally derived from Benjamin Tomkins. At Gibbs- 
town Mr. Price's stock bred very successfully, so that Mr. 
Gerrard's herd obtained a wide reputation, taking the leading 
show-yard honours for several years. All these earlier Irish 
herds have long since ceased to exist, but they were succeeded 
by others that still flourish and very creditably represent the 
excellent properties of Hereford cattle. 

The Reynell family bred Herefords constantly since the 
first introduction of the breed about 1775, but the old stock 
were cleared out by pleuro pneumonia. Mr. R. W. Reynell, 
Killynon, Westmeath, obtained a valuable herd of Herefords 
from his father, who brought some of the original Reynella 
stock to Killynon, but pleuro pneumonia swept away the whole 
of that herd with the exception of one cow, which survived and 
bred afterwards. At the ripe old age of 26 years, this fine 
cow was sold to the butcher for £26. None of her produce 
was kept on. 

The herd at Killynon was founded by the purchase of 
Cherry 13th at Lord Berwick's sale in 1861, the only females 
subsequently purchased being Mistletoe from Mr. T. Rogers, 
Coxall ; Pigeon, bred by Mr. J. Burlton, Luntley Court ; and 
Flora from Mr. J. B. Green, Marlow. One of the stud bulls was 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 289 

Mai'quis of Waterford 5454, bred by Mr. Evans, Llandowlas, 
and his predecessors were Fright 5924, Prince of Madley 4055, 
Stanway 2nd 4154, and Eton Montem 3813. The herd 
numbered over 30 head, and the animals were thick, well-fleshed, 
and of a thoroughly useful stamp. The young bulls, as a 
rule, were purchased by Irish breeders, some of them for use 
amongst pure-bred Hereford cows, and others for crossing 
purposes. A few bulls and females were sold for exportation 
to America. The herd won a good many prizes in Irish 
show-yards. 

One of the most successful breeders of Herefords in Ireland 
was the late Mr. P. J. Kearney of Miltown House, County 
Meath, who imported some animals of choice blood. After 
his death the herd, numbering 86 head, was dispersed on 
November 14th, 1877, by Messrs. Rogers & Hamar, the well- 
known Hereford salesmen. In the preface to the catalogue of 
that sale, the autioneers thus described the herd : " If not the 
best, at all events without a superior in the whole range of 
Hereford herds, either in Ireland or Great Britain. As regards 
descent it is unquestionably the best Messrs. Rogers & Hamar 
have ever had the privilege to offer. The blood flows in a 
direct line from the earliest known fountains of these remark- 
able and renowned cattle, and with the able guidance of an 
experienced judge, the animals included in the Miltown herd 
may be said to have reached a degree of pefection seldom 
equalled and never surpassed. The well-known and justly 
appreciated blood of the wonderful Monaughty strains of the 
late Mr. James Rea is largely infused into Mr. Kearney's 
celebrated stock." Mr. Kearney had been formerly a breeder 
of Shorthorns, but disposed of them to make room for the 
" White faces." His first purchase of Herefords was the bull 
Sir Cupis Ball 2761, bred by Mr. James Rea of Monaughty, 
and six highly bred heifers selected from the herds of Lord 
Berwick and Mr. Rea. Subsequently he introduced animals 
representing the strains of the Jeffries, Turner, Tudge, Rogers, 
Pitt, Gilliland, Sheriff, Longmore, and Green. The prices 
obtained at the dispersion were not very high, varying from 
20 to 70 guineas. Several were purchased to remain in 
Ireland by Mr. Fetherstonhaugh, Mr. Purdon, Mr. Reynell, 
and others. A fresh herd was established at Miltown House 
by Major Kearney, who bred several excellent specimens of 
the breed. 

The late Mr. J, O. G. Pollock established a valuable herd 
by purchases from the herds of Lord Berwick, Mr. Price, 
Court House, Pembridge, and Mr. Rea, Monaughty. His 
selections from the Cronkhill herd were Jessamine and 

U 



290 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Verbena, both got by Attingham 911, and of the celebrated 
Rebecca tribe. The herd was maintained with much success, 
and was sold in its entirety to Mr. W. S. Garnett, Williams- 
town, Kells, County Meath. 

Mr. R. Fetherstonhaugh's herd of Herefords at Rockview, 
Killucan, County Westmeath, Ireland, would have stood well 
in average merit, even among the most highly esteemed herds 
in the county of Hereford. Founded in 1861, it was main- 
tained with good judgment and liberality, and the animals 
had thriven admirably. The first purchases were Adelaide, 
Heliotrope, and Helica from Lord Berwick's herd ; Grace and 
Gaiety from Mr. Stedman of Bedstone Hall ; and Castanet 
and Solo from Mr. Powell of Great Brampton. Silence, the 
dam of Adelaide, was the dam of Carlisle, winner of the Royal 
first prizes at Carlisle, Chelmsford, and Salisbury ; of Beauty, a 
Royal winner at Salisbury and Warwick, and first in bull, cow, 
and offspring class at Hereford ; of Ada, Royal winner at 
Warwick ; and of Agnes, Royal winner at Canterbury — a 
wonderful succession of Royal winners certainly ! Subsequent 
additions to the Rockview herd were Cherry Branch from 
Cherry Fruit, bred by Mr. Rea, Monaughty, and Cherry, from 
Mr. Green of Marlow. The principal sires used were Silver- 
stream 2214, bred by Lord Berwick ; Sir Harry 2767, bred by 
Mr. Gibbons ; Lord Nelson 3223, bred by Mr. Rogers ; Chief- 
tain 3017, bred by Mr. Kearney ; Cyprus 4494, bred by Mr. 
Green ; King Koffee 4682, bred by Mr. Evans ; Victor 5881, 
bred by Mr. Edwards ; Stars and Stripes 7284, bred by Mr. 
Carwardine, and got by Lord Wilton ; and Cronkhill 7th. 
Sir Harry, Lord Nelson, and Victor were exceptionally good 
sires, while the stock from Stars and Stripes were very promis- 
ing. The last-named bull was assisted among the 50 cows in 
the herd by a half-brother to Arthur, obtained from Mr. Price 
of Court House. Many of the bulls reared were sold for cross- 
ing with the cattle of the country around, while several have 
gone to America. Mr. Fetherstonhaugh was not in the habit 
of exhibiting, but at the Spring Show of the Royal Dublin 
Society (1885) he obtained second prize for the yearling heifer 
Grace 17th, third for the yearling bull Farmer Boy, and first 
with fat Hereford ox. Farmer Boy's two brothers, Farmer 2nd 
and Fair Profit, both went to America, and he himself was 
sold in Dublin for crossing with Shorthorns and dairy cows. 
Mr. Fetherstonhaugh was very successful with his pure and 
cross-bred Hereford oxen, which he fattened chiefly on grass. 

At Lisnabin, also in Westmeath, the late Captain Purdon 
established an excellent herd of Herefords from a single cow 
purchased from the Reynella herd, but about 1840 the whole 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 291 

of this valuable stock were swept away by a fierce attack of 
pleuro pneumonia. The present owner of the estate, Mr. G. N. 
Purdon, had been much impressed by the beauty of his 
father's Herefords, and accordingly in 1871 he began to build 
up a fresh herd, which he has established with great success, 
and which has produced some of the finest Hereford bulls seen 
in recent years. The first animals purchased were the cow 
Crinoline and the heifer Blossom 2nd, from the herd of Mr. 
John Morris, Town House, Madley, Hereford ; and the heifers 
Spangle 4th and Lady 4th from the splendid herd of Mr. J. B. 
Green, Marlow Lodge, Leintwardine, Herefordshire. The herd 
was further increased by the purchase of the cow Young 
Lady 2nd, and the two heifers Lovely 3rd and Medora, from 
the choice and prize-taking stock of Mrs, Sarah Edwards, 
Wintercott, Leominster, Herefordshire ; and by the purchase 
of two heifers, Cherry 13th and Beauty 6th, in the same year 
from Mr. Green of Marlow. It was again augmented in 1876 
by the acquisition of two cows. Picture 2nd and Picture 3rd, 
from Mr. Prosser of Honeybourne Grounds ; a heifer, the 
Queen of the Ocean, was got from Mr. Thomas Rogers of 
Coxall, Bucknell, Salop ; and in 1877 a cow and calf, Cordelia 
and Sweetbriar, were bought from Mr. W. Tudge of Adforton ; 
another cow and calf being added from Mr. Thomas Rogers. 
In 1878 a two-year-old heifer. Spot 3rd, by the celebrated 
Horace 3877, and two yearling heifers. Spot 4th and Tidy, by 
the champion bull Truro 5677, were bought from Mr. John 
Price, Pembridge. At first Mr. Purdon did not keep a 
stock sire at Lisnabin, but sent his cows to the bulls belonging 
to his neighbour Mr. R. Reynell of Killynon ; the earlier 
calves bred in the herd, excluding cows that had been mated 
prior to their purchase, being got by Prince of Madley, bred 
by Mr. Morris, Madley, and Stanway 2nd 4154, bred by 
Mr. A. Rogers, The Rodd, both of which were the property of 
Mr. Reynell. Since that time Mr. Purdon has relied on his 
own herd for sires. When the herd was still young he bred 
Sultan 5033, by Stanway 2nd 4154, and from Blossom 2nd; 
Czar 4496, by Prince of Madley, and out of Spangle 4th ; and 
Punch 4882, by Stowe 3478, and from Blossom 2nd. The first 
noteworthy achievement, as regards bull breeding, for which 
the herd has become so famous, was the production of the 
renowned Rifleman 5538, calved in March, 1875, after Sultan 
5033, and out of Lady 4th. He was followed by Bezique 5761, 
his son ; and then came Favourite 6430, the son of Bezique. 
As a proof of the excellence of the Herefords bred by 
Mr. Purdon, we may here mention some of the chief prizes 
gained by him at the Royal Dublin Society's shows up to 



20 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

1885. In 1872 Mr. Purdon was first for heifers giving milk 
with Blossom 2nd, and first for cows with Crinoline. In 1873 
he was second for yearling bulls with Punch 4882, first for 
heifers with Lady 4th, and second for cows with Spangle 4th. 
In 1874 he was first for yearling bulls with Czar 4496, first for 
two-year-old bulls with Punch, and first for cows with Lady 4th. 
In 1875 he was first for yearlings with Valentine (out of 
Lady 4th and after Punch) and first for two-year-olds with 
Czar. Rifleman 5538 (after Sultan 5033, and out of Lady 4th) 
made his first appearance as a yearling in 1876, when he 
occupied the premier place, being noticed as very handsome 
and nicely fleshed. In 1879, Bezique 5761 (after Rifleman, 
and out of Mistletoe) came to the front, winning first honours. 
The crowning victory was attained in 1880, when Rifleman 
stood first and gained the Chaloner Plate as best bull at the 
show, beating Major Kearney's Truro, which was subsequently 
champion at Ball's Bridge. Bezique, his son, was first prize 
two-year-old, and Fusilier, a full brother of Bezique, was first 
prize yearling on the same occasion. This was a unique honour 
for the breeder, and stamped the Lisnabin herd as one of great 
value. In 1881 Mr. Purdon was first for aged bulls with 
Bezique and first for yearlings with Favourite 6430 (out of 
Spot 3rd, and after Bezique) ; while in 1882, Favourite was 
first in the two-year-old class, and Bezique second in the aged 
class, having to give place to Truro. In 1884 he was first with 
Rector in the yearling bull class and first with Favourite 
amongst aged bulls, and also won the Gibbs Cup ; while in 
1885 he was again first with Favourite, and won the Gibbs 
Cup, which thus became his own property, he having won it on 
three occasions. It is a remarkable fact that Mr. Purdon, with 
bulls of his own breeding, had been able to obtain first honours 
at the Royal Dublin Shows over all the fine Hereford sires that 
had then been imported to Ireland. More recently the sires 
used have been Cicero 1 1077, Sophist 181 14, and Duke of York 
18342, Gordon 21430, and Montford Opal 24166. The leading 
tribes are still Mr. J. B. Green's Lady and Beauty, Mr. J. Price's 
Tidy and Spot, Mr. T. Roger's Queen, and Mr. J. Rea's Cherry 
and Sultana. The herd numbers about 100. 

Major Gardner of Glanmore Castle, County Wicklow, 
maintained successfully for a few years a well-bred Hereford 
herd ; while by Mr. Gilliland of County Derry, Mr. G, A. 
Stephens, County Dublin, and others in Ireland, the breed 
has been cultivated with gratifying results. 

A good many new herds have been established in Ire- 
land since 1886, and the breed now makes a much larger 
display at the shows of the Royal Dublin Society. A few 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 293 

brief notes are given as to some of the more recently formed 
herds. 

Colonel N. T. Everard, Randlestown, Navan, established a 
herd in 1879, the chief families in which are the Adelaide, Need- 
less, Snowdrop, Gaiety, Posthuma, and Filagree. The sires used 
have included Knight Errant 15425, Apellos 17092, Harold 
17888, Lambton 21 5 13, Vulcan 21 861, General 24619, and 
Dermot 21 321. The herd numbers about 120, and has been 
very successful at the Dublin shows. 

In 1899 Mr. H. D'E. Strevens commenced a herd at Castle 
Coote, Roscommon, cows being purchased from Mr. H. W. 
Taylor, Showle Court ; from Mr. H. J. Bailey, the Lily tribe ; 
and from Mr. Wm. Grove, Burcot, Wellington, Salop. The 
bulls used have been Dermot 21320 (a well-known prize 
winner), by Clarence 15944, and Pollion 24875, by Baron 22719, 
Pollion belongs to the famous Plum tribe. 

In 1892 Major William J. Hamilton formed a herd at 
Castle Hamilton, Co. Cavan, the tribes being the Adelaides 
and Winifreds. The chief sires used l^ave been Duke of 
Albany 13762, Arthur 15829, Prince of Wales Orpheus 
17798, Schoolmaster 22554, Baronet 23283, and Advocate 
(Volume XL.). 

Mr. W. T. Trench, Redwood, Birr, Co. Tipperary, began his 
herd in 1890 from calves bought at the dispersion of Mr. F. 
Lloyd Edward's herd at Llanheron, Carnarvonshire. The bulls 
used have been Pioneer 15556, from Mr. G. N. Purdon ; Prince 
Charlie 17443, from Major Everard; De Butcher 19982, from 
Mr. W. H. Davies ; Lord Artist 25572, from Mr. H. R. Hall ; 
Arbitrator (Volume XXXVII., p. 403), from Col. Everard ; 
and King's Counsel 24689, from Mr. W. Whiteman. 

The herd that belonged to Major R. W. Hillas at Doonecoy, 
Co. Sligo, was begun in 1897, the principal tribes being from 
the herds of Messrs. Bach, Mr. G. H. Green, and Mr. Samuel 
J. Jones. The sires used comprised Gold Box 15339, Saladin 
19082, Joker 20726, and Surprise 23185. It numbers about 70. 

Mr. William N. Waller, Allenstown, Kells, began a herd in 
1895, with heifers bred by Mr. A. Tanner, Shrawardine, from the 
blood of F'rank Fairleigh 15316, Albany 7364, Good Boy 5942, 
Verdant 5104, Sparkford 2787, and Buckton 1891. The 
leading sires have been Ruby Chief 18586, bred by Mr. T. S. 
Minton ; Duke of York 18342, bred by Captain W. Hamilton ; 
and Valentine 25849, bred by Mr. H. R. Hall, Marsh Hall, 
winner of first prize at the Royal Dublin Society Show in 1908, 
as a two-year-old. 

Mrs. Edith F. Nugent's herd, which she keeps at Rose- 
jnount, Co, Westmeath, began very modestly in 1894, when, by 



294 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

the advice of the late Mr. R. S. Fetherstonhaugh, she purchased, 
at the dispersal sale at Wetmore of Mr. E. Grasett's old 
established herd, two heifers, Sparkle I2th and Languish loth. 
Mrs. Nugent had previously only used a Hereford bull for 
crossing with Shorthorns and Kerries. She had at that time 
Adonis 1 5816, bred by Mr. G. N. Purdon; later Frugality 18367, 
bred at Rockview, followed by County Councillor 19961, bred 
by Col. Everard ; a very successful bull, he sired Rosemount 
Beau, first prize winner at the Royal Dublin Society's show, and 
many highly commended yearlings. All Ireland III. 21915 
from the same herd was followed by Gaffer 24039, third prize 
at Park Royal, 1905, bred by Dr. T. Williams in Hereford- 
shire. Mrs. Nugent's last purchase was Merton, bred by 
Mr. A. P. Turner, The Leen. The herd now numbers 24 
cows and some heifers, including Manilla, first and second 
prize winner in Dublin, bred by Mrs. Madden ; her daughter 
Cigarette, bred by Mrs. Nugent, winner of the Madden Cup, 
1908, first in her class ; and Betsy, bred by Major Hillas, 
.second prize winner. 

The late Mr. E. T. Dames Longworth established a herd 
which came very much to the front at the Royal Dublin 
Society's show in 1908, when the bulls from the Glynwood 
Estate were first in three of the classes, and won the challenge 
cup for the best group of three with Minotaur, Barcelona, and 
Revenge. These bulls were by Monksilver, bred by Mr. H. R. 
Hall, and a son of the noted sire Tumbler. 

Mr. Wm. Moore, M.P., Moore Lodge, Co. Down, owns the 
most northerly herd in Ireland, if not in the United Kingdom. 
It was founded in 1903, and comprises a number of cows by 
Eaton Monarch, whose dam was by Mr. C. T. Pulley's Protector 
19660. The sires used have been Hero 22220, Eaton Monarch 
24006, and Bushranger 24460. 

The herd belonging to Mr. J. A. Knox, Belgarriff Hou?.e, 
Foxford, Mayo, was commenced in 1904. The families are 
from Gaiety 20th, Silver Cloud, Silver Cord, Aylesborough 
Rose, Miss Briton, and Snowdrop, and the sires used have been 
Dermott 21320, Lord Charles 26269, Debutante 24525, and 
Silver King 25486. 

Captain Henry B. Wilson Slator, White Hill, Longford, 
started his herd in 1884, the chief families being the Ivington 
Lasses, Curlys, Pearls, etc., all from Mr. J. H. Arkwright's 
herd at Hampton Court, The principal sires used have been 
Falconwood 6427, Moonlighter 12448, Eros 19896, Success 
23182, and Emerald 24016. Captain Wilson Slator has sold a 
large number of young bulls to the neighbouring farmers, who, 
now that they are acquainted with their good properties, prize 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 295 

them greatly for being so easily fed and so hardy, and bringing 
them the best profits at a very early age. 

In 1902 Mr, Patrick Moughty, Willowfield House, West- 
meath, began a small herd, which comprises cows from the 
famous herd of Mr. R. S. Featherstonhaugh, Rockview. 

United States and Canada 

The Hereford breed has gained a great reputation in the 
Western States of America as well as in Canada. Its excellent 
properties as grazing stock have been heartily appreciated by 
the shrewd stockmen of the far West and Canada, and mani- 
festly the breed has great prospects before it in the American 
Continent. 

The first shipment of Herefords to America of which there 
is any record was made in 18 17, when two bulls and two 
heifers were taken out by the Hon. Henry Clay of Kentucky. 
Nothing is known of the breeding of these, but from the state- 
ment that the sum paid for the four was only ^^"105, it is 
concluded that they could not have been of the highest 
character. It is interesting to note that an important con- 
signment of Shorthorns went out in the same ship with these 
four Herefords, and that the supposition that the two breeds 
had been allowed to intermix on their way helped to fix upon 
these Shorthorns and their produce — notoriously known as 
" Seventeens " — the stigma that they were not " thoroughbred." 
One of the Hereford bulls died on the journey between Balti- 
more and Kentucky, and it is stated that from the other 
animals the produce was not very numerous, and gradually 
merged into other varieties. 

In Mr. Duckham's Record, Parts I. and II., Mr. Sandford 
Howard gives some interesting notes as to the earlier importa- 
tions of Herefords into America, and from these we produce 
the following extracts : " In 1824 Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, of 
the Royal Navy, a native of the island of Nantucket, presented 
to the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture a 
Hereford bull and heifer. They were bred by Sir J. G. Cot- 
terell, whose stock was from Mr. Yarworth,* and his from 
Benj. Tomkins, the first noted breeder of Herefords. The 
heifer never bred. The bull left a valuable progeny of half- 
bloods, particularly in the vicinity of Northampton, where he 
was kept for several years by the late Hon. I. C. Bates. The 

* Sir John R. Cotterell mentions that the above statement as to the 
origin of the old herd of his ancestor is incorrect except in so far as Sir 
J. G. Cotterell bought a bull from Mr. Yarworth in 1820, the Garnons 
herd having been an old-established one in 1800, 



296 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

cattle-feeders along Connecticut river stated that after they 
had fed some of the half-blood Hereford oxen, they would 
gladly pay from five to ten dollars a head more for them than 
for other cattle of equal size and condition, knowing that they 
would be amply remunerated for the additional cost in the 
gain the animals would make for the food consumed, and in 
the extra price the beef would bring. 

" In 1840, Corning and Sotham of Albany, N.Y., imported 
17 cows and many heifers, and 5 bulls. They were from the 
herds of Mr. J. Hewer and Mr. Walker. A portion of this 
herd finally passed into the hands of Mr. E. Corning, jun., 
who added to it by importations of several fine animals from 
the herd of the Rev. J. R. Smythies, and subsequently others 
from different herds. Probably the breed has been more dis- 
seminated through the country from these importations than 
from any others. 

"About the year 1852 the Hon. L, A. Dowley, then 
residing at Brattleboro, Vt, imported a bull and two heifers. 
They were from the herd of the late Lord Berwick. The 
progeny of these animals was scattered up the Connecticut 
Valley somewhat, and in a few instances went into Lower 
Canada. The bull Cronkhill, a very fine animal, passed into 
the hands of George Clerk of Spingfield, Otsego County, N.Y." 

It should be added that Mr. W. H. Sotham, who took 
Herefords to U.S.A. in 1840, was a native of Herefordshire 
and had emigrated to America previously to that year. Further 
importations were made, and Mr. W. H. Sotham worked most 
industriously to promote the interests of the breed, his efforts 
in this direction having been ably continued by his son, Mr. 
T. F. B. Sotham. 

Importations were also made about 1840 by Messrs. 
Burleigh and Bod well of Maine, and by Mr. John Humphries 
and Mr. Thomas Aston of Ohio in 185 1. 

The introduction of the improved Herefords into Canada 
was described in the following communication which Mr. E. W. 
Stone of Moreton Lodge, Guelph, Ontario, addressed to Mr. 
Duckham : — " I am an extensive breeder of Shorthorns, which 
breed I think very highly of ; yet I trust I shall answer your 
inquiries without prejudice. From what I remembered of the 
Herefords in my youth, and seeing the poor animals exhibited 
here for two or three years as Herefords, I thought they bore 
a striking contrast to them, and upon my visiting the Royal 
Agricultural Society of England's Show at Canterbury I was 
so much pleased with those I saw there that I resolved to 
purchase some, and send out to let the people of Canada see 
what pure-bred Herefords w^re. I therefore commissioned 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 297 

my brother to purchase at the sales of Lord Bateman and 
Lord Berwick's herds. My herd now numbers 23, are good 
specimens, and attract the attention of all who see them. 
They readily became acclimatised and retain their general 
character. I believe them preferable on the whole to other 
breeds as grazers. Those I have appear at all times fit for the 
butcher, and I should think they would be most profitable for 
the western prairies. I have not had any experience in stall 
feeding, but, during our long winters they seem to equal, if not 
to surpass, others in condition, and I think them as hardy as 
any breed, and very suitable animals for this climate, which is 
very changeable, sometimes in 24 hours it varies 30 to 40 
degrees. Our cattle generally have to put up with it without 
any attention, excepting in very stormy weather in the 
autumn, when we put them up, and during the winter keep 
them in stables or yards. The Herefords stand these changes 
equal to any, and, I believe, will be of great service in crossing 
the stock here as they become known. They are not 
generally known here ; but most people who have seen mine 
are very pleased with them, and I think they will be more 
appreciated." 

Of the more recent American and Canadian importations 
we cannot attempt to give a detailed account. This, indeed, 
would require an entire volume to itself. Suffice it to say 
that the breed is now firmly established in both Canada and 
America, and is rapidly pushing its way into all parts of these 
great countries, where, as we have already stated, it is held 
in high esteem by stock-men especially for its splendid grazing 
properties. During the few years prior to 1885 there had been 
a grcat demand for Herefords both in the United States and 
Canada, and many of the finest representatives of the breed 
were taken across the Atlantic. The high registration fee of 
100 dollars upon English-bred animals, introduced by the 
Executive of the American Hereford Association, lessened 
exportation, but this impediment was not of long duration. 
The demand for Hereford bulls for crossing with the cattle of 
the Western Ranches increases every year. As to the move- 
ments of the breed in America, its rapid extension over different 
parts of the country, its show-yard achievements in contest 
with other breeds, its success in crossing with native cattle, as 
well as when maintained in its purity, and its splendid " forag- 
ing properties," a great deal might be said that would be 
creditable to the breed, and interesting and flattering to its 
supporters. But so much space has been taken up by the 
account of " the breed at home " that its peregrinations and 
doings abroad must be noticed very briefly. 



298 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Amongst the many American patrons of the breed Mr. 
T. L. Miller of Beecher, Illinois, for many years was a central 
figure. Mr. Miller accomplished a vast deal for the breed in 
the far West. He was an extensive, enterprising, and skilful 
breeder of Herefords, and through the Breeders' Jc7irnal, 
which he started and carried on solely with the object of 
advocating the interests of the breed, and by other means, 
he strove with untiring energy and with great success to make 
the merits of Herefords known and appreciated amongst the 
stock-owners of America. In response to an application from 
the authors, Mr. Miller furnished an interesting account of his 
connection with Hereford cattle. He said : " My life had 
been devoted to business interests up to 1869, although I had 
from 1 844 a small farm, and had endeavoured to keep myself 
abreast of the agricultural and live stock interest by breeding. 
From 1844 to 1856 I had a small farm of 40 acres in Ohio, 
in connection with my home; from 1856 to 1869 I held the 
farm on which I am now living, farming in the ordinary way 
with common stock. In 1869 I determined to have better 
stock or none at all. I had lived in Chicago, I then moved 
from Chicago, where I had resided, to my farm, and undertook 
to inform myself as to better methods. In following this 
investigation I soon came to the conclusion that success in 
farming must come through some branch of the live stock 
interest. I followed out inquiries through all branches of the 
live stock interest so far as the dairy and its products were 
concerned, and came to the conclusion that I could not reach 
success in that direction. 

" I had at the time, say in 1 881, as foreman a Mr. Rowell, 
a Herefordshire farmer, who brought to my notice the Here- 
ford cattle, claiming for them greater merit than any other 
breed. On his recommendation I examined one herd, and in 
February, 1872, I made my first purchase, and during the 
year bought about 40 head, and continued to purchase from 
time to time when ever any were offered me. My sales for 
five years were made in Colorado and Texas, taking them 
there for sale, a distance of 1000 to 1500 miles. From that 
time to the present I have found my sales at home. The 
basis of this demand has been from the results of my intro- 
duction of bulls on the range. They proved themselves good 
range cattle, good grazers, and hardy, adapting themselves 
to their new surroundings as though they were native to 
them. 

" The inquiry from the range was largely for grade bulls, 
and this created a demand among our farmers and live stock 
breeders for thoroughbred Hereford bulls to cross upon common 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 299 

and Shorthorn cows, for the purpose of rearing grade bulls to 
supply the range requirements. Still there are a great many 
thoroughbred Hereford bulls sold for the range. I have made 
three sales to the Messrs. Swan of about 50 head at each 
sale, and a large number of sales to different parties of from 
five to 20 at each sale. Last spring we sold to one firm 40 
head of thoroughbreds and 150 head of high grades. One 
objection that western men have to buying thoroughbreds is, 
that their cattle run at large and mix with other herds, and 
hence other ranchmen get the benefit of the bulls equally with 
themselves. I sold 16 bulls in 1875 to a western ranchman, 
and for several years his neighbours could show as large a 
percentage of white-face calves as he could. 

" I have pushed this interest with all the ability I could 
command. For a time I used the live stock journals by pay- 
ing liberally in the way of advertising. But this privilege 
was so restricted that I could not make it available. I then 
established the Breeders' Journal. You will see in the five 
volumes I send you the character of the work I have done. 
I have not only done a large amount of work, but I have paid 
out a large amount of money to advance this interest — not 
less than 100,000 dollars [i^20,ooo], and probably more. I 
consider the interest firmly established in this country, and 
they have the first place in the estimation of cattle-men on 
the plains, and to a very large extent among bullock breeders 
throughout the States. 

"We have had" (that is prior to the year 1885 when Mr. 
Miller wrote) " a few cases of contagious pleuro pneumonia 
in the West — in no instance amongst Herefords. This has 
caused quarantine regulations to be established against us, 
and has created a fear of disease that has interfered with 
trade during the past year. This is likely to place more 
Hereford bullocks on the market, which will give to the 
world a new evidence of the merits of the Hereford as a beef 
animal. Nearly all the males have been kept for sires, and 
there are now a large number of what are termed grade 
Herefords seen on the plains that have not more than a 
quarter, and many with not more than one-eighth, blood of 
the Hereford. 

"The number of thoroughbred Hereford herds is con- 
tinually increasing in this country, and many of them are of 
great merit. In my own herd I have used Sir Charles 543 
(3434), Success 2 (5031), and Winter de Cote 2977 (6021). 
These have been my standard bulls, though I have used 
others to some extent. Success has now been at the head 
of the herd for 12 years." 



300 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

On visiting England in 1883 Mr. Miller was entertained 
to a complimentary dinner by Hereford supporters, and was 
presented with an illuminated address signed by one hundred 
breeders and a purse of ;^200. A silver cup was also presented 
to Mr. George Morgan. Mr. Miller declined to spend the 
money in silver plate, but with it bought a number of Herefords 
which were known as the " Testimonial Herd." 

Mr. Miller died in March, 1900, at the age of eighty-three. 
A worthy tribute to his work as well as to that of another 
pioneer of the breed in America (Mr. W. H. Sotham) is given 
in the History published in 1908 by Mr. T. F. B. Sotham, and 
which is elsewhere referred to. 

Mr. Adams Earl of Lafayette, Indiana, was one of the 
most successful among breeders of Herefords in America, 
His herd was formed of several important selections from 
England, and the produce of these cattle, and the stock num- 
bering over 200 head, were described by experienced breeders 
as of the very highest merit. Lord Wilton strains were pre- 
dominant in the herd, Mr. Earl having imported those three 
excellent sons of Lord Wilton, viz.. Sir Bartle Frere (Royal 
winner in 1881), Romeo, and Prince Edward. The Royal 
winner Garfield was also imported for use on the Lord Wilton 
females, and alike in the mating and general management of 
the herd good judgment was displayed. Mr. Adams Earl 
died on January 15, 1898, at the age of 79 years. The farm 
consisted of some 1600 acres. Attention was first directed 
to the herd of Herefords by the early importation of Royal 
winners and other specimens of the highest rank from leading 
herds. Sir Bartle Frere was the favourite sire at Shadeland, 
and was continued in service throughout his entire period of 
usefulness. The Grove 3rd was bought at eleven years old 
for ;^I400 from Mr. Culbertson. It was remarked by tlie 
Breeders' Gazette that Mr. Earl's liberality and conduct of 
the Hereford herds operating at Shadeland had much to do 
with the successful introduction of the White Faces through- 
out the West of America. 

In 1868 Mr. H. C. Burleigh, Fairfield, Maine, purchased 
the whole of the Hon. M. H. Cochrane's herd at Hillhurst, 
and in after years extensive and important additions were 
made, so that the Fairfield herd became one of the most 
famous in America, 

Mr. A. P. Freeman of Huntington, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 
bred Herefords for several years, and had much success both 
in the show-yard and in the market. Several of his cattle 
went to the Western States at good prices, while he won first 
prizes and sweepstakes against all ages and breeds wherever 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 301 

he had exhibited. A pair of half-bred Hereford steers, sold 
by Mr. Freeman, dressed 2600 lbs. at three years old, and a 
pair of his two-year-old grades weighed alive no less than 
3030 lbs., a pair of yearlings turning the scales at 2100 lbs. 
The cattle were well fed and well housed, the calves being 
allowed to suckle their dams morning and night. Mr. Freeman 
spoke highly of the value of Herefords as draught cattle, and 
also as to their hardiness and longevity. He forwarded to the 
authors in 1885 a copy of a letter from Mr. C. H. Kirkland of 
Norwich, Massachusetts, whose family had been associated 
with Hereford cattle for more than half a century. About 
1830 his grandfather, Mr. Samuel Kirkland, purchased the 
famous Hereford bull Sir Isaac, which, along with a Hereford 
cow that never bred in America, Sir Isaac Coffin had pre- 
sented to the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture 
about 1825. Mr. Kirkland stated that the offspring of this 
bull were distinguished for strength of constitution, great 
activity, and elastic and quick movement. He considered that 
for the climate and soil of New England the Hereford was the 
most profitable breed of cattle the farmer can possess. Mr. 
Freeman added, that although there had been no fresh impor- 
tations of Herefords into his county (Hampshire) from 1843 
until 1878, when he purchased the bull Victor 6242, the 
majority of the cattle around him, nevertheless, displayed 
" the white face and red body of the Hereford breed, tracing 
back for it seems 40 years or more to the Hereford stock of 
Major Kirkland as it was called, showing conclusively the 
power of the Hereford to impress and transmit its charac- 
teristics for generations. The bull Sir Isaac did his best 
work and found his most appreciative friends in this county, 
and it was seeing what the Kirkland stock had done for the 
improvement of all other stock that led me to the purchase of 
a Hereford bull — and it was because I was so well pleased 
with him that I afterwards purchased more." 

Mr. C. M. Culbertson of Chicago and Hereford Park, 
Newman Douglas County, Illinois, maintained a large herd of 
well-selected highly-bred Hereford cattle. In his private 
catalogue for 1S84, which contained particulars of 1 17 head, he 
stated that he had then made his fifth annual importation from 
England, comprising 15 head, and including the famous bull 
The Grove 3rd 505 1 and six of his daughters, as well as five 
by the celebrated Horace. The character and standing of 
Mr. Culbertson's herd were well attested by the fact that the 
animals he had bred or imported won, prior to 1885, over 100 
first prizes, 1 3 sweepstakes, champions, and specials, and over 
50 second prizes, besides seven first Premium Hereford Herd 



302 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

prizes, and one Grand Sweepstakes Beef Herd prize over all 
breeds. It is thus seen that The Grove 3rd was placed in a 
herd worthy of his great merit. This grand sire cost 800 
guineas at The Leen sale in 1884, a handsome figure, cer- 
tainly, for a nine-year-old bull. Mr. Culbertson selected a 
son of the famous Lord Wilton 4748 to assist and succeed 
The Grove 3rd at the head of his herd, and a very handsome 
animal this youngster grew into. Roan Boy, the champion 
bullock of the Chicago Fat Stock Show in 1883, was bred 
and fattened by Mr. Culbertson. He was got by a pure-bred 
Hereford bull, and out of a half-bred Shorthorn cow. At 
three years and eleven months he weighed 2125 lbs. 

Messrs. Fowler and Co. of Fowlers Ranche, St. Marys, 
Kansas, established a herd of about 50 head. They began 
with Merry Monarch heifers obtained from Mr. Hill of Fel- 
hampton Court, and a Horace bull. Iron Duke 8759, bred by 
Mr. R. Shirley, Craven Arms. They also had some Merry 
Monarch bulls from Mr. Hill, which they used with excellent 
results amongst grade stock. Among the other purchases were 
a prize heifer at the Royal Show at Shewsbury, and the fine 
young bull Clinker 3rd 8419, by Merry Monarch, bought from 
Mr. J. Hill. This bull was at the head of the herd in 1885, 
and was much thought of, especially for his symmetry and 
style. Animals from the herd won several prizes at local 
shows, including champion prizes for best cow of any age and 
breed with Bright Ethel 6th, got by Mr. L. L. Moore's 
Bredwardine. In a communication to the authors, the owners 
said : " We let both Herefords and Shorthorns run in the 
prairie in the summer, the former keeping flesh far the best. 
In winter we keep some in yards with open sheds, and some 
in close stabling with daily exercise. We find that Herefords 
stand the exposure of open sheds far better than Shorthorns. 
The half-bred Hereford bull calves at one year old are worth 
ten dollars more than half-bred Shorthorns for use on the 
great cattle ranches, to which we supply some hundreds 
annually." 

Among the other leading herds of Herefords in America, 
special mention must be made of those owned by Messrs. 
George Leigh and Co., Aurora, Illinois, who took across the 
Atlantic a large number of exceptionally good representatives 
of the breed ; Mr. M. Fowler and Mr. W. S. Van Natta of 
Fowler, Indiana, the exhibitors of Regulus, the Chicago Fat 
Stock Show champion of 1885 ; Mr. A. A. Crane of Osco, 
Illinois, whose herd numbered over 125 head, with the prize 
bull Grimley 9443 at its head ; Messrs. Shockey and Gibb 
of Lawrence, Kansas ; the Iowa Hereford Cattle Company, 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 303 

Indianola, Warren Co., Iowa, which owned over a hundred 
well-selected cows and heifers of the Lord Wilton and Horace 
strains ; Mr. C. K. Parmelee of Desplaines, Cook Co., Illinois, 
whose excellent herd was headed by the famous English-bred 
prize bull Archibald 6290 ; Messrs. Sotham and Stickney of 
Pontaic, Michigan, whose herd, headed by the imported bull 
Stock Fields Wilton, was under the care of Mr. T. F. B. Sotham, 
only son of the late Mr. W. H. Sotham, so prominently asso- 
ciated with the early introduction of Herefords into America ; 
Mr. J. O. Curry of Aurora, Illinois, whose grand herd was 
headed by Royal Grove 21500, got by the celebrated sire 
The Grove 3rd, and full brother to Mr. Cochrane's Cassio ; 
Mr. J. C. Bertram of Bristol, Illinois, who had Sir Wilfrid, 
son of Lord Wilton, at the head of a well-bred herd ; Mr. T. 
C. Ponting of Moweaqua, Shelby Co., Illinois ; Messrs. J. R. 
Price and Son, Williamsville, Illinois, who possessed a choice 
herd of about 130 head ; Mr. J. S. Hawes of Colony, Kansas, 
who owned a valuable herd of over 200 head ; the Indiana 
Blooded Stock Company, Indianapolis, Indiana ; Messrs. Gud- 
gell and Simpson, Independence, Missouri ; Messrs. C. W 
Cook and Son of Odebolt, Sac Co., Iowa, whose herd was 
very large, and included some admirable specimens ; Mr. E. 
Phelps of Pontaic, Michigan ; Mr. Thomas Clark of Beecher, 
Illinois ; Mr. G. W. Henry of Ashkum, Iroquois Co., Illinois ; 
Messrs. Barrow Brothers, Sheldahl, Iowa ; Mr. Dunham of 
Dunlop, Iowa ; Mr. John Nolan, Beecher, Illinois ; Messrs. 
W. Morgan and Son of Irving, Marshall Co., Kansas ; Mr. 
W. C. McGavock, Franklin, Howard Co., Missouri ; Mr. R. 
Hewes of Tower Hill Stock Farm, Goodenow, Illinois ; Mr. 
J. Borland of Stanton, Nebraska ; Mr. G. ¥. Baker of Oak- 
land Stock Farm, Goodenow, Illinois ; Messrs. Clough Brothers 
of Elyria, Ohio ; Mr. B. Hershey of Muscatine, Iowa ; Mr. 
Wm. Powell, Beecher, Illinois ; Messrs. Seabury and Sample, 
Lafayette, Indiana ; O. Harris, Missouri ; George F. Morgan, 
Illinois ; J. A. Funkhouser, Missouri ; F. A. Nave, Indiana ; 
C. B. Stuart, Indiana ; W. H. Curtice and Clem Graves, 
Indiana ; Giltner Brothers, Kentucky ; H. C. Burleigh, Maine ; 
C. A Stannard, Kansas ; John Hooker, Ohio, etc. 

Mr. J. A. Funkhouser died at Excelsior Springs, Mo., in 
1905. No man stood higher in the estimation of his fellow- 
breeders. He was a pioneer among Western Hereford 
breeders, and at one time served as President of the American 
Hereford Cattle Breeders' Association. 

Mr. Kirk B. Armour died in September, 1901, at Kansas 
City. He was head of the Armour Packing Company of that 
city. A large importer and breeder of Herefords he was at the 



304 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

time of his death, president of the American Hereford Cattle 
Breeders' Association. 

Mr. Charles R. Stuart, of Lafayette, Indiana, U.S.A., died 
on February 20, 1899. His wife was a daughter of Mr. 
Adams Earl, one of the leading business men in Lafayette. 
In conjunction with his father-in-law, he became deeply 
interested in the importation and breeding of Hereford cattle 
soon after the breed first came into prominent notice in the 
western states of America, and to the very last he was one of 
the leading supporters of the Hereford interests as well as the 
most powerful single factor in the business affairs of the 
American Hereford Cattle Breeders' Association. The great 
importation of English Royal winners and high-class breeding 
animals purchased by the firm of Earl and Stuart, under the 
management of Mr. Thomas Clark, has always been regarded 
as the most valuable and the finest of White Faces ever made 
by one man or firm at one time from the Herefordshire herds. 

Hereford interests in Canada received great stimulus from 
the attention given to the breed at the Ontario Agricultural 
College, Guelph, Ontario. Along with other leading varieties 
of farm live stock, Hereford cattle have there been bred and 
reared with much skill and success. Professor Brown, who 
so ably presided over the agricultural section of the institution, 
made excellent selections in this country, and by his carefully 
conducted fattening experiments did much to spread the fame 
of Herefords as beef-producing cattle. His importation in 
1884 comprised a few very valuable Herefords, including the 
highly-bred bull Conqueror 75 10, which was purchased from her 
late Majesty Queen Victoria at 500 guineas, and some females 
of exceptional merit, purchased from Mr. John Hill and others. 
Conqueror was bred by the late Mr. Carwardine, and got by 
Lord Wilton 4740, and in Canada he and his stock were much 
esteemed. 

Few gentlemen did so much to make the good name of 
the Herefords known throughout Canada and the Western 
States of America as the late Hon. M. H. Cochrane of Hill- 
hurst Farm, Quebec. Mr. Cochrane's great experience in the 
breeding and rearing of high-class stock enabled him to bring 
out to the full extent the merits of the " white faces," and the 
enlisting of his support was of great value to Hereford interests 
both at home and abroad. In response to an application 
from the authors, Mr. Cochrane furnished the following brief 
account of his herd, dated September, 1885 : — "The herd now 
numbers a few over 100 head, 80 of which are cows, heifers, 
and heifer calves, two stock bulls, and the remainder bull 
calves. The herd was founded and built up by purchases 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 305 

made in 1880 and 1881 from the Chadnor herd, 20 females now 
in the herd being of that strain ; from the Longner Hall sale 
in 1 88 1 eight Raritys, two Delights, and one Lovely, now in 
the herd ; and from the importation of 1883, consisting of ten 
heifers from Mr. Carwardine's herd, got by that extraordinary 
prize bull and sire of prize-winners Lord Wilton ; and a number 
of others from the herds of Mr. John Price of Court House, 
Mr. Myddleton of Beckjay, Mr. A. Rogers of The Rodd, 
Mr. A. P. Turner of Strangworth, Mr. Robinson of Lynhales, 
Mr. John Hill of Felhampton Court, and Mr. Grasett of Wet- 
more ; as well as the young bull Cassio, by that eminent sire 
The Grove 3rd 5051. In 1883 Mr. Urwick of Hereford pur- 
chased for me at The Leen sale {Mr. P. Turner's) the heifers 
Empress and Vanity by The Grove 3rd 5051, and at the 
Chadnor sale the heifers Miss Polly, Marigold, and Ringlet. 
Then in March, 1884, he selected and sent out for me five 
yearling and five two-year-old heifers by Romulus 5543 from 
the herd of Mr. S. H. Atkinson, Letton Court, mainly de- 
scended from the old Ivingtonbury stock of Mr. T. Roberts ; 
two yearling heifers, Belinda and Wanton, by Pertly 5498 by 
Horace, from Mr. H. Haywood, Blakemere ; two yearling 
heifers, Rosa and Ella, by Chancellor 5426 by Horace, bred 
by Mr. H. R. Hall, Holme Lacy ; and three yearlings by 
Albany 7364 (son of Lord Wilton), Lily Queen, Bulb, and 
Frances, bred by Mr. A. Rogers, The Rodd. President 61 11 
was my first stock bull, and is still in use in the herd. He 
was followed by Secretary 6672 by Regulus, bought of Mr. 
J. Price, Court House : he proved an excellent getter, and 
I have always regretted parting with him. Sir Evelyn 7263 
was also used successfully, and was sold in April, 1884, at 
my sale held at Dexter Park, Chicago. But the present stock 
bull, Cassio 6849, has most distinguished himself as a sire, 
though none of his stock has yet appeared in the show-ring, 
we being debarred by quarantine regulations from exhibiting 
at the American fairs, with the exception of the Chicago Fat 
Stock Show, at which my three-year-old steer Sir Richard, 
bred by Mr. T. Fenn of Downton, won the sweepstakes for 
best dressed carcase in 1882. The cross of The Grove 3rd 
blood through Cassio on Lord Wilton heifers seems to have 
been a very successful one, and I had several most promising 
heifers of this combination from the stock which was bought 
at Stocktonbury in 1883. My experience with the Herefords 
has been most satisfactory both in Eastern townships and on 
the ranges in our Canadian North-west. They are hardy and 
prolific, and will fatten on grass alone where no other breed 
will," 



3o6 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

The Hon. M, H. Cochrane died in 1903, and his son 
Mr. James A. Cochrane succeeded to the estates. 

The herd at Port Cardinal, Ontario, belonging to Mr. 
Benson, was founded in 1880 by a valuable lot of animals 
imported from Mr. J. B. Green, Marlow Lodge, Leominster ; 
Mr. W. Taylor, Shovvle Court, Ledbury ; and Mr. John 
Mutton, Tarrington, near Ledbury. Subsequent selections 
were made from the herds of Mr. C. C. Bridges, Gowan 
Station ; and Mr. George Pitt, Chadnor Court. Rambler 6th, 
got by Chieftain 4427 and bred by Mr. Green, and Ledbury, 
got by Royal 13th 5552 and bred by Mr. Mutton, were 
imported as calves. The former turned out a valuable and 
prolific sire, all his calves doing well. Duke of Marlow 
6920, a son of the latter and out of the imported cow Miss 
Grove 4th, was an exceedingly good bull, and was purchased 
by Messrs. Hunton and Sotham, Abilene, Kansas, along with 
other 16 pure-bred Hereford cows, heifers, and calves, from 
Mr. Benson's herd. The price paid for these 17 animals was 
about i^iooo, or nearly £^g a-head. Other sales were made 
at higher prices. Mr, Benson did not favour showing, thinking 
it undesirable that breeding cattle should be highly fed, but 
wherever his animals were exhibited they made a very credit- 
able appearance. In this herd the calves were allowed to 
suckle their dams until they are able to feed themselves. The 
cattle throve well, and they were found to be " remarkably 
good grazers, a quality which also seems to run through all 
the animals which have crosses of the breed in their veins." 
All the animals in this herd were fed with ensilage in winter, 
between 400 and 500 tons of maize, rye, and clover silage 
being made on the farm every year. 

In America, as well as in this country, Herefords have made 
a creditable appearance in the show-yards. In contests with 
other breeds they have often been triumphant, especially in 
shows of breeding cattle. Hereford crosses came to the front 
. in fat stock shows, and in the far West, as in this country, it 
is found that the Hereford and Shorthorn produce a first cross 
of rare merit as a butcher's animal. Bullocks of this breeding 
won the Champion Stakes at the Fat Stock Shows in Chicago 
in 1883 and 1885. Regulus, the champion of 1885, bred by 
Messrs. Price and Son of Williamsville, Illinois, and reared, 
fattened, and exhibited by Messrs. Fowler and Van Natta of 
Fowler, Indiana, displayed a great predominance of the 
Hereford characteristics. He was got by the imported Here- 
ford bull Regulus 2nd 6089, and out of a half-bred Shorthorn 
cow. It was stated that of the prizes for carcases of beef 
awarded at the Chicago Fat Stock Shows up to 1888, 29 per 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 307 

cent, had been won by Herefords, 42 per cent, by grade Here- 
fords, 4 per cent, by Hereford-Shorthorns, and 25 per cent, by 
grade Shorthorns. 

One of the most valuable Hereford sires ever used in 
America was Sir Richard 2nd 4984, bred by Mr. J. H. Ark- 
wright of Hampton Court, Hereford, and imported in 1870 
by Mr. John Merriman of Cockeyville, near Baltimore. Sir 
Oliver 2nd, the sire of Sir Richard 2nd, was a noted prize- 
winner, while his grandsire was the famous Sir Benjamin 
1387. From a notice of this celebrated bull in a leading 
American journal, we take the following : — 

" In 1870 Sir Richard 2nd, when he was a yearling, was 
imported by the late John Merriman of Cockeyville, Md., who 
owned him until 1876, when he was exchanged for Compton 
Lad 3764, and passed into the hands of H. C. Burleigh of 
Maine, in whose possession he remained about two years, when 
he was sold with others to T. L. Miller, of Beecher, 111., for 
500 dollars. After being used in this last herd, and that of 
T. L. Miller's two or three years, and leaving grand stock, he 
was sold to Tom Clark of the same place, in whose possession 
he remained for some time. 

" During the summer of 1882 he was hired by Messrs. 
Earl and Stuart of Lafayette, Ind., who succeeded in getting 
nearly a dozen calves from him, and in the fall of that year 
he was purchased by Mr. C. M. Culbertson. 

" Of late years some long prices have been paid and offered 
for stock, notably the young show herd of Fowler and Van 
Natta in 1882, for which they were offered 5000 dollars for the 
four heifers and the bull. Three of those heifers were sired 
by Sir Richard 2nd. 

" The same year Mr. C. M. Culbertson purchased two of his 
daughters (yearlings) at 800 dollars each, simply for breeding 
purposes. The prize-winning bulls Fortune, belonging to 
J. S. Haines of Kansas, is a son, and Dictator, owned by 
F. W. Smith of Missouri, is a grandson of Old Dick." When 
slaughtered " Old Dick," as he was familiarly called, v/eighed 
a little over 2000 lbs. 

AMERICAN HEREFORD CATTLE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATION 

Since the first edition of this History was published, the 
Herefords have made great progress in the United States, and 
as an indication of the spread of the breed, it may be men- 
tioned that up to January i, 1906, there had been published 
twenty-seven volumes of the American Hereford Record, 
showing a registration of 205,000 animals. It is manifestly 



3o8 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

impossible to give a detailed account of the breed in that 
country, and all that can be attempted is to furnish a few 
facts regarding prominent events. 

First of all we shall summarise the notice of the formation 
of the American Hereford Cattle Breeders' Association and 
its progress. 

Mr. C. R. Thomas, secretary, writing in the Thirteenth 
Report of the Kansas State Board of Agriculture said : — The 
American Hereford Cattle Breeders' Association was organised 
at a meeting of a few Hereford breeders, held at the Grand 
Pacific Hotel, Chicago, on June 22, 1881, called by Mr. C. M 
Culbertson. The officers elected were : — President, C. M. 
Culbertson, Chicago ; vice-presidents, A. H. Swan, Wyoming ; 
W. H. Todd, Ohio ; Wm. Hamilton, Michigan ; R. W. 
Sample, Indiana ; B Hershey, Ohio ; Wm. H. Sotham, Illi- 
nois ; treasurer, Adams Earl, Indiana ; and secretary, T. E. 
Miller, Beecher, Illinois. The board of directors were J. M. 
Studebaker, A. H. Seabury, W. S. Van Natta, N. Abbe, 
G. S. Burleigh, A. D. Raub, H. Norris, Charles Gudgell, 
and E. R. Price. 

The objects and purposes of this organisation, as set forth by 
resolution adopted at the meeting, were to promote the interests 
of the Hereford breed of cattle, and to secure their intro- 
duction and trial more generally throughout the beef-producing 
sections of the country, as it was believed that a fair and 
impartial trial of these cattle by the side of representatives of 
other beef breeds would establish their superiority as profit- 
able beef producers, both as grazers and in the stalls, ability 
to withstand hardship and quality of product. 

A resolution was adopted commending the American 
Hereford Record, the first volume of which had just been 
published by the Breeders' Live Stock Association of Beecher, 
Illinois, an organisation of which Mr. T. L, Miller was the 
dominant spirit. 

A committee of members of the Association was appointed 
to examine into the entries admitted to Volume I. of the 
Record, and to pass upon all subsequent entries in that work, 
Messrs. T. L. Miller, William Powell, and Thomas Clark, all 
of Beecher, Illinois, constituted the committee. 

At the second meeting, held on November 11, 1 881, the 
call of members showed a total of thirty-four breeders from 
eight different states and territories. The importance of the 
Fat Stock Shows as mediums of getting the merits of the 
Hereford before the public was duly recognised, so that the 
principal business was to arouse an interest and some degree 
of enthusiasm among the breeders such as would secure 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 309 

representative exhibits of Herefords at these shows, A com- 
mittee, composed of J. M. Studebaker, R. W, Sample, and W. S. 
Van Natta, was appointed with instructions to obtain a pro- 
position from Mr. T. L. Miller for the sale of the American 
Hereford Record, and to consider the practicability of its 
purchase by the Association. 

At the third meeting on November 22 and 23, 1882, the 
committee on the acquisition of the Hereford Record reported 
adversely as to its purchase, but recommended that the 
Association adopt the same as its standard of record, and 
prescribe rules governing the entries to be made therein, and 
also that a committee be appointed to pass all future appli- 
cations for entry in the same. On this occasion a purse of 
;^I07 was presented to Mr. W. H, Sotham as a testimonial of 
appreciation and recognition of his services to the Hereford 
cause. It was resolved to raise a fund of ^^400 for special 
prizes for Herefords at the Fat Stock Shows. 

On February 28, 1883, the fourth meeting was held, when 
a proposition was considered from Mr. T. L. Miller to sell to 
the Association the Hereford Record, two volumes of which 
had been issued. The Record was acquired for i^iooo. To 
provide the funds necessary to pay this sum, a per capita 
assessment was levied by resolution duly adopted upon all 
Herefords owned by the several members of the Association 
on July I, 1883. Under this resolution eight members 
reported their herds for assessment for this purpose, and the 
aggregate number was a little over 2300 head, making the 
assessment thereon 2 dollars 17 cents, per head. The herds 
that were assessed on 50 or more head were as follows : — 
W. N. Van Natta, 193 head; Gudgell and Simpson, 171 ; 
B. Hershey, 146 ; Earl and Stuart, 142 ; T. L. Miller Com- 
pany, 119 ; Seabury and Sample, 104 ; C. M. Culbertson, 99 ; 
M. H. Cochrane, 75 ; T. E. Miller, 75 ; A. A. Crane and Son, 
72 ; G. S. Burleigh, 62 ; T. C. Ponting, 55 : Fletcher, Holt and 
Co., 54; H. and N. Abbe, 64; Thomas Foster, 52 ; and D. K. 
Shaw, 50. It was deemed necessary that the Association 
should have a corporate existence, and a committee was 
appointed to incorporate it under the laws of Illinois. 

Mr. Culbertson presided at the fifth meeting in November, 
1883. The committee on incorporation reported that they 
had duly made application therefor ; that a certificate was 
granted on November 10, 1883, and that the Association 
was then a corporate body. Mr. W. S. Van Natta was 
elected president, and Mr. H. H. Clough, vice-president. Mr. 
T. L. Miller reported that he had failed in his mission of 
interesting the officers or members of the English Hereford 



3IO HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Herd Book Society in the matter of adopting a uniform 
standard of registration for the two Herd Books, He stated 
that it was suggested to him that the best and only way to 
secure the same rule of entry was for the Americans to adopt 
the English rule, which at that time was that unregistered 
pedigrees should have for bulls four crosses of registered sires, 
and for cows three like crosses. The strict application of this 
rule could at any time be waived at the discretion of their 
editing committee. The rules as to entry in the Hereford 
Record adopted at the previous meeting, and then in force, 
were in brief that a pedigree to be eligible for registry should 
be recorded in the Record, or in the first thirteen volumes of 
the English Herd Book, or in lieu of such a record should 
have four crosses of registered sires, with particulars of name 
of breeders of sires and dam, and date of birth for each of 
the four dams, and further should have its foundation in ai^^ 
English of undoubted purity. 

At the meeting under notice there was a presentation to 
Mr. George Morgan by Mr. T. L. Miller on behalf of English 
breeders of Herefords of a beautiful silver cup, and on behalf 
of the associated American breeders of a handsome silver 
service, both being tendered to him as testimonials of their 
appreciation of his personal services in the cause of the 
Hereford. Later in the year Mr. Charles Gudgell, Inde- 
pendence, Mo., was elected secretary and treasurer. 

The proceedings at the subsequent meetings dealt with 
rules for registration and methods for extending the breed, and 
they need not be detailed at length. It should be noted, 
however, that at the meeting on November 13, 1885, a bye- 
law was adopted imposing an entry fee of 100 dollars on all 
imported cattle. Subsequently the bye-laws have been 
amended, and that imposing 100 dollar registration fee for 
imported cattle has been repealed. The presidents, in addition 
to those already mentioned, have been, W. S. Van Natta, T. L. 
Miller, Thos. Clark, G. W. Henry Adams Earl, Jas. A. Funk- 
houser, J. S. Carlyle, C. H. Elmendorf, George S. Redhead, 
C. B. Smith, K. B. Armour, T. F. B. Sotham, Frank Rockefeller, 
and Frank Van Natta. The secretaries have been Mr. Chas. 
Gudgell (from January, 1884 to January, 1888), and Mr. Chas. 
R. Thomas. 



IMPORTANT SHIPMENTS 

Among those breeders who perhaps took the choicest 
animals for exhibition purposes were, as already mentioned, 
the Hon. M. H. Cochrane, the Hon. Mr. Pope, Messrs. Green, 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 31 1 

Bridges, Brown (of the Ontario College), Drew and Sharman, 
Canada ; while in the States the names of Messrs. Earl, 
Culbertson, Gudgell and Simpson, Burleigh, Morgan, Clark, 
Parmelee, Leigh, Armour, and Fowler are some of the best 
remembered. Those who took the largest numbers have 
included Messrs. Cook, who shipped on June 29, 1883, no 
less than 290 females and eleven bulls ; Mr. Burleigh, several 
large lots, one making 200 head, in August, 1883 ; Mr. Swan, 
200 in April, 1883 (besides other important selections made 
for him by Mr. Morgan). Messrs. Gudgell and Simpson 
shipped 100 head in one lot in the autumn of 1881, and fifty 
head the. following spring ; while Mr. T. L. Miller and Mr. G. 
Leigh each paid several visits, making very large purchases, 
Mr. Miller taking over 100 head at one time, and the latter 
buying, in September, 1884, the champion bull Archibald at 
a high price. 



PRICES IN U.S.A. 

High prices for Herefords ruled in the United States for 
several years from 1898 to 1903, In 1898 at the dispersion sale 
of Mr. H. M. Hill's herd at La Fontaine, Kansas, the average 
was ^^"80 ; while at the auction of a portion of Mr. C. S. Cross's 
Sunnyslope herd in Kansas still larger sums were obtained, 
especially in the case of Salisbury by Mr. J. Price's Boniface, 
which sold for ^^700. In the following year at an auction sale 
at Kansas City, Mr. T. F. B. Sotham, ChilHcothe, Mo., sold 
the champion bull Sir Bredwell by Corrector for £1000 to Col. 
C. C. Slaughter, Texas, this having been the highest price paid 
up to that time for a Hereford in the United States. The sale 
was throughout very satisfactory as the fifty animals disposed of 
averaged i^i03 per head. In March, 1900, at a sale at Kansas 
City, a bull belonging to Mr. T. F. B. Sotham made ;^I020, 
while at the sale of the Fairview herd, the property of Mr. F. A. 
Nave, held at Chicago in April of that year, the average for 96 
head was ^134. Some high individual prices were paid. The 
bull Columbus went to Mr. C. Graves at ;^I500 ; the imported 
bull Viscount Rupert (bred by Mr. T. Fenn) realised ;^620 ; the 
imported bull Bruce ;!^28o ; and Perfection by Dale ;^26o. 
The cow Russett sold at;^6oo; Theresa at ^600; imported 
Lady Help by Diplomat (bred by Mr. R. Green) ;^52o; 
Dolly 5th ;^420. At the Kansas City sale in October a 
yearling bull realised ;^ioio. At the International Live Stock 
Stock Exposition sales at Chicago, in 1901, the average for 
100 Herefords was ;^89. The cow Dolly was sold for ^^630, 
and Marchlen 13th realised ;^700. At a sale at Kansas City in 



312 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

January of that year Mr. T. F, B. Sotham disposed of 50 from the 
Weavergrace herd at an average of £68 — highest price £2$^- 
Mr. Clem Graves sold 19 at an average of £1 \6 — highest price 
;^740 for the cow Carnation. The cow Dolly 2nd (with calf 
at foot) was sold in June by Mr. J. Hooker to Mr. N. T. 
Bowen for ^1000. The general average at the sale was ^68 
for 98 head ; a cow and calf made ;^38o and a bull ;^240. 
The sale of the late Mr. Kirk B. Armour's and Mr. James A. 
Funkhouser's herds took place at Kansas late in 1901. Prices 
ranged up to ;^I4I, and the average on the first day was £67 
for no head, the second day's sale giving an increase. Mr. 
Thomas Clark's herd was sold at Chicago in 1902, the bull 
Perfection being sold to Mr. J. H. Hoxie for i5'i8oo, while 
other animals made up to £140, with an average of ;^99 10s. 
A combined sale under the management of Mr. T. F. B. 
Sotham was held at Kansas, when the highest price was ;^799 
for the bull Good Cross. The highest price for females was 
£460 for Happiness. The average for 184 was about £68. 
At a sale at Indianapolis in May the cow Miss Java 2nd 
realised ;^700, the average for 62 head being £78. A remark- 
ably successful sale was that of Mr. Clem Graves's Bunker 
Hill herd, which was disposed of at Indianapolis in September. 
Crusader, champion at the Pan-American Exhibition, and 
winner at numerous other shows, was bought by Mr. Ed. 
Hawkins, Earl Park, at ^2000, and he also secured Cosmo, 
dam of Crusader, at ^600. The cow Dolly was purchased by 
him at ;^I400. Mr. Arnsden paid £600 for the imported cow 
Phoebe, bred by Mr. W. M. Andrew, in Herefordshire. The 
average for 43 head was £201. At a sale at Indianapolis, in 
October, 1902, the heifer Miss Zenobia sold at ^1000, and 
Miss Dale at £1020. In January, 1903, a combination sale 
was held at Chicago, when the imported bull Britisher made 
£760, and the fourteen-month-old bull Perfection Lord ;^305. 
The average for 90 head was £^2. At the sale of Herefords 
belonging to Mr. C. W. Armour and Mr. J. A. Funkhouser, at 
Kansas City, prices ranged up to ;^I30 and ^125. The 
average for 107 head was ;^49. Mr. F. A. Nave's sale at 
Attica, Illinois, in March, averaged £s,6 for 50 head — highest 
price £iS9- At a sale near Bennett, U.S.A., in April, cows 
averaged £77 — highest price ;^I04. Mr. G. H. Hoxie's sale 
at Thornton, Illinois, averaged i^6o — highest prices £17 S and 
;^i6o. 



Ip-ROPHfJT"' 




Good Loy 7608 (Karl of CoveiUiy'sj. 




From the "Breeders- Gazette, ' Chkago.] 

The Grove 3RD 5051 (Bred by Mr. Benjamin Rogers) 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 313 



HERE FORDS AT THE COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION (1893) 

At the Columbian Exposition, held at Chicago in 1893, 
the Hereford section was remarkably well filled with beautfully 
brought out cattle. Excepting in the cow class, the Canadian 
Herefords did not compare so favourably with the States 
cattle as did the Shorthorns on the same occasion, and a large 
majority of the honours remained with the leading breeders of 
the Western States. The judge was Mr. Jas. A. Funkhouser, 
of Missouri, the cattle on exhibition making up a show which 
it was considered in every respect excelled the display in this 
section at the Royal Show in 1892. The fine bull Ancient 
Briton, imported by Mr. Clough from Herefordshire, and bred 
by Mr. Wm. Tudge at Leinthall, was the best animal in the 
bull classes. Mr. Clough's richly furnished three-year-old was 
by no means without competitors. Pitted against him were 
Messrs. Gudgell and Simpson's six-year-old stock bull Don 
Carlos 33734 by Anxiety 4th (sire of the great Western 
champions Beau Real and Beau Monde) ; Mr. Elmendorfs 
Earl of Shadeland 30th, bred by Mr. Adams Earl, of Indiana, 
from Garfield (a Royal winner imported in 1883 along with 
Sir Bartle Frere) ; Mr. Van Natta's pair. Cherry Boy by the 
famous Fowler, and Hengler by Saracen ; Mr. Clark's Sanhe- 
drim, an in-bred Grove 3rd ; Mr. Redhead's Captain Grove, Mr. 
Day's Cameo, Messrs. R. Makin Bros.' Vincent 2nd by Don 
Carlos came second. Earl of Shadeland 30th third, Vincent 2nd 
fourth, while the Asgrove Company were highly commended 
cWith Wildy 30th. For two-year-olds the winner was Sitting 
Bull, the property Mr. H. J. Fluck, of Illinois ; Wilton Grove, 
owned by Mr. Todd Benjamin, Illinois, second ; Messrs, 
Makin Bros., Kansas, were third with Anxiety Boy, and Mr. 
C. H. Elmendorf fourth with Eureka. Messrs. Gudgell and 
Simpson's Lamplighter by Don Carlos won for yearling bulls, 
Mr. Thomas Clark's Lara being second, and Messrs. Makin 
Bros, third with Vincent 9th, fourth being Mr. Clough's Actor. 
The Anxiety blood again came to the front in the class for 
bulls under one year old, Mr. Fluck being the winner with 
Monitor F, which was said to be the last bull sired by Mr. 
Clark's old Anxiety 3rd ; Mr. Cosgrove was second with 
Minnesota 2nd ; Mr. Clough was third with De Forest. For 
cows, first fell to Mr. Van Natta's Miss Beau Real 3rd, 
second being Mr. Clark's Plum, third Mr. Clough's Cocoanut, 
and fourth Lady Tushingham 2nd, the property of Mr. H. D 
Smith, Compton, Canada, Mr. Elmendorf's Miss Wilton by 
Beau Real being fifth. In the two-year-old Mr. W. S. Van 



314 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Natta won with Annabel by Star Grove ist, second being 
Mr. Clough's New Year's Gift by Stockton Wilton 8078, and 
a winner at the Royal Show at Warwick ; third was Mr. Cos- 
grove's Wiltonie 32nd, Mr. Clark's Jungle being fourth, 
and Messrs. Gudgell and Simpson's Donna Anna 7th fifth. 
Yearling heifers were a superb show, Mr. Elmendorf winning 
with Lady Daylight by Earl of Shadeland 30th from a 
cow by Beau Real ; Mr. J. J. Stewart (foreman for Mr. Van 
Natta) stood next with Fowler Queen 2nd; third going to Mr. 
Elmendorf for Lady Laurel ; Mr. Clough's Dorcas by Merlin 
7850 was fourth, and Mr. Van Natta's Cherry Lass fifth. For 
heifer calves, Messrs. Gudgell and Simpson won with Bright 
Duchess by Earl of Shadeland 47th, second being Messrs. 
Makin Bros. Bertha by Beau Real, third Mr. Clough's Prim- 
rose, fourth Mr. Fleming's Lady Fenn 2nd, and fifth Mr. Van 
Natta's Grove Lassie. 

The male championship was awarded to Mr. Clough's 
Ancient Briton, and the female championship to Mr. Van 
Natta's two-year-old Annabel. The herd prize fell to Mr. 
H. H. Clough, and the young heifers prize to Messrs. Gudgell 
and Simpson. 

As regards the breeding of Ancient Briton, which thus 
defeated all the best show bulls of the American Union and 
the Dominion of Canada that were exhibited against him, the 
following notes may be given : — Ancient Briton 1 5034, calved 
on May 6, 1890, was a son of Mr. W. H. Cooke's Bourton, 
whose sire was Mr. Tudge's Lord Wilton and dam Mr. T. J. 
Carwardine's Katie 2nd by Longhorns ; his dam Bonnie Lassie 
a daughter of Downton 22nd and Duke and granddam Bella- 
donna, one of the famous old cows of the Adforton herd. 
Belladonna was a half-sister of Mr. Tudge's famous bull 
Regulus, one of the sires used by Mr. John Price in the Court 
House herd. She and Regulus were both from Bonnie ; 
Belladonna by Orleans and Regulus by Sir Roger ; Orleans 
by Magnum Bonum from Maud by The Doctor, thus uniting 
the strains of Mr. Benjamin Rogers and Mr. James Rea with 
the old Adforton foundation blood. Bonnie, through her sire 
Carbonel, was a granddaughter of The Doctor (Mr. James 
Rea's) the sire of Orleans and traced further to Young Walford, 
Nelson, and Turpin. Turning now again to Lord Wilton, the 
paternal grandsire of Ancient Briton, we find much of the 
same old Adforton blood — Carbonel, Nelson, Turpin, Marmion 
(a son of Bonnie), and others related to the animals already 
named. Then we may notice the union of the Horace and 
Lord Wilton strains, a mixture very powerful for good, found 
in the immediate succession of Bourton, Lord Wilton's 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 315 

son, to Downton Grand Duke, grandson of Horace. In 
these particulars the initiated reader will see close connections 
with the herd of Mr. Price and the names of sires used in that 
of Mr. Fenn ; so that in the lineage of Ancient Briton, the 
Adforton herd with its splendid tributaries as represented in 
the descendant herd of Leinthall shows links with the Down- 
ton or Stonebrook and the Court House herds. American 
breeders if defeated in the class for Hereford bulls at the 
Columbian Exposition at Chicago had this comfortable 
reflection, that the very best blood of Herefordshire was 
required to win the prize away from the noble bulls exhibited 
by them and that they had in Ancient Briton an important 
addition to the Hereford herds of the United States. 



SOME NOTED SIRES IN U.S.A. 

Mr. W. S. Van Natta, writing in 1908, says: "If I were 
asked to state which line of blood has been the greatest single 
power for good among American Herefords I think I should 
have to name the Anxieties. I do not underestimate the value 
of such great bulls as Lord Wilton, The Grove 3rd, Sir 
Richard 2nd, and others, but take it all in all I believe that 
we are indebted for the improvements we seem to have made 
upon the Herefords in this country very largely to the blood 
of the famous old Carwardine bull that George Morgan brought 
out from England for Mr. Culbertson." 

Prominent among the successful sires imported into the 
United States have been Success, Sir Richard 2nd 970A, The 
Grove 3rd 2490, Sir Bartle Frere 6419, Garfield 7015, Anxiety 
5188, and Tregrehan 6232. The following American-bred 
Herefords have specially distinguished themselves : — Fowler 
12899 by Tregrehan 6232, Anxiety 4th 9904 by Anxiety, Cor- 
rector 48975, Harold 2 141 1, Peerless Wilton 12774 by Garfield, 
Dale 66481 by Columbus 51875, Earl of Shadeland 22nd 27147, 
Earl of Shadeland 41st 33478 both by Garfield, and Beau 
Donald 58996. Mr. Plumb remarks : — " Dale and Earl of 
Shadeland 22nd were without doubt two of the finest show 
specimens ever produced in the United States, and each gave 
eminently satisfactory service in the herd." 

Anxiety 5188 was by Longhorns 471 1, his dam having 
been Helena by De Cote 3060, granddam Regina by Heart 
of Oak 2035. He was bred by Mr. T. J. Carwardine, Stockton- 
bury, in 1876, and is described as " a history maker for the breed 
in America." Longhorns the sire of Anxiety was bred by Mr. 
W. Taylor, Showle Court, got by Mercury 3967, dam Duchess 
by Twin 2284. Beau Real (the grandson of Anxiety) by 



3i6 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Anxiety 4th 9904 was perhaps the most valuably impressive 
Hereford sire ever owned in Kansas. " When the history of 
beef cattle breeding in the West for the closing years of the 
nineteenth century is written it is certain that a position near 
the head of the list of extraordinary sires and show bulls will 
be assigned to the Hereford Beau Real, the grand son of 
Anxiety 4th." 

Dale by Columbus was one of the foremost show bulls of 
modern times, and in American show-yards from 1896 to 1900 
was well nigh invincible. 

Perfection was by Dale first prize calf at Kansas City, 1899, 
first-prize yearling at Chicago, 1900, first-prize two-year-old 
and champion Hereford at Chicago, 1901. 

The celebrated bull Protector, owned by Sir Joseph Pulley, 
was sold in 1901 at a very high price (;i^i200), Mr. F. A. 
Nave, Athica, Indiana, being the purchaser. 

In 1902 Mr. G.Leigh's consignment included the champion 
bull Britisher sold by Mr. Edward Farr. 

FURTHER LARGE IMPORTS 

In 1880 Mr. C. M. Culbertson imported over 100 head. 
Early in 1898 Messrs. G. Leigh, Illinois, and J. Scott, 
Montana, accompanied by Mr. W. E. Britten, visited several 
noted herds and bought 79 Herefords. Mr. Britten was also 
instrumental in shipping a very large consignment in March 
of that year to the K. B. Armour Co. at Kansas City. 
Altogether Mr. Kirk Armour's exports numbered 228 head. 
In October 21 bull calves were shipped to Mr. W. Gould 
Busk for his ranch at Coleman in Texas, these purchases 
having been made through Mr. J. O. Urwick. Mr. Stirton 
in 1899 purchased 25 bulls for crossing purposes on behalf 
of Mr. A. E. Reynolds, Denver, Colerado, and later in the 
season a further shipment was made for the same purpose. 
About 100 head were sent by Mr. Britten in 1903 to Mr. C. W. 
Armour, Kansas City, 

The first year in which Dr. T. A. Geddes, the United States 
expert, took the matter of the tuberculin test in hand was in 
1 90 1, when out of 249 animals tested only 7 reacted, and 3 of 
these only he considered suspicious cases. It was claimed 
that no breed, unless it be Jerseys on their native island, can 
show such a record. 

PRIZE STEERS IN U.S.A. 

Further notes on Hereford steers and grades at American 
Fat Stocks Show are quoted. The grade Hereford steer 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 317 

Conqueror was the Sweepstakes two-year-old at the American 
Fat Stock Show in 1880, twenty-three competing. His weight 
was 1845 lbs. at 832 days ; gain per day from birth 2-21 lbs. 
He was winner of first prize as grade three-year-old steer 
at the same show in 1881, twenty- four competing; weight 
2145 lbs. at 1 190 days ; gain per day from birth r8o lbs. His 
dressed weight was 65 "62 per cent, and the per cent, of profit- 
able carcase 79"8i. It is believed that the exhibition, striking 
quality, and success of this steer did more to rivet the favour- 
able attention of the American stock-men upon the worth and 
possibilities of the Herefords as beef cattle than any one event 
had ever done. 

The Hereford steer Roan Boy was winner of the champion- 
ship at the American Fat Stock Show in 1883 ; he was an 
Illinois steer sired by a Hereford, and out of a roan half-Short- 
horn and half-native cow. He weighed 2125 lbs, when 1414 
days old, equivalent to a growth from birth of 1*59 lbs. per 
day. On the day of slaughter his live weight was 2100 lbs., 
and dressed weight 1450 lbs. or 69*05 per cent. net. He was 
described by the awarding committee as " a steer that very 
nearly approached the highest standard of perfection as a 
butcher's bullock ; compact, blocky, and heavily quartered, 
and thickly covered in the best parts with firm, mellow, well- 
marbled meat of the best quality." 

The Hereford-Shorthorn steer Regulus was winner of 
the first prize as a three-year-old in the class for grades 
and crosses ; first prize and champion three-year-old of 
any grade or breed and grand sweepstakes over all breeds, 
grades, and ages at the American Fat Stock Show in 1885. 
He was bred in Illinois, from the imported bull Regulus 2nd 
6089, and a half-blood Shorthorn cow. At 1306 days old his 
weight was 2280 lbs., a growth of 179 lbs. per day. His 
dressed weight was 1 560 lbs., or 68'4 per cent. net. He showed 
a great length and breadth of top from chine to rump, and was 
firmer in his handling than the grand-loined Hereford bullock 
Suspense. 

The Hereford steer Rudolph Jr. was champion over all at the 
American Fat Stock Show in 1886. He was then a two-year- 
old, and came from the range in Wyoming, but was the get 
of the ;^8oo imported sire Rudolph 6660, probably out of an 
imported cow. His age was 883 days, and weight 1530 lbs., 
which meant a growth of 173 lbs. per day from birth. His 
net dressed weight on the block was 1028 lbs. or 6yi per 
cent, of his gross weight. He had previously been declared 
the best two-year-old Hereford and the best Hereford of any 
age at the Show, In speaking of this steer's appearance in 



3i8 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

the ring for two-year-olds where he was first victorious the 
Breeders' Gazette, said : " It required no expert judge to select 
the winner in this ring, good as it was, for from the plains of 
the far West came the curly-coated thick-covered son of the 
noted Rudolph who, brooking no opposition either in this class 
or in breed sweepstakes, fought his way to the grand sweep- 
stakes ring, where, bidding defiance to all comers, he stood the 
champion of the show." 

The Hereford steer Hickory Nut was the champion of the 
American Fat Stock Show of 1891. He was an Indiana- 
raised Hereford shown at two years old and under three. At 
954 days his gain per day has been 171 lbs., his gross weight 
being 1629 lbs. On the day of the slaughter for the dressed 
carcase contest his gross weight was 1584 lbs, and dressed, 
1050 lbs., or 66 per cent. In the same show the prize over all 
for carcase showing the greatest per cent, of edible meat was 
awarded to the grade Hereford steer Judge, shown by Makin 
Bros, of Marion County. Alive, Judge at 557 days old weighed 
1296 lbs., or a growth per day of 2-33 lbs. At slaughter he 
weighed 1252 lbs., and dressed, 801 lbs., or 64 per cent. 

The Hereford steer Cherry Brandy, an Indiana-reared one, 
was champion four-year-old at the American Fat Stock Show 
of 1894. His weight was 1690 lbs. under 1084 days, or 
I '56 lbs. per day. He dressed 69"2 per cent, of net beef 

The Hereford steer Jack was bred in Indiana, and as a 
yearling at New York in 1896 was the grand champion. At 
the American Fat Stock Show at Chicago in 1897, Jack, 
weighing 1830 lbs., not only won in his classes as a two-year- 
old, but was again declared champion. 

The Hereford steer, The Woods' Principal (by Pride of 
Evergreen 51882), was grand champion fat animal at Chicago, 
1 90 1. He was calved October 19, 1899. When leaving home 
for the show his weight was 1645 lbs. His dressed weight 
was 1 102 lbs., or 66"99 per cent, of beef; hide, 6*20 per cent. ; 
and fat, 578 per cent. It was stated that, considering his age, 
weight, conformation, quantity and quality of flesh and fat, 
his equal has never been seen in an American showyard. 
After showing, this steer was sold at auction for 50 cents per 
lb. live weight. 

DEMAND FOR THE BREED IN U.S.A. 

Answering a question as to the prices and demand for 
Herefords in the United States, Mr. F. C. Giltner, Henry Co., 
Kentucky, wrote as follows in the Breeders' Gazette of April, 
1908: 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 319 

"As to present demand for this breed the trade is quiet 
and slow on all registered animals, and breed averages are 
about half what they were a few years ago. The minimum 
seems to have been reached, and all indications point to higher 
prices in the immediate future. The demand for Herefords 
comes from every section, as they seem to thrive in every 
clime and under every condition. Ranchmen are the largest 
buyers of bulls, and the farmer and breeder constitute the 
principal purchasers of females. In addition to the market 
demands of the United States and Canada, Mexico, the West 
Indies and South and Central America are making larger 
purchases each year, and these latter countries bid fair shortly 
to prove profitable markets for our cattle. 

"As grazers, no breed of cattle approaches them, and 
their ability to fatten on a grass diet of their own gleaning 
is a quality which appeals to those who are looking for the 
most economical method of producing beef. Herefords 
naturally mature early, from 20 to 30 months being the time 
required to produce 1300 to 1800 lbs. of beef that will top 
any market. 

" As a breed, the Herefords are both prolific and prepotent. 
A thrifty, well-conditioned bull will give Hereford type mark- 
ings and quality to 90 per cent, of his offspring. Both sexes 
frequently remain fertile and reproduce up to the age of 
20 years." 

POLLED HEREFORDS IN U.S.A. 

In the United States the Polled Shorthorn is now of some 
years' standing, but a newer variety seems to be the Polled 
Hereford. In a communication to the Breeders^ Gazette 
(Chicago), Mr. C. T. Mercer, Taylor Co., Iowa, tells how he 
"manufactured" this breed. "In 1894," he says, "through 
an accident I bred a Hereford cow to a Red Polled bull ; the 
offspring was a male with perfect Hereford markings and 
polled. Thinking this something new and he being a good 
individual, I left him entire for about five years, using him on 
a small herd of horned cows of mixed breeding, Hereford 
blood predominating. As a result, I found about 40 per cent. 
of the bull calves polled and about 75 per cent, of the heifer 
calves polled, some of both sexes having scurs. Selecting a 
small number of the best polled heifers carrying the most 
Hereford blood I crossed them with a polled Hereford bull 
I bought of Mr. Guthrie in Kansas, he having commenced 
breeding this same kind of cattle a few years earlier and had 
procured about the same as I had done, except that he used 



320 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Polled Durham blood in place of Red Polled. The result of 
this cross was 98 per cent, polled calves from the polled cow 
and about 60 per cent, from the horned cows. I still selected 
the best and bred to another bull of the same blood lines. I 
have produced 100 per cent, polled calves, and several of the 
bull calves of this generation have gone into herds of horned 
cows where no polled blood existed and sired 100 per cent, 
polled calves, so any one can see that they are now as strong 
breeders as the older polled breeds." 



South America 

In South America the breed has become famous for its 
grazing properties, and for its influence in improving the native 
cattle, 

Mr. C. M. Huergo, of Messrs. Torrome and Co., who export 
large numbers of English-bred stock to South America, stated 
in 1885 that they began to have inquiries for Herefords for the 
Argentine Republic some years prior to that date, and since 
then the demand and the prices had both steadily increased. 
His firm shipped in 1885 between 40 and 50 Herefords to 
that country at prices varying from £60 to ;^300, and in every 
case the animals have given satisfaction to their importers. 
These animals were selected from the herds of Mr. John Hill, 
Lord Coventry, Messrs. Green, and Mr Myddleton. Mr. 
Huergo adds : " The first known to introduce Herefords into 
the Argentine Republic was Senor San Martin, who took some 
cattle in the year 1858; soon after Senor Maximo de Elia 
imported one bull and one heifer, but losing one of them, he 
gave up the breed. Senor Leonardo Pereyra is the one who 
may be really considered as the first who took the Herefords 
up with energy. In May, 1862, he began with the bull 
Niagara, from the herd of Mr. John Naylor, Leighton Hall, 
Welshpool, sent to Buenos Ayres, consigned to a firm of 
auctioneers. Mr. Pereyra saw him and bought him, and used 
him with native cows. In the year 1864 he bought two heifers 
from the same breeder, and has since then continued receiving 
animals and using them to such good purpose, that at the 
present time he is considered the leading breeder in the 
country. His stock in Estancia San Juan consist of about 
200 pure-breds and 4000 half-breds. At present the breeders 
of Herefords in the Argentine Republic are many, but few 
import direct. After Senor Pereyra, Senor Miguel Salas may 
be considered as following in his footsteps. The latter had 
received some excellent Herefords from the herds of Lord 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 321 

Coventry, Mr. John Hill, Mr. Thos. Myddleton, and others. 
Among the other breeders were Senores Zeballos, Manuel 
Aguirre Bell, Quesada, Mackern, etc. Our friends consider that 
the Hereford is the breed of the future as far as the Argentine 
Republic goes, and say that they do better than any other in 
the south and west of the Province of Buenos Ayres, south of 
Cordoba, Santa Fe and Entre Rios. In all these districts many 
trials have been made with this breed, and have proved very 
successful. In all the provinces of the Argentine Republic 
many of the establishments are stocked with half-bred Here- 
fords. In Entre Rios, Santa Fe, and Bahia Blanca there are 
some very important stocks, but it is almost impossible to 
obtain information with any accuracy. One thing at least is 
certain, all the breeders are quite satisfied with them. In the 
Province of Buenos Ayres they are especially noted for their 
early maturity and wealth of flesh, which allows of their sale 
with great profit at the age of 24 to 30 months. We under- 
stand that the skin of the Hereford in its natural state is 
heavier than that of the Shorthorn, and consequently commands 
a better price." 

An English farmer, settled in South America, adopted very 
extensively the Hereford cross amongst the native cattle, and 
writing to a friend in this country as to his success in this 
venture, he said : " It is wonderful the way the Herefords 
stamp their colour at once. My bulls here, as you know, are 
three-fourths bred animals, but every calf they get, no matter 
what the mother is, comes out Hereford in colour, except a 
few that come black instead of red. One of the bulls has 
much more white on the loin than the others, and I believe I 
could pick out all his calves from the herd without any trouble. 
And remember, although our cows are only natives and belong 
to no breed with a name, the same native breed has existed on 
these plains for two or three hundred years, and is thus really 
an established breed." 

The breed has made noteworthy progress in the Argentine 
since the first edition of this book was published. The fol- 
lowing notes indicate the directions in which it has progressed 
during the intervening twenty-five years. 



HERDS AND SHOWS IN THE ARGENTINE 

In his book on "Argentine Shows and Live Stock, 1904," 
Professor Wallace remarked that next to the Shorthorn the 
Hereford breed is among British cattle the best represented in 
the Argentine Republic. " It has," he said, " a definite place 
in the economy of the country and definite functions to perform 

Y 



322 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

\\'hich do not in reality bring it into rivalry with the Shorthorn. 
The Hereford's place is not in competition with the Shorthorn 
in the finest camps in the most favoured localities, but to take 
a leading position where surroundings are not so favourable 
to early and rapid maturity, in which it cannot cope with its 
rival. And even in what may be regarded as the true Short- 
horn area the Hereford, given time, renders no discreditable 
account of itself. . . . Their characteristics are now better under- 
stood, and they find ardent supporters among breeders who 
own first-rate camps, as well as among those who value more 
the qualities required in outside-camp life than in the galpon 
and the showyard. The true position of the Hereford, with a 
constitution which fits it better for ' rustling ' than the Short- 
horn, is in the outside-camps to the south-west, west, and 
north of the Hinterland of the richest cattle country of the 
Republic. It is peculiarly well adapted to the exigencies of 
the climate, whether due to the cold and drought of the more 
southern and western parts, or to the heat and semi-tropical 
character of the northern provinces. To the neighbouring 
Republic of Uruguay, chiefly south of the Rio Negro, a good 
many Argentine Herefords have been taken to suitable 
surroundings from the auction sales at Palermo, as well as 
exported cattle direct from England. In that Republic the 
Hereford is more sought after than the Shorthorn for improving 
the criollo cattle of the country. . . . 

" A very deep claret (requernado) is the favourite colour 
of the dark hair, and animals with brown rings round the eyes 
are much preferred in the camp, both among imported and 
home-bred cattle, on account of the protection thereby given 
against the injurious influence of the summer sun. Some of 
the best strains of the Hereford blood, notably the celebrated 
Horace blood, are so marked ; and these dark points have never 
been objected to in this country except by North American 
buyers, who, to make absolutely sure of the purity of the blood, 
insisted upon clean white faces. Many of the early prize-winners 
in Mr. Arkwright's herd at Hampton Court had colour about 
the eyes. Such cattle were credited with heavier and better 
flesh than others not so marked. Cattle with white eyelids 
and adjoining skin are liable to suffer from sun-burning and 
irritation, resulting in disease of the eye, which sometimes 
proves fatal. On the ranches of North America and in Jamaica 
a similar difficulty is experienced." 

The following list is given by Professor Wallace of a few of 
the leading breeders of Herefords in Argentina : Gregorio 
Villafane, San Gregorio, Chacabuco ; Celedonio Pereda, Villa 
Maria, Maximo, Paz ; Arturo Yeomans, La Nerumbega, 9, de 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 323 

Julio ; Leonardo Pereyra, San Juan, Quilmes ; Alfonso 
Ayerza, Las Hormigas, Quilmes ; Emilio Frers, La Estrella, 
San Pedro. 

In competition with all comers at the shows of the Argentine 
Rural Society (Professor Wallace adds) Hereford " novillos " 
occupied a very creditable position, while they were mainly 
camp fed. In the earlier years Dr. Emilio Frers carried off 
five champion prizes from seven exhibitions ; and at the 
Rosario show in August, 1903, the pen of novillos from his 
La Estrella herd, although placed second on account of age, 
were heavier than the winning pen of high-grade Shorthorns. 
In recent times the herd of Mr. Gregorio Villafane has been 
conspicuously in evidence in gaining showyard honours. At 
the September Show of 1902 it secured the championship of 
the breed with an animal of very special quality, Grandison 42nd. 
At the shows of 1900 and 1901 the conjunto, or group prize, 
fell to the same herd. At the show in 1903 the championship 
and Hughes cup went to San Juan with a splendid bull. 
Wonderful, the second prize falling to Mr. Villafane's Grandi- 
son 15th. First, second, and third in both of the younger 
classes easily went to ^he San Gregorio herd. In the heifer 
classes Dr. Emilio Frers carried off first prize in the two-year- 
old class and third in the younger class, in which Mr. Villafane 
was first and Mr. Pereyra second. The exhibits of Herefords 
were all from the three excellent herds named (with the 
exception of two one-year-old bulls sent by two other ex- 
hibitors), and they divided the honours among them, with the 
exception of a fourth prize for a two-year-old bull, which went 
to Mr. Arturo Yeomans, who also secured the first and second 
prizes for eight Hereford bulls born between June ist and 
December 31st, I90i,and inscribed in the Argentine Hereford 
Herd Book. In view of the necessity of retaining the best 
animals in breeding condition, the La Estrella heifers had not 
been prepared for show as the prize-winning bulls from 
San Gregorio and San Juan had been. 

Professor Wallace mentions that he had the privilege of 
seeing the camp and galpon stock of Herefords and Shorthorns 
at San Gregorio prior to the 1904 show. " The accommodation 
in a spacious galpon (raised a few feet above ground to secure 
ventilation and drainage), and the whole system of manage- 
ment for the development of animals in perfect condition, left 
nothing to be desired. No greater skill or care, including 
cleanliness, could be exhibited in any similar establishment 
in this country, and the results must be pronounced by any 
impartial judge as the triumph of galpon feeding." 

In a notice of the work of the Rural Society of Argentina, 



324 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Mr. Herbert Gibson mentioned that over 10,000 pure pedigree 
Herefords had been registered in the Herd Book of the 
Society. 

The following are among those who have sent Herefords to 
South America in recent years : — Messrs. H. B. Wyatt and Co., 
Torrome, Sons and Co., Cooper and Nephews, John Thornton 
and Co., A. Mansell and Co., P. and G. Hughes, Wilson 
Brothers, the Liebig Extract of Meat Co., D. Maclennan, Poels 
and Sidey, G. H. H. Kennedy, R. Taylor, A. R, Yeomans, J. 
Cullen, B. Thomas, H. Darbyshire, J. and A. Moore, E. Sturgeon, 
E. B. Perkins, Drabble Brothers, F. Braga, E. M. Casares, F. A. 
Sneath, W. and J. Biggerstaff, C. F. Lahusen, etc. 

AN ARGENTINE SKETCH OF HEREFORD PROSPECTS 

After referring to the work on behalf of the Herefords by 
Mr. Gregorio Villafane, Mr. Leonardo Pereyra, Mr Arthur 
Yeomans, and Dr. Celedonio Pereda, a writer in the " Argentine 
Estancia," published by the Rural Society in 1903, and edited 
by Dr. Abel Bengolea, claimed that the breed had improved 
there, and proceeded to say that the matter of extension of 
this variety was one of science, management, of experiment, 
not of irrational limitation, of capricious opposition, and still 
less of fashion. He then remarked : — 

" Argentine breeders must begin to look at these matters 
from a general and national point of view. Up to the present 
time the province of Buenos Ayres has been the live stock 
world of the country, but now, although it does not cease to 
progress at a great rate, it is rapidly becoming only a part of 
our Argentine world." After pointing out the regions occupied 
chiefly by the Shorthorn it is observed : " But the live stock 
country of Argentina is much more than this : the whole of 
the South, that is from Rio Negro to Tierra del Fuego, more 
than forty thousand square miles of Patagonian land, is 
unfitted for the Shorthorn. The Hereford, less affected by 
cold, and thrifty under scant feed, has there a field of action 
which it is time to think of occupying in order to assure our 
sovereignity by means of population. The Andine valleys offer 
in all their extent an immense area for live stock, having the 
Chilian market close at hand, only the mountain range between. 
This we find from the Neuquen to Salta and Jujuy, from 
the vicinity of the Antarctic circle to the tropic of Capricorn. 
And all this is for the Hereford, the Aberdeen- Angus, and 
others of nature's own frugal brood. For them we have also 
the whole of those poor lands, which in large areas are to be 
found in every direction, where no grass does grow, and where 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 325 

artificial meadows give but a scanty yield. For them also 
are the calid region, the Chacos, Santiago del Estero, Tucu- 
man, Salta, Jujuy, and on the shores of our great rivers, 
northern Corrientes, and fertile Misiones." . . . "We may here 
remark that the geographical area, more particularly destined 
for the Herefords, goes far beyond the bounds of Argentina 
into the neighbouring countries. There is a curious and 
.suggestive fact to be noted with reference to the trade in 
Hereford breeding stock, and it is that after having declined 
in recent years, to the point that the few animals sent to the 
shows could not be sold, we begin to see a slow but steady 
reaction in sales, a reaction which in the present year (1903) 
has been considerably strengthened. The purchasers — we 
have investigated the matter thoroughly — are almost entirely 
estancieros from the Republic of Uruguay, with a few from 
Rio Grande in Brazil. This fact affords us an excellent 
indication. The stockmen of Uruguay and the south of 
Brazil have recognised from the experience of several years 
that the Hereford gives them a much surer pecuniary result 
than the Shorthorn in the grading up of their herds. The 
writer of these lines knows personally of various cases in 
which bulls of both breeds have been tried on estancias in 
Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul, the Hereford invariably 
giving the best results, whenever the latitude approached the 
sub-tropical zone. In the northern districts of our neighbour 
Uruguay, grading is invariably accomplished by the use of 
Hereford bulls, as from Paysandu upwards the climate is 
decidedly against the Shorthorn. In Salto, Tacuarembo, 
Artigas, Cerro Largo, and Rivera, the Hereford is used, as 
well as in the central departments of Durazno, Minas, and 
San Jose, and even in the fine cattle districts of Soriano and 
Rio Negro there are herds of splendid grazier's stock, and also 
some fine stud farms of Hereford cattle. Rio Grande and 
the neighbouring states of the same country (Brazil), Parana 
and Santa Catalina, use the Hereford for grading up, especially 
Rio Grande, which has some 3,000,000 head of cattle, four- 
fifths of them being Creoles, which the stockmen of the State 
are determined to improve in order to supply their great beef- 
salting yards on the Cuareim, which at present are paying 
preferential prices amounting sometimes to an increase of 
40 per cent, for Uruguayan cattle which is now well advanced 
in the grading of its herds, besides possessing fine pastures for 
the rapid fattening of stock ; these pastures being so excellent 
that the grazing stock in Uruguay is ready for slaughter two 
months before that of the Rio Grande districts, although the 
grazing land there is not bad. 



326 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

" Thus, these countries possess an uniform and continuous 
area of large extent and of great importance for the develop- 
ment of the Hereford as a transformer of the Creole herds, 
which between Uruguay and Rio Grande amount to more than 
12,000,000 head. In its turn Paraguay, with its immense 
uninhabited plains, highly appropriate for live stock breeding 
on an extensive scale, calls for well-bred bulls. These must, 
necessarily, be Herefords, and the Argentine stud farms will 
furnish the supplies for all this demand. 

" It is unnecessary to insist on such facts, as they are easy 
to prove and to understand. We make note of them without 
theorising as to the appropriateness of the breeds indicated 
for the expansion of the business and their uses therein, which 
we have already put forward, because we believe that their 
merits are already acknowledged. It is a well-established 
fact that all stockmen here, who breed both Shorthorns and 
Herefords, invariably affirm the greater resistance of the latter 
during bad weather and drought. The greater the simplicity 
of the machine, less liable is it to get out of order. Mean- 
while the steer, the beef, yields the same pecuniary result as 
the Shorthorn. Its great disadvantage in the competition 
with the Shorthorn, in temperate climes where the population 
is numerous and lands high-priced and susceptible of being 
worked to the utmost extent, is the lack of milking qualities in 
the cows. But these industrial districts are necessarily limited 
by physical features, climate and other unalterable factors. 

" These limits should point out to the Argentine stock 
breeders the boundaries of the Shorthorn rule, seeing that, 
even if in certain cold regions of the country the dairy business 
should in time become of importance as a logical evolution of 
pastoral industry, it will not be the Shorthorn breed that will 
be called on to respond to this future necessity, but other 
breeds of dairy cattle from similar climates. 

"The show in 1903 proved two facts ; that the favourable 
opinion held in other countries regarding the Hereford and 
Aberdeen- Angus breeds does not gain ground in this countiy, 
but that fortunately there remains a group of estancieros full 
of hope and spirit who still persist and support the excellent 
blood of these breeds, which promise such good results in the 
future. The first fact is logical ; until quite lately Argentine 
stock breeding has been generally understood to mean that 
of the province of Buenos Ayres, and this has been very near 
the real truth. It happened that, for this district, the Short- 
horn had deservedly secured a preponderance ; there was 
scarcely any reason why any rivals should be admitted. But 
the province was enlarged, the stock of the great Buenos 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 327 

Ayres centre spreads around, it stretches out with titanic 
strides, and the new zones to be stocked call for other factors, 
other qualities, — districts are opened up to allow space for all 
species of living things capable of producing wealth, as they 
are also opened to every race of men who possess the necessary 
energy. The Argentine Rural Society, in the national move- 
ment it has carried out of late years, has the merit of having 
made people understand this new and prolific direction taken 
by our great pastoral industry, drawing it out of the limited 
and artificial framework of one province and treating it as the 
patrimony, the work and the wealth of the whole nation. It 
will not be long before the effects of this great generalisation 
will be felt, which has thrown down barriers and enlarged our 
horizon. Meanwhile it is only prudent to prepare the materials 
of operation. North America can show us a great deal in this 
sense. It bred Shorthorns with great energy and they were 
sufficient as long as it went in for mixed farming and stock 
breeding — but as soon as the new opening for range stock- 
breeding on the unenclosed plains of the boundless West 
appeared, it took advantage of the qualities acquired by the 
thrifty and hardy breeds, by purchasing in England entire 
herds of Herefords, which now are reinforced and varied by 
Aberdeen-Angus. There also, there is space for all ! But 
the Herefords and Aberdeen- Angus ^e in great and steadily 
increasing demand, resulting in a heavy rise in prices." 

Reference is next made to the sale of the Hereford bull 
Perfection at ;^i8oo in the United States, other incidents being 
cited, and the article concludes thus : — 

" All these arguments, founded on facts, should be borne 
in mind, as they give vigour to the modest and appropriate 
words which the breeder of the champion Hereford has 
converted into the motto of his advocacy in favour of the 
breed : ' Its purity of blood and soundness recommend it as 
advantageous for the country ; it is the duty of one and all to 
preserve it, now that we have it in our hands.' " 



A TYPICAL ARGENTINE HERD 

EsTANCiA Sax Juan, Argentine Republic. — The 
marked success that has attended the importation of Hereford 
cattle into Argentina is well exemplified in the case of the 
herd at Estancia San Juan, Buenos Ayres, which recently 
completed the fiftieth year of its existence, and is therefore 
one of the oldest established in the country. 

The founder and owner of this herd, the late Mr. Leonardo 
Pereyra, considered to be the first breeder of Herefords in 



328 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Argentina, purchased in 1862 his first Hereford bull, Niagara 
2131, bred by Mr. John Naylor, Leighton Hall, Welshpool, by 
Admiral 1481 from Violet (Volume IV,, p. 203), and two 
years later two heifers from the same breeder. With these 
three animals he commenced to form the herd which now holds 
the premier position in the country. Years later, in 1880, the 
effect of Niagara's influence was further strengthened by the 
acquisition of two new bulls, Hopeful 8th 5978, bred by Messrs. 
J. B. and G. H. Green, Leintwardine, and got by Albert 5182 
out of Hardy 6th (Volume XL, p. 182), and The Zulu 6225, 
bred by Mr. Taylor, Showle Court, Ledbury, by Thoughtful 
5063 from Hazel (Volume IX., p. 319). From that time Mr. 
Pereyra continued periodically to import bulls and cows from 
the best English stock-farms. Among these may be named 
Spangle 7th (Volume XIV., p. 550), bred by Mr. John Price, 
Regulus 4076, bred by the late Mr. Tudge, got by Sir Roger 
4136, out of Bonnie by Carbonel 1525. This cow was one of 
the most distinguished in the herd, having obtained first prize 
at the Argentine International Show of 1890, and having been 
the founder of one of the most conspicuous families in the herd 
then. Lady Aberdeen 3rd (Volume XIV, p. 496), bred by 
Mr. L. L. Moore, was shipped at the same time as Spangle 
7th, and, like this cow, was the foundress of another of the 
oldest tribes ; she was by Bredwardine 5233, first at the 
Machynlleth meeting of the Montgomeryshire Society in 1877. 
Poppy (Volume XVII., p. 209), bred by H.M. Queen Victoria 
at Windsor, was another foundation cow worth pointing out. 
She was by Conqueror 7510, bred by Mr. T. J. Carwardine, 
by the famous Lord Wilton 4740, her dam being Pauline 
(Volume XVII., p. 209). Conqueror was sold for export to 
North America, where he came to be considered one of the 
best bulls of his time. Quite one of the best cows was Chatter- 
box (Volume XVIII., p. 6^6), bred by Mr. William Tudge, by 
Lord Wilton, her dam being also of Mr. Tudge's breeding by 
Auctioneer 5194. Amongst the ancestors of this cow are some 
of the greatest celebrities of the breed. Chatterbox was also 
the dam of Chimalma 5th, winner of first prize at the 
Palermo Show in 1905, and of the Hughes Cup, presented for 
the best Hereford, male or female. 

In 1882 further acquisitions were made, amongst them 
being Mars 6061, bred by Mr. A. P. Turner. He was got by 
Corsair 5271, bred by the late Mr. P. Turner, The Leen ; his 
dam Stella (Volume IX., p. 436) was also bred by Mr. A. P. 
Turner. Mars, as a yearling, was third at the Royal Show at 
Carlisle in 1880, and second at the Reading meeting in 1882. 

The bull that by his typical produce left almost unpre- 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 329 

cedented traces in the herd twenty years ago was Magnet 
88ys, bred by Mr. Richard Edward. Another very useful 
bull that left excellent produce was First Fruit 13059, bred by 
Mr. Robinson, placed second at the Royal at Nottingham, in 
1888, the only time exhibited. First Fruit was by Highland 
Laird 7015, from Princess Beatrice 2nd (Volume XVHL, p. 
605), by Rose Stock 6651, by Lord Wilton 4740. 

These additions, periodically renewed by fresh specimens 
possessing desirable qualities, imported directly from England or 
purchased from other farms, not only increased the importance 
of the herd, but contributed with the excellent prize-winners 
secured by Mr. Pereyra to produce great uniformity in the herd. 

Included in the number of prize-winners in the herd in 1908 
were to be found, among others. Royal Hero 18067, used as 
stock bull at different times; Bonny Cross 187 17, bred by 
Mr. J. H. Arkwright, by Pearl Cross 16882, and grandson of 
Hilarity 8734, by the celebrated bull The Grove 3rd 5051. 
This bull left few descendants, but they were all especially 
good. He was sire of Wonderful 23840, and Shamrock 23757, 
winners of the first prizes at the Palermo Shows, Wonderful 
having been champion in 1904. Other bulls that had won 
prizes in England before joining the herd included Downton 
Sportsman 18340, bred by Mr. T. Fenn ; False Prophet 16045, 
bred by Mr. J. H. Yeomans, by Prophet 6622 ; and Character 
17762, bred by Mr. William Thomas, by Prairie Star 15567, 
bred by Mr. Arkwright. Character was sire of Chimalma 5th, 
winner of first prize and the Hughes Cup, presented for the 
best Hereford, male or female, at the Palermo Show, 1905. 
Yet another bull used was Lancelot 19506, bred by Mr. J. H. 
Arkwright, and the property of the late Queen, having served 
a year in the Windsor herd. He waslDy the famous Red 
Cross 18040, and may be pointed out as one of the bulls that 
left the best offspring, especially on the female side. They 
have inherited his Hampton Court type so far as to be easily 
distinguished by their characteristic uniformity. Ladas 179 19, 
bred by Mr. A. E. Hughes, Wintercott, by the great sire and 
prize-winner Albion 15027, as a stock sire made himself note- 
worthy of late years ; he was sire of Lacchahual, champion at 
Palermo in 1907, and winner of the cup given by the English 
Hereford Herd Book Association as well as of the cup pre- 
sented by the similar society of North America. He also 
sired Quilmes Actress, winner of three first prizes at the 
Sociedad Rural Argentina Shows in three successive years, 
and Ladas Gift, second in 1906 and 1907 at the same show. 
This bull formed with Lacchahual one of the trio to compete 
for the best group of three Herefords prize. 



330 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Ladas, exhibited by H.M. Queen Victoria, obtained the 
following prizes in 1895: First at the Royal, at Darlington; 
first at the Bath and West, at Taunton ; first at Hereford ; and 
first at the Shropshire and West Midland, at Shrewsbury. 

Barry 20459, also bred by Mr. A. E. Hughes, by the famous 
Nonpareil 19614, Hke Lancelot, had the peculiarity of excelling 
in female issue. He was sire of Chahuara 6th, first prize as 
a yearling at the Sociedad Rural Argentina Show, Palermo. 
To this herd went also the well-known Holmer 22229, bred by 
Mr. Peter Coats, by Plunder 20250, out of Rowena 7th (Volume 
XXXHL). All Ireland 4th 23263, Baron 227 19, bred by Capt. 
E. L. A. Heygate, by Success 21792, bred by Mr. Turner, 
Campaigner 23935, also by Success 21792, dam Camelia 
(Volume XXXI., p. 403), are other bulls that have recently 
been in service in the herd. 

Respecting the female side of the herd, we would refer our 
readers to Volumes XXXIV. to XXXIX. of the Hereford 
Herd Book, where they will not only see the numerical import- 
ance of the San Juan Hereford herd, but also the excellence 
of the respective pedigrees contained in it. The herd is now 
the property of Mr. Leonardo Pereyra Iraola. 



SAN GREGORIO 
One of the most prominent and successful herds of 
Herefords in the Argentine is that at San Gregorio, which 
is situated about nine miles from Chacabuco on the Pacific 
Railway. The founder of the estancia was the late Senor 
Gregorio Villafane, w^ho was one of the most enthusiastic 
supporters of the breed in South America. He was seconded 
in all his efforts by his son, Don Domingo, under whose direct 
charge the estancia has been for the last few years. There 
are more than 300 pure-bred Hereford cows in the paddocks. 
These are mated with the best imported sires. The most 
recent purchase was the celebrated bull Fire King, the well- 
known Royal champion, bred by His Majesty the King at 
Windsor. At the agricultural shows held during the past 
twenty years at Palermo the estancia San Gregorio has been 
highly successful. Their best year was in 1902, when the bull 
Grandison 42 nd was the champion of the exhibition over all 
other competitors irrespective of breed. In the same year 
San Gregorio carried off the first prize for the three best bulls 
shown. For this trophy competition was open to all breeds. 
In 1908 they won the championship for Herefords with Matter- 
horn 30th, which also secured the American cup offered by the 
American Hereford Cattle Breeders' Association, the Hereford 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 33 1 

Herd Book Society's prize, and also the Hereford Breeders' 
prize, Senores Villafane also won the champion prize at the 
exhibition held in Rosario by the Rural Society of Santa Fe 
with the bull Grandison 62nd. The champion bull Matterhorn 
was sold for close on ;^500. During the past eight years the 
Herefords from San Gregorio have won four championships for 
bulls, two first prizes for the best group of bulls in 1900 and 
1 90 1, the grand cup of honour in 1902, seven silver cups for 
special prizes, and twenty-eight first prizes for Herefords and 
Shorthorns. 

Large River Plate Herds 

On the vast property in South America belonging to the 
Liebig's Extract of Meat Company, Herefords have had an 
extended trial, and have proved very satisfactor)^ The 
secretary of the company, in sending us a list of the pedigree 
Hereford bulls and heifers that have been shipped to their 
River Plate ranches, says : " The herd was commenced over 
twenty years ago, and we have found Herefords give exceed- 
ingly satisfactory results, especially in Uruguay. We naturally 
have wide experience in cattle breeding, as our herd altogether 
numbers about 250,000 head. A large proportion of these are 
Herefords, and we personally have found them to give the 
best results in good average natural pastures on the River 
Plate. In one or two exceptional localities Polled Angus 
are to be preferred, owing apparently to idiosyncrasies in the 
feeding." The following is the list of bulls and heifers ex- 
ported since 1 901, by the Liebig Extract of Meat Company, 
the names of the breeders being added : — 

Bulls.— (1901) Loadstone (Mr. T. Fenn). (1903) Red 
Ensign (Mr. J. Hill) ; Chapter, Sir Christopher (Mr. E. Farr) ; 
Tyrant (Mr. A. P. Turner) ; Early English (Mr. W. T. Barneby) ; 
Sparkle (Mr. S. Robinson) ; Banquo (Mr. J. Hill) ; Banker 
(Mr. A, P. Turner) ; Pyon Director, Pyon Sampson, Pyon 
Commander, Pyon Admiral (Mr. Evans, The Hill) ; Marchant 
(Mr. Evans, Perry Ditch) ; Pirate (Mr. Evans, Lynch) ; Gay Lad 
(Mr. Morris) ; Thicket, Ferrier, Testator (Mr. Moore) ; Hopeful 
2ist (Mr. Green); Thane (Mr. J. Hill); Fireball (H.M. The 
King, Windsor). (1905) Revolter (Mr. Rees Keene) ; Montford 
Peer (Mr. T. S. Minton) ; Peter II. (Mr. G. H. Green) ; Mont- 
ford Patriot (Mr. T. L. Minton) ; Galore (Mr. A. P. Turner) ; 
Hamlet (Mr. J. Hill) ; Bowstring (Mr. Compton) ; Acorn, 
Rufus (Mr. A. P. Turner) ; Leopold (Mr. Evans) ; Gold Star 
(Mr. Hughes) ; Premier (Mr. A. E. Hughes) ; Berrington (Mr. 
J. R. Hill). (1907) Viceroy (Mr. Wm. Tudge). 

Heifers.— (1903) Beira (Mr. James Edwards); Marcella, 



332 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

Valkyr (Mr. A. P. Turner) ; Zephyr, Lady Wilton (Mr. J. 
Hill) ; Nectarine (Mr. A. F. Russell) ; Sapphire, May Queen, 
Etna, Feather Stick, Bella, Andafuma (Mr. J. Hill) ; Cora, 
Dewdrop (Mr. Evans, The Hill) ; Rubella (Mr. Evans, Perry 
Ditch) ; Heather, Gileen (Mr. Evans, Lynch) ; Primrose, Livia 
(Mr A. P. Turner) ; Russett (Mr. Farr). (1905) Spangle 73, 
Lilac 26 (Mr. G. H. Green) ; Fancy Work, Thimble (Mr. J. 
Hill) ; Sweetness, Primitive (Mr. Compton) ; Summer Court 
Plum (Mr. Tudge) ; Countess Sarah (Mr. Thomas Fenn) ; 
Geisha, Erica (Mr. A. P. Turner) ; Dulcimer, Sweet Nancy, 
Joan (Mr. E. Farr) ; Saucy, Dulcie, Soubrette (H.M. The King, 
Windsor). (1906) Lilian, Beryl, Eleanor, Ariel (H.M. The 
King, Windsor). (1907) Claret, Cornflower, Flounce (Capt. 
E. L. A. Heygate) ; Nelson's Accident, Petrol (Mr. W. T. 
Barnaby) ; Twyford Lupa, Twyford Ketmah (Mr. Jas. 
Edwards) ; Rosebud (Mr. W. Tudge) ; Whiteheart (Mr. H. W. 
Russell) ; Agnes (Mr. Jas. Evans) ; Sunbeam (Mr. W. Tudge) ; 
Golden Star (Mr. John Tudge). 

In an article in the Lancet it is mentioned that in 1 868 the 
Liebig Extract of Meat Company farmed some 28,494 acres 
of land in South America, and the total head of horned cattle 
reared in this area was 12,000 ; in 1878 the number of acres 
was 37,961, and the number of cattle 19,036; in 1888 the 
number of acres was 126,984, and of cattle ^6,6%^ ; in 1898 
the pasture land comprised 254,133 acres, and the cattle 
numbered 66,435 head ; while in 1908 the acreage was no less 
than 1,302,386, and the number of cattle 224,406. "That is 
to say," remarks the special commissioner of the Lancet, " this 
company possesses one and a third million acres of grass-land, 
and nearly a quarter of a million cattle. Striking as the figures 
may be as illustrating the enormous expansion of the cattle- 
rearing industry, they become still more impressive when regard 
is had to the fact that the cattle are no longer, as in Liebig's 
day, and according to his own words, ' half-wild animals,' but 
are bred from the choicest pedigree stock taken from the farms 
of our best English breeders." 

As already indicated the breed has found many other 
supporters in Uruguay where it has done remarkably well. 

Australian Colonies. 

In the Australian Colonies Hereford cattle have been bred 
in their purity, and crossed with native varieties with much 
success for more than eighty years. Mr. Duckham, in his 
Record, parts i. and ii., 1870, wrote: Messrs. Livingstone 
Learmouth, Ercildoun, Victoria, New South Wales, whose 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 333 

herd of Herefords now numbers about 1000 head, laid its 
foundation in 1839 by the purchase of heifers from Mr. Toosey, 
the then manager of the Cressy Company, Tasmania, who 
imported direct from England, Their bull was selected from 
the herd of Mr. Cox, which was also a colonial-bred animal. 
It was not until 1858 they imported Herefords from England. 
In that year they shipped in the Heather Bell, after his 
winnings at Cardiff Meeting of the Bath and West of England 
Society, Thankful 1407, by Trader iioi, dam Stately by 
Monarch 504, from the herd of Mr. Taylor, Showle Court ; 
and Egremont, by Grateful, dam by Governor 464, after 
his triumph at Knighton, in a class of 12, which in that 
day was no small achievement, seeing the importance of the 
Monaughty herd." Subsequent selections were made from 
the herds of Mr. Rea, Mr. S. Goode, Mr. B. Rogers, and others. 
In the same volume of the Record, Mr. Duckham mentions 
that Mr. Nowlan, M.P., Erlah, West Maitland, New South 
Wales, " has added to his already choice and extensive herd of 
Herefords 100 heifers from the celebrated herd of that great 
patron of Herefords Mr. G. Loder, Abbey Green, Singleton, 
who, in his zeal for the promotion of the Herefords in the 
Colony, gives special prizes in addition to those offered by the 
Society for competition at the Maitland Show." 

The Sydney Morning Herald of September 7th, 1870, 
in discussing the live stock interests of New South Wales, 
said : " The principal breeds of Great Britain — Shorthorn 
or Durham, Hereford, and Devon — are to be found here in 
perfection. A walk through the cattle-sheds of the Agri- 
cultural Society of New South Wales would induce a lover of 
stock to believe himself in England. Pedigree stock are much 
sought for, and realise a high price . . . The debates con- 
cerning the merits of Shorthorn or Hereford are very strong. 
Both breeds have many advocates. It is generally admitted, 
however, that the Hereford travels better than the Shorthorn, 
and better endures periods of dearth and drought." 

In his Record, parts iii. and iv., Mr. Duckham thus re- 
ferred to the efforts of a Hereford man, Mr. Charles Price, 
to make the breed known in Australia : " It is now about 
20 years since Mr. Charles Price of Goolwa, Hindmarsh Island, 
left his native county Herefordshire ; and although direct from 
the home of the breed, he does not appear to have done 
much for the red with white faces until he visited his native 
land after the death of his brother, Mr. John Price, Bringe- 
wood, Ludlow, at whose sale he purchased Bringewood 2981, 
and accompanied him by Maid of Coxall and Queen of the 
Ocean from the herd of Mr. T. Rogers. In fact, he seems to 



334 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

have been, and even now is, a successful breeder of both 
Shorthorns and Devons. But the marked excellence of his 
importations, and the ready manner in which they and their 
progeny became acclimatised, has made him a most enthu- 
siastic convert to their merits. Thus we find that, in full 
confidence of the good qualities of Bringewood, he offered to 
give five guineas, if the Society would cover it, as a special 
prize to be awarded to the best bull of any breed exhibited at 
the Adelaide Meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society, South 
Australia, and not only did Bringewood win the first prize in 
his class, but his marked superiority for the further competition 
for the Champion Prize was such that the judges pronounced 
it useless to remove the others to the ring to compare, not- 
withstanding his being only in store condition, and his having 
travelled 60 miles from his pastures at Goolwa to the show- 
yard," 

For the following interesting notes in reference to the 
introduction and spread of the breed in Australia, the authors 
were indebted to Messrs. McConnell and Wood of Durundur, 
Brisbane, Queensland, who were good enough to send them 
in 1885: — "The first Herefords imported to the southern 
hemisphere were three cows and a bull introduced by the 
Cressy Company to Tasmania in the year 1825. The bull 
was called Billy, one cow Beauty, another Matchless, and the 
third was unnamed. They came from the best herds in 
Herefordshire, but unluckily their pedigrees have been lost. 
It is certain they were fine specimens of the breed, and upon 
them the Cressy Company built up the foundation of their 
herd, from which, in their turn, have sprung most of the noted 
Hereford herds of Australia. The following pure Hereford 
bulls were imported from England by the Cressy Company 
and used in their herd : — Cressy ist, bred by Mr. Jeffries of 
The Sheriffs — Mr. Toosey of the Company gave 80 guineas 
for him as a yearling in 1837 ; Trojan 4384, imported by Mr. 
E. Bryant in 1833 ; Trojan 5383, imported by Mr. T. Williams 
and sold by him to the Company for 300 guineas in 1840; 
Hereford, imported by Mr. T. Williams in 1840; Cronstadt 
1 198 ; and Zealous 1822, purchased in England for 400 guineas. 
With Cronstadt from England came the cow Cressida, bred 
by E. Williams in 185 1. She was by Glasbury 709, dam by 
Quicksilver 353. 

"In 1850 Mr. Toosey purchased the bull Priam from 
Mr. Gibson of Tasmania. Priam was by Hampton 513, dam 
Miss Stockton, imported ; Miss Stockton's pedigree has been 
lost, but she is reported to have been a very good cow, Mr. 
Toosey used also a bull by Garibaldi 2005, from Countess, 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 335 

a daughter of Cressi'da's, and from him came a number of 
pure stock. He bred and used Undergraduate, by The Oxford 
Lad 4192, and sold him for 300 guineas. In the early days 
of this herd Mr. Toosey obtained from 80 to 100 guineas for 
his bulls. 

" Next in point of age comes the herd of Mr. Hobbler, 
of the Hunter River, N.S.W. It is some 45 years since the 
dispersal of this herd, and every particular of its formation has 
disappeared. It is reasonable to say that it was a good herd, 
because its descendants have bred true to type, and they are 
highly esteemed by modern breeders. Fifty years ago Mr. 
Hobbler bought a bull from the Cressy Company, probably 
the bull named Hobbler's Trojan, found in the pedigree of 
some of the Tocal cattle. Mr. C. Reynolds of Tocal, Paterson, 
N.S.W., was the chief purchaser of Mr. Hobbler's cattle, and 
in his hands, and after his death in his sons' hands, the prestige 
of the Tocal herd greatly and deservedly increased. Many 
good judges say it is the best herd in Australia. Messrs. 
Robertson Bros., of Colac, Victoria, imported and bred a 
number of Hereford cattle. They held annual sales of pure 
stock, and realised respectable prices, getting for their cows as 
high as 240 guineas. They bred Student's Cadet, by Student 
4162, and sold him for ^^577. This bull was descended from 
Gaylass 202 (Volume V.) by Riff Raff 1052. This herd is 
now broken up and scattered over Australia and New Zealand. 
Thirty years ago Mr. W. Lyall, of Western Port, Victoria, 
formed a valuable herd by importing Jerry 1288 and Star 157 
(Volume HI.), and a few more cattle from England. He 
bought also a choice lot of heifers from the Cressy Company, 
and from the combination he bred some of the best cattle in 
Australia. At the sale of this herd most of the cows were 
bought by Messrs. Barnes and Smith Bros., Richmond River, 
N.S.W. ; Cox, N.S.W. ; Loder, N.S.W. ; and Beattie, Victoria. 
Messrs. Barnes and Smith Bros., of Dyraaba, Richmond River, 
N.S.W., formed their herd by buying cattle from Dr. Dobie 
and Messrs. Myles Bros., of Eatonswill, both of whom im- 
ported Herefords from England. To these cattle were added 
a select lot of females from Mr. Reynolds, of Tocal. They 
then purchased the imported bulls Birthday and Brecon, bred 
by Mr. W. Mayberry ; and these purchases formed the 
nucleus of what has developed into a very good herd of pure 
cattle. Subsequently they bought cows from Mr. Lyall, of 
Victoria, and imported the cows Silver Star, Lady Brandon, 
and Sultana, and the bull Lord Ashford 3925. 

" Mr. George Loder, of Abbey Green, Singleton, N.S.W., 
has bred Herefords for many years. He founded principally 



Z2,6 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

on stock bred by Mr. Hobbler. In i860 he imported six cows 
with Garibaldi 347 (Volume VI.). Two of the cows, Dowager 
and Victoria, were bred by Mr. Rea, of Monaughty ; the 
remaining four, Maud, Rebecca, Mayflower, and Violet, came 
from The Leen herd. Besides these Mr. Loder has imported 
many bulls, and bred and owned St. Clair Lad, the champion 
bull of Australia in 1876. The Abbey Green cattle are 
remarkable for size, depth of flesh, and mellowness. 

" Mr. John Nowlan, of Erlah, West Maitland, N.S.W., is a 
well-known and successful breeder. His herd is founded on 
stock directly descended from the Cressy Company's importa- 
tions. In 187 1 Mr. Nowlan imported Pearl Diver 4009, a 
very meritorious animal, whose blood now largely prepon- 
derates in the pedigrees of Mr. Nowlan's cattle. In addition 
to Pearl Diver, Mr. Nowlan imported the cows Leonora 2nd 
236 (Volume VIII.) and Sunbeam 377 (Volume VIII.), and he 
purchased Fanny 250 (Volume VIII.) by Stanway 2790, and 
Treasurer, by Pearl Diver out of Sybilla 230 (Volume VIII.). 
From all these cattle Mr. Nowlan has bred a pure herd of cattle 
distinguished for their grand forms. 

" The Hon. James White, of Martindale, Denman, N.S.W., 
was a few years ago a large breeder of Herefords, and his im- 
portations consisted of a number of cows catalogued in Volumes 
VIII. and IX. of the Herd Book. He imported also the 
celebrated bull Prince of Wales 4059, who, soon after his 
arrival in N.S.W., was exhibited at the Sydney show, and 
was pronounced faultless by the judges. [Mr. White died 
in 1890.] 

" The herds of Messrs. Cox and Messrs. Rouse, of Mudgee, 
N.S.W., came from descendants of the Cressy herd. The 
blood of defiance 4506 predominated in Mr. Rouse's herd, 
and is in evidence of the great value of this impressive sire. 
Messrs. Wyndham, of Leconfield, Brauxton, N.S.W., bred 
good Herefords ; they imported Baker 4323, and mated him 
with pure cows from Tocal. 

" The South Australian Herefords were represented by the 
herds of Messrs. C. Price and J. H. Angas. Mr. Price com- 
menced his herd with two cows bred in Tasmania. The 
pedigrees of these cows have been lost, but their purity is not 
questioned, their stock being everything it should be. Mr. Price 
also imported Bringewood and the cow Queen of the Ocean. 
Mr. Angas' herd came from three imported cows and descen- 
dants of Mr. Price's Pigeon. Besides these are several small 
herds founded on purchases from the above-mentioned 
Australian herds." 

The Durundur herd of Hereford cattle, the property of 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 337 

Messrs. McConnell and Wood, was formed in 1882 by the pur- 
chase of 49 heifers from Mr. Reynolds of Tocal, Paterson, 
N.S.W. Since then it had been increased by large purchases 
from Mr. J. D. Cox of Cullenbone, Mudgee ; Hon. W. Miles, 
Parkhead ; Messrs. White Bros., Edinglassie, Muswellbrook ; 
Mr. George Rouse, Biraganbil, Mudgee ; Mr. Geo. Loder of 
Abbey Green, Singleton, N.S.W., and others. The Tocal 
cattle were by the prize-taking bulls Lord Ashford 3929, im- 
ported ; Sir James 4975, the sire of Mr. Reynolds' best cattle, 
many of them champion winners ; Triumph 5080, for whom 
700 guineas were refused ; and Prince Albert, the champion 
of New South Wales, and for which Mr. Reynolds refused 
500 guineas. The Cullenbone cattle were all descended from 
stock imported by the Cressy Company from England in 
1825, when the Cressy herd was formed by the purchase of 
three cows and a bull from the best breeders in England. 
The cattle bred by Mr, Miles were descended from stock 
imported from Tasmania, the younger cows and heifers 
being by Royalist, a Lord Ashford bull, bred by Mr. Reynolds 
of Tocal. Mr. Rouse's cattle were of similar breeding to those 
from Mr. Cox, and had a very large infusion of Defiance 
blood, combined with that of the celebrated Oxford Lad 4192. 
The heifers from Messrs. White were a very highly bred lot, 
being by Pasha and descended from cows imported from 
England by the Hon. Jas. White. The cows from Mr. Loder 
were a choice lot, several of them being prize-winners, and were 
by the high-class bulls St. Clair Lad, Sir Hercules 4971, 
Oxford Dandy, and the Oxford 4692. 

Messrs. McConnell and Wood wrote in 1885: "The 
Brisbane Annual Exhibition held in August is the only stock 
show we have sent our cattle to. In August, 1885, our stud 
bull Prince Leopold competed for and gained the special prize 
given by the President of the Association for the best bull of 
any breed. His opponents were representatives of the Short- 
horn, Hereford, Devon, and Polled Angus cattle, and came 
from some of the best herds in Victoria, New South Wales, 
and Queensland. We have abundant proof of the early 
maturity of Hereford cattle on grass. In our experience it is 
most striking. Rarely do we keep a bullock to four years 
old, and at three years old we sell great numbers fat. 
Indeed, it is only a question of size ; the condition is always 
with them. We have had a great opportunity of observing 
the development of the Hereford cross. In years past we 
owned a very well-bred herd of Shorthorn cattle, the direct 
descendants of imported stock. They were very superior 
cattle, of splendid quality, rich colour, with big bodies on short 

z 



338 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

legs. In a few years the constitution gave way, the cattle 
became sickly, light in the fore rib, narrow, and persistently 
lighter in colour : and this came about in spite of the spaying, 
culling, changing the bulls often, and taking care to get pure 
bulls. In 1872 it was decided that Hereford bulls should be 
introduced altogether and the breed adhered to. This 
momentous resolve was closely followed, and the result has 
been more than satisfactory. We now own about 7000 head 
of well-bred Hereford cattle with capital constitution and of 
handsome appearance. We hand and wean a greater percent- 
age than of old, the cattle are quieter, and we can keep a 
greater number on our freehold. It has been very interesting 
to notice the steady improvement of the herd as each successive 
draft of pure sires has been introduced. At the second cross 
a good number of females were ill-shaped, of a bad colour, and 
of a generally nondescript appearance. The pure bull corrected 
all that, and now we have reached a stage in which 80 per cent, 
of the calves are properly marked with the characteristic colours 
and appearance of Hereford cattle. The cattle are vigorous, 
hardy, and fat from the start, and we are confident there is no 
breed like them for making — entirely on grass — prime bullocks 
at three-and-a-half-years old, weighing 750 lbs. dressed weight ; 
and to this we add there is no breed like them for accommoda- 
ting themselves to the changes and chances that grazing cattle 
are exposed to in this capricious and uncertain, and often 
rainless, Australian climate." 

One of the leading Australian herds is that at Collingrove, 
vvhich was formed by Mr. Angas in 1869 by the importation 
of the cows Lady Wilson, bred by the Rev. H. O. Wilson of 
Salop ; Stately, bred by Mr. A. R. Boughton Knight of 
Downton Castle ; and Winifred, bred by Mr. P. Turner, Pem- 
bridge ; and of the bull May Duke 3965, bred by Mr. W. G. 
Preece of Salop. About two years after, a young bull named 
Bruce 3710, by Leopold 3912, bred by Mr. P. Turner, was 
in use; and in 1871 Bringewood 2981, bred by Mr. Price of 
Hereford, was added to the herd. At a later date Mr. Angas 
purchased the celebrated cow Jeannie Deans, with her bull 
calf at foot, for 200 guineas. This calf, afterwards called 
Charlie Deans 5252, was never beaten on the show-ground. 
He carried off five first prizes and a champion cup at Adelaide ; 
also first prize at the exhibition of the National Agricultural 
Society of Victoria in November, 188 1, as best Hereford bull 
on the ground. The young stock in 1885 were descended 
from the above, and did credit to their progenitors. In 1884 
Mr. Angas purchased the two-year-old prize bull Sir Roger 
from Mr. F. Reynolds, Tocal, New South Wales, and he 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 339 

was the bull chiefly used at that time. During the year 
1885 the first prize year-old bull at Sydney Show, General 
Gordon, also the first prize yearling heifer, Minerva 38th, both 
bred by Mr. F. S. Reynolds, Tocal, and the prize two-year-old 
heifer, Comely 6th, bred by the Hon. G. H. Cox, Mudgee, 
New South Wales, were added to the herd, which then 
numbered 80 cows and heifers. These cattle have been very 
carefully bred since the foundation of the herd, and exhibit 
that similarity of type, size, and style which is so pleasing a 
feature in the Herefords, They are mostly medium reds, 
with a few of the claret and old golden yellow colour, and for 
symmetry, substance, and quality are all that a breeder need 
desire. Large numbers of bulls bred from the stock have 
been disposed of by Mr. Angas to other breeders in the 
Australian Colonies, with highly satisfactory results, and his 
record of awards taken at the leading agricultural shows 
numbered in 1885 upwards of 80 prizes, including 60 first, 
and three champions. Mr. Angas remarked : " Although, at 
present, there seems to be a slight prejudice against Here- 
fords in Australia, there is no doubt that their many excellent 
qualities as breeders and graziers must bring them to the fore, 
as has been the case in America. There can be no doubt 
as to their fattening properties, for they have constantly 
shown their ability not only to keep but to improve their 
condition on rough pasture. At Collingrove, although the 
Herefords had the poorest paddocks, they were wonderfully 
fat and, at the same time, very regular breeders. The hardy 
character of these cattle for travelling long distances, as well 
as for road and farm work, is well known in the Colonies, as 
well as at home." 

The formation and management of the important herd 
belonging to Mr. Reginald Wyndham of Leconfield, Brauxton, 
New South Wales, were thus described by its owner in 1885 : 
"The Leconfield herd was founded in 1859 by the purchase 
of ten Hereford cows from Mr. Charles Reynolds of Tocal, 
Paterson, New South Wales, one of the best and oldest herds 
in Australia, and by purchasing the imported bull Port Captain 
1693 for the sum of ^350. At the same time a few Durham 
cows were put to Port Captain, some of which had some Here- 
ford blood in them through the Hereford bull Baker 4323, 
imported from England in 1840. Since then pure Hereford 
bulls only have been used ; those which produced the best stock 
after Port Captain 1693 being Trojan 3554, Master Butterfly 
5460, and Sir John 5599. The bulls then in service were Ben- 
digo 8272 and the Duke of Buckingham ; this bull was bred in 
New Zealand, being got by Coomassie 5841 from Leonora 2nd, 



340 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

full sister to the celebrated Leonora, bred by Mrs. Sarah Edwards 
of Wintercott, The grades from the few Durham cows put to 
Port Captain 1693 in 1859 were as pure Herefords to look 
at as those from the Tocal cows ; some, having eight pure 
crosses of Hereford blood, might be considered pure Here- 
fords for all practical purposes. The bulls from this herd 
were generally sent to Queensland, where they always gave 
satisfaction for herd purposes, the prices obtained for the 
bulls when they were from 12 months to two years old being 
from £10 to ^100 each. The whole drop one year made 
an average of ^^38 los. per head. One year as many as 120 
bulls were sold in one lot at £10 los. per head. Cows and 
heifers were regularly culled out every year, generally being 
spayed and sold to the butcher when fat, but two lots of over 
100 head in each were sold for breeding purposes in Queens- 
land at the same price as the bulls, the number of the females 
in the herd being kept at 300 head, which is the present 
number. About 20 head only were exhibited at shows, and 
all of these, with one exception only, took first or second 
prize. The herd was kept on the natural grass of the paddocks 
all the year round, the stud sires only being stabled during 
the winter. The cows were remarkably prolific, going to the 
bull when two years old, and they continued to breed most 
regularly up to 12 years, but in some cases to 17 years, such 
a thing as a barren cow being very uncommon. In one season 
a bull was put with 140 cows, and produced 140 calves, one 
cow missed, but another made up for her by producing twins. 
I must mention that the origin of this herd must be credited 
to the imported bull Baker 4323, the stock this bull produced 
from Durham cows being so remarkably fine that the superiority 
of the Hereford blood was at once recognised, and this has 
since been confirmed in many ways and in numerous instances. 
In dead weight and early maturity Herefords are equal to any 
other breed ; while in travelling long distances, enduring the 
hardships of drought, in fecundity, and in many other ways, 
they are much superior to the Shorthorns. I do not hesitate 
to say that this splendid breed of cattle has been greatly over- 
looked, and that they must, when they are better known, be 
recognised as by far the best breed for general purposes." 

In Australia a movement was begun in 1886 for the 
establishment of a Hereford Herd Book. An advertisement 
bearing the signatures of Mr. F. Reynolds, Tocal ; Mr. A. J. 
M'Connell, Brisbane ; and Mr. R. Wyndham, Leconfield, 
appeared in the Sydney papers, stating that they had been 
requested by a number of breeders of Hereford cattle to 
convene a meeting of owners during the Sydney Show, to 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 34i 

consider the desirability of publishing a Hereford Herd Book 
for the Colony, and inviting the co-operation of stock-owners. 
In 1890 the various Australian registers were merged into one. 
The principal herds now are those of Mr. Reynolds, Tocal ; 
Mr. Angas and Mr. Beattie. 

BEEF PRODUCTION IN QUEENSLAND 

In an article in the "Rural Industries of Queensland" 
(1897) it is remarked : " Herefords have many admirers. The 
Hon. Wm. Allan has his neat and choice herd at Dalveen, 
while the Durundur and Gowrie stud herds are also renowned. 
Then that grand old pioneer family, the Archers of Grace- 
mere, uphold the honours of this breed in the central district. 
The Lyndhurst herd, near Pentland in the North, was started 
at great expense by Messrs. Barnes and Fulford. But with 
all deference to the above breeders, Mr. R. Christison of 
Lammermoor had, by devoting a life-long study, experience 
and knowledge, by scientific breeding, the finest Hereford 
herd in Australasia, both as a show and a profitable one. 
One cannot but admire the magnificent enthusiasm of this 
gentleman. The deep thought and thoroughness with which 
he has conducted his management is clearly evidenced to any 
one perusing his pamphlet on the * Flocks and Herds of 
Queensland.' Let me quote his own words : ' For instance, 
I tried Durhams on Lammermoor. They did well, but were 
not to my mind quite satisfactory. I changed to Herefords, 
which did better, and I have found that they are more pro- 
lific, less prone to disease, that they mature earlier, and travel 
better than Durhams. Consequently, they pay better, for 
the reason that their surroundings are better adapted to this 
particular breed than to Shorthorns. And what is even more 
important, the preponderance in weight of their hindquarters 
produces a greater quantity of high-priced beef With refer- 
ence to the alleged wild nature of Herefords, Mr. Christison 
added : ' Whereas we found that where ploughing was done by 
oxen in the counties of England, the breed most in demand 
was the Hereford, on account of its docility. Mr. Douglas 
of Mount Maria, near Morven, quite recently gave me his 
experience of the Herefords in exactly the same words, and 
other breeders of them throughout the colonies have all ex- 
pressed themselves as strongly when referring to their constitu- 
tion, docility, early maturity, and profitable qualities. I found 
them good goers on the roads, they travelled well, and were 
quiet. For those who are at all sceptical, I add a few interesting 
figures ^nd facts which are recommended to all who intend 



342 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

competing in the English or Colonial markets against all 
comers. There has always been a prejudice against the 
Herefords for so-called wildness and alleged falling off in 
the hindquarters. The following figures prove conclusively 
that the latter opinion is erroneous.' " 



TOWNSVILLE SHOW, 1896. 
Result of Lammermoor Herefords : — 

Fores. Hinds. Total weight. Inside fat. 

Champion OX, 4 years old .. 545 611 11 56 89 lbs. 

Preponderance in weight of hinds over fores, ^6 lbs., at 7. I 
per lb.— ;^2 \s. 6d. 

Winners of Messrs. James Nelson Bros.' Cup — 21 guineas : 





Fores. 


Hinds. 


Total weight. 


Average. 


Inside fat. 


5 oxen, 4 years 


2577 


2705 


5282 


1056 


409 lbs. 


5 oxen, 4 years 


2092 


2333 


4425 


885 


322 lbs. 



Preponderance in weight of hinds over fores, 369 lbs., at 
7I— i^ii lOJ. yd. 

" These weights of the eleven head were taken after chilling 
allowance, which is 3 per cent., and the ten oxen that secured 
the 21 guineas prize beat Mount Cornish, Towerhill, Afton 
Downs, Telemon, and Inkerman Shorthorns at the autumn 
show. The preponderance of weight in hinds over fores is 
important and represents a shilling per pound against ^^d. 
This can be looked upon as the acme of high-class scientific 
breeding." 

The show at Townsville in 1897 took place during the 
worst of seasons known. The usual summer rains were light 
and not general. However, the Lammermoor Herefords again 
came to the front. 

Beryl and Co.'s prize fell to three Hereford spayed heifers 
that Mr. Christison took out of a mob of cattle travelling to 
Alligator Creek meat works to boil. Their weights are inte- 
resting : — 

Fores. Hinds. Total. Inside fat. 

I heifer, 3| years,. .. 336 416 7521 

I heifer, 3I years . . .. 315 39 ^ 7o6[ 156 lbs. 

I heifer, 3I years . . .. 344 427 77i) 

The preponderance in weight of hinds over fores in these 
three heifers was 240 lbs., at y^d. per lb. — £7 los. These 
weights were supplied by the manager of the Ross River 
works after the meat had been chilled sixteen hours, and Mr. 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 343 

Chrlstison having been complimented by English salesmen 
and butchers, who described the Lammermoor beef as " equal 
to the very best English grass fed." 

One of the neatest and most compact herds of Herefords 
in the colony was that of Mr. Douglas at Mount Maria, near 
Morven. And a writer contended that for fast improving a 
herd, getting rid of bad colours, conformation, and constitu- 
tions, Herefords and Devons are the best breeds, and properly 
worked they become quiet and are marketable earlier. 

The largest herd of Herefords at one time in the colonies 
was at Orneo, in Gippsland, the property of Messrs. Wilson 
and Dougharty. 

Mr. Christison, in the pamphlet referred to, remarked that, 
especially in order to acquire further improvement in his herds, 
he went to England to procure an impress to produce the 
desired results. He had his choice of animals which had been 
fattened up for exhibition, but preferred to select those which 
had not received much attention. It was midwinter, and he 
made his selections from cattle which were scraping away the 
snow in order to reach the short grass, and which camped in 
open sheds in fields at night. These had received no artificial 
feeding which tended to cover defects, and they showed un- 
mistakable vigour of constitution. He found what he felt to 
be a want in his stud herd, and he had a shrewder purpose by 
making purchases from the herds of Sir James Rankin, Mr. 
Wm. Tudge, and Lord Coventry. 

At the Townsville Show in 1894 the show cattle were 
slaughtered at the Ross River Meat Works, and were weighed 
after being partly chilled. The best pen of three fat bullocks 
from Lammermoor averaged 978 lbs., and those from Afton 
Downs, which were a year older, 1104 lbs. The best pen of 
freezing cattle from Lammermoor averaged 863 lbs., and a 
pen of Messrs. Bell and Johnson 893 lbs. A pen of spayed 
heifers from Lammermoor averaged 69 lbs. of inside fat, and 
the eleven Lammermoor cattle 6^ lbs. to 80 lbs., and Mr. 
Johnson's six bullocks 64 lbs. Mr. Johnson's bullocks were 
even older that the Afton ones. At the 1895 show Mr. 
Christison's bullocks, described as fit for any first-class 
shop in London, averaged from 1047 lbs. to 1170 lbs., one 
four-year-old weighed 1170 lbs., while a six-year-old from 
another exhibitor weighed 1222 lbs. 

In a letter to Mr. Christison dated June, 1907, Mr. T. B. 
Macintosh, manager, said that Mr. Cordingley was highly 
pleased with the 1800 No. 5 bullocks, three years old ; they 
averaged 637 lbs. dressed weight, and the heavier weights of 
the show bullocks would increase the average. The show 



344 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

cattle at Townsville Show, 1908, averaged 936 lbs. for four- 
year-olds, and 879 lbs, for three-year-olds. 

In a report of one of the shows at Townsville, the Herald 
said the three baby beeves from Lammermoor scaled 822 lbs. 
average, but what was more extraordinary, the hind quarters 
scaled 174 lbs. more than the fore quarters, and the same 
result was noticeable throughout the whole of the Lammer- 
moor Herefords, The first-prize heavy bullock, a Shorthorn, 
showed an excess of 26 lbs. in the fore over the hind quarters, 
whereas the heaviest Hereford, Mr. Christison's, scaled an 
excess of 70 lbs. in the hind over the fore quarters. The 
importance of this can best be explained by the remark that 
for I lb. of beef from the fore quarters, 10 lbs. of rump steak 
are sold by the retail butchers. The same results were notice- 
able throughout the whole of the cattle, the six spayed heifers 
scaling an excess of 490 lbs. in the hind over the fore quarters. 

The Lammermoor cattle having been so prominently brought 
before the public at this show and in the frozen meat market 
in London, induced a writer contributing to the paper above 
named to make a few inquiries as to the history of the herd 
The deep red colour and beautiful mossy coat at once sug- 
gested that they had a large infusion of Reynold's Carlisle 
blood in them. The herd was principally founded on that 
blood, but since then Mr. Christison has imported some of 
the best strains to be found in England— importations having 
been made from the Earl of Coventry's celebrated Croome 
Court herd, and included descendants of the celebrated cow 
Giantess and the champion Lord Wilton. 

Among the bulls used at Lammermoor was Shrewsbury, 
calved July 25th, 1885, got by Lord Warden, dam Fancy 2nd 
by Sir James 4975, granddam Fancy by Thruxton 1422. 
Imported Fancy was dam of Prince Albert, Blood Royal, 
and Fancy ist and 2nd. Prince Albert was a great show 
and champion bull, for which 500 guineas was refused. Shrews- 
bury gained the 1 00 guinea prize as champion bull at Sydney 
in 1886. Another sire was Cromwell, calved November 9th, 
1885, by Lord Warden, dam the famous prizewinner Last 
Day 3rd by Prince Albert 216, and another was Maranda, 
calved August 28th, 1885, sire Lord Warden, dam Maritana 
3rd by Sir James 4975. 

Mr. Christison has been able to bring to the market oxen 
of two years old fully and perfectly matured. Referring to 
the effects of the drought culminating in 1898, he mentioned 
several herds of other breeds that had been swept away, adding, 
" Whilst on exactly similar country, through the same drought 
and conditions, my Herefords lived, and absolutely every year 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 345 

of the long drought I was enabled to send off bullocks (some 
fats and a big lot of stores), and the constitution of my breeders 
was not impaired. The Ross River Meat Works report said 
the 501 bullocks would average about 672 lbs. They were 
of the best quality, and would make first-class freezers. Major 
Long of the Army Commissariat was pleased to see their grand 
quality. The individual weights of the show cattle were JJ i lbs., 
722 lbs., ^^'J lbs., 816 lbs., 781 lbs., 798 lbs., 783 lbs., 841 lbs., 
821 lbs., 725 lbs., 815 lbs., T]6 lbs., 879 lbs., 831 lbs., 806 
lbs., 883 lbs., making a total average of 12,840 lbs. These 
show cattle were all in the primest condition. The cattle 
received from Lammermoor during that season weighed 359,836 
lbs. for 521 head, an average of 6yy6'i) lbs. Another lot of 
bullocks averaged 803*9 1 ^^s. 

There are usually rather more than 500 head in the Lam- 
mermoor pure-bred stud herd. The present sires are pedigree 
bulls imported from England, and from the famous Hereford 
herd at Tocal in New South Wales, the property of Mr. Frank 
Reynolds. 

New Zealand. 

A sketch of Hereford breeding in New Zealand has been 
furnished by Mr. James Stuckey, and is utilised in the 
following : — 

It is believed the first importation of pedigree Hereford 
cattle into New Zealand was the bull Duke of Edinburgh 
3077, calved January 13, 1868, bred by her late Majesty 
Queen Victoria, He was imported by Messrs, R. and E. 
Maclean, Auckland, About the same time, and possibly in 
the same ship, was imported Princess Helena (apparently in 
calf), calved April 26, 1868; she was also bred by her late 
Majesty, The next importations were by Col. Whitemore, 
Clive Grange, Hawkes Bay, in 1875, He then introduced 
a bull together with the heifers Amethyst, calved May i, 
1872, by Provost 4067, bred by the late Mr, P, Turner, The 
Leen, Pembridge ; Lady Claire (dam of Lord Wilton), bred 
by the late Mr, Wm. Tudge, Adforton (Lady Claire does not 
seem to have bred very freely, as there appears to be a 
record of only one bull from her in the New Zealand Herd 
Book) ; and Silver 2nd, bred by the late Mr. B, Rogers, The 
Grove (none of her stock are recorded in the New Zealand 
Herd Book), The next importations appear to have been 
by Messrs, R, and E. Maclean — the bulls Horace 3rd 5386, 
calved October 12, 1877, by Horace 3877, bred by Mr, F. Piatt, 
Upper Brenton, Hereford ; and Coomassie 5841, calved July 



346 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

25, 1878, bred by Mrs. S. Edwards, Wintercott. There Is no 
record to show if these two animals came in the same vessel 
or not. They were animals of totally different character 
which they transmitted to their stock, Horace 3rd giving 
great size and weight. They may have been on the coarse 
side, but they had good constitutions. Coomassie gave great 
quality, bringing them closer to the ground, reducing the 
weight very little if any. Leonora 2nd, calved September 7, 
1876, bred by Mrs. S. Edwards, was probably imported with 
the two last-named bulls by Messrs. R. and E. Maclean. 
They also about that time imported from Australia a cow 
Graceful, bred there from the family of the late Mr. J. Williams' 
Gay Lass by Riff Raff 1052. 

Up to this date Messrs. Maclean and Col. Whitemore 
appear to have been the only importers, but Mr. James 
Stuckey, having settled at Te Rangitumau a few years 
prior to 1880, and finding Shorthorns clid not stand the cold, 
nor would they go up the steep hillsides, decided to look for 
something more hardy and active which would climb to his 
hilltops, some 2000 feet above sea-level. He purchased from 
Col. Whitemore, amongst others (the pedigrees of which could 
not be certified), the imported cow Amethyst, by Provost 4067, 
two of her calves, the cow Lady Claire, and the bull Lord 
Normanby 5440. Amethyst bred at Te Rangitumau not only 
regularly but exceptionally well, her stock being of grand 
constitution as well as quality, and all the herds in New 
Zealand as well as most of those in Australia have been 
benefited by this strain of blood. This cow died from 
accident in her eighteenth year. 

Mr. Stuckey, after keeping the Herefords for two years, 
was so well pleased with them that he decided to increase and 
try to improve them by importation. In this he was eminently 
successful. The first bull imported was Chippendale 6865, by 
Lord Wilton 4740, Chippendale's stock were short-legged of 
very good quality, his female get being superior to the males. 
Tihe following importations by Mr. Stuckey follow^ed : Sir 
William 13460, calved March 12, 1887, bred by Mr. H. F. 
Russell, Westonbury; Aconite (in calf), calved March 21, 
1886, by Sir Edward 1063 1, bred by Mr, A. P. Turner, The 
Leen, Pembridge ; Lydia (in calf), calved January 13, 1886, by 
Monarch 7858, bred by Mr. J. Price, Court House, Pembridge ; 
Batsford 16534, calved February 11, 1892, bred by Mr. A. E. 
Hughes, Wintercott; Duke of York 17239, calved January 
I9» 1893, bred by Mr. J. Price, Court House, Pembridge; 
Colonist 19326, calved January 11, 1897, bred by Mr A. P. 
Turner, The Leen ; Diamond Jubilee 19365, calved January 18, 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 347 

1897, bred by Mr. A. P. Turner; Cynthia (in calQ, by 
Statesman 14938, also bred by Mr. A. P. Turner ; Sonata (in 
calf), by Stafford 14946, bred by Mr. J. Price, Court House, 
Pembridge ; Chirgwin 21281, calved April 17, 1900, bred by 
Mr. J. Tudge, Duxmoor, Craven Arms; and Ensign 24018, 
calved January 15, 1904, bred by Mr. J. Edwards, Twyford. 
At the Tocal (New South Wales) sale after the death of Mr. 
S. Reynolds, Mr. Stuckey purchased Lioness 73rd, Maritana 
32nd, and Minerva 246th, the two latter descended from early 
importations to Australia from the late Mr. P. Turner's herd 
at The Leen. 

The breeders of New Zealand have displayed much energy 
with their herds and particularly in their Herd Book, which is 
very reliable and gives a good deal of information other than 
the mere pedigrees. 

Early in 1907, Mr. Stuckey having sold Te Rangitumau, 
the whole of the herd was dispersed, when owners of Hereford 
herds added to their stocks and many new ones were started. 

Writing from Te Rangitumau, Wellington, New Zealand, 
in 1888, Mr. Stuckey said: "My Hereford cattle are of 
splendid constitution. They are always out, and never have 
any artificial food. I first started my stock with some Short- 
horns from some of the best herds here, but found they were 
not satisfactory on my hills, from 700 to 2000 feet high, and 
having years ago had a few Herefords in the old country, made 
up my mind to give them a trial, when I heard, in 1882, that 
Colonel Whitemore's were for sale. He had imported them to 
Hawkes Bay. The more I see of the Herefords the better I 
am satisfied with them, the cows keeping in better condition, 
and are healthier than the Shorthorns, getting fat up the steep 
hillsides where the Shorthorn would not dare to go. They are 
all splendid breeders, always bearing from 95 to 98 per cent, 
of calves. My steers go to the butcher at three and a half 
years old, running with the sheep from one year to three years 
making the country {i.e. breaking down the fern and scrub, 
and pulling out any mops of grass that may grow)." 

Mr. Stuckey mentions that during the latter part of the year 
1895 he got Mr. G. Wheeler, Burford, Halcombe, and Mr. D. P. 
Buchanan, Mayfield, Cunningham's, to meet him and talk over 
the matter of getting out a Herd Book for Hereford cattle, but 
after many meetings there were what appeared to be unsur- 
mountable diflficulties. During his visit to England in 1897 
he gathered much information which helped on his return to 
New Zealand to surmount most of them, and the first volume 
was published in 1899. The three, Messrs. Wheeler, Buchanan, 
and himself, took the responsibility of drawing up rules, editing, 



348 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

publishing, and financing the first volume, Mr. Stuckey acting as 
honorary secretary, which he continued until the seventh volume 
was published, when Mr. Sykes of Masterton was appointed, 
and still acts. He thinks the greater part of the credit for the 
popularity of Herefords in New Zealand (outside their great 
personal capabilities) is due to the three above named. 

At the shows of the Wellington Agricultural and Pastoral 
Association in 1893 Herefords, in competition with other 
breeds, won the prizes for the bullocks most suitable for shop 
purposes. The animals were judged first in the show-yard and 
prizes awarded ; next the animals were slaughtered in the 
presence of a committee, and other judges (butchers) judged 
them. They also were for bullocks most suitable for the 
frozen meat trade. Prizes were also won in 1894, 1895, and 
1896. In 1896 ;^50 was offered for the best exhibit of fat 
bullocks (Shorthorn, Polled Aberdeen-Angus, Herefords, or 
crossbreds), and the Herefords won. Most of these prizes 
were gained by animals exhibited by Mr. Stuckey, who was 
also successful at the Manawatau and West Coast Show. 

The most extensive breeders in New Zealand at the present 
day are Messrs. Frank Moore, Kai-Iwi ; E. Short, Waituna 
West ; Holmes' Trustees, Wamahaka ; G. Wheeler, Stanway ; 
D. P. Buchanan, Cunninghams ; F. Arbon, Pohangma ; James 
McGregor, Masteshton ; H. B. Stuckey, Kaitoa, Dannevirke. 

It had been stated that in New Zealand the Hereford 
breed assumed more quickly than other breeds the feral habits. 
This allegation was refuted by Mr. A. J. McConnell, Durundur, 
Brisbane, Queensland, who, writing in 1887, said: "On the 
property with which I am connected, Hereford cattle have 
been bred since 1865 in mountainous and broken country, and 
care was taken at the start to get the best pure-bred bulls 
obtainable in New South Wales, where Herefords had been 
bred from imported stock since 1825. Before we commenced 
with Herefords we had a very good and highly-bred Shorthorn 
herd. We made the change because we were of opinion that 
the Herefords were better grazing cattle and more profitable 
altogether, and the event has proved we were right ; but the 
point I wish to make clear is that the very quiet and tractable 
herd of 7000 Shorthorn cattle has been succeeded by a herd 
more tractable still of Hereford cattle. The same care and the 
same treatment were shown to the cattle in both instances. 
There can be no doubt that a Hereford is more agile in his 
movements than any breed except the Devon. That I concede 
readily, and I hold it to be one of his excellencies, for it enables 
a grazing Hereford in Australia to range about for food in 
time? of scarcity, and do well when a softer breed gives up the 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 349 

struggle for existence. I suspect the truth to be that when we 
hear of an inclination to wildness on the part of any breed, if 
we knew the circumstances they would show that neglect of 
owners and a want of knowledge in working numbers of cattle 
together on the runs is at the bottom of that inclination to 
wildness. I affirm that the Hereford is not more prone to 
ferine habits in Australia than any other breed." 



Jamaica 

Hereford cattle have likewise made their w^ay into Jamaica, 
where, as in other distant countries, they adapted themselves 
to the strange surroundings with wonderful facility. The 
authors received in 1885 from Mr. John Edwards of Knockalva, 
Ramble, P.O., Jamaica, the following notes as to the in- 
troduction and experience of Herefords in that country : — 
"In February, 1843, the late Mr. Neill Malcolm, of 
Poltalloch, Argyll, sent to his farm in Jamaica, called 
Knockalva, a farmer's son, who on reaching the property was 
employed as assistant. After residing there a few months 
he was requested to write his employer and give his opinion 
as to the management, and make any suggestions he thought 
proper to recommend. In compliance with this request he 
wrote to Mr. Malcolm, and referred to the failings of the 
cattle on the farm, especially to the very great deficiency in 
their hind-quarters, and recommended that some Hereford 
bulls should be sent out in order to remedy the defect referred 
to. In the fall of that year two yearling Hereford bulls were 
sent to Knockalva, where they arrived safely ; but they were 
in very low condition, and were very poor specimens of the 
breed. . . . After remaining on the farm some years, one of 
the animals was accidentally shot by a negro, and the other bull 
when very ill was destroyed. A few years afterwards two 
more Hereford bulls were sent out, but both of them died a 
few weeks after their arrival, and their loss was so discouraging 
that no more bulls were sent out till 1858, when the manager 
himself visited his native land, and, on his return to Jamaica, 
took with him two yearling bulls and two yearling heifers, 
viz.. Sir Oliver 1732, bred by Mr. Thos. Rea of Westonbury, 
and Malcolm 1646, bred by Mr. Greenhouse of Kingsland. 
The latter animal was commended at the Royal held in 
Chester that year. Both of these bulls are duly entered in the 
Herd Book. The two heifers were bred by Mr. George Pitt 
of Chadnor Court. These four animals reached Knockalva 
safely and in excellent condition, but three weeks after their 



350 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

arrival the two heifers died. The two bulls were both very 
sick for some weeks, but ultimately recovered and proved 
excellent stock-getters, becoming the sires of many very 
valuable animals, and winners of prizes at the agricultural 
shows held in the district, as well as the Island prize of 20 
guineas, given for the heaviest ox killed at Christmas. 

"About 1865 a yearling bull named Gerald, bred by 
Mr. Duckham, Baysham Court, was sent out and was the sire 
of several useful animals. In the same year two heifers, bred by 
Mr. Pitt, were imported, but these died a few weeks after they 
were landed. In 1870 another pair of heifers from Mr. Pitt's 
herd was sent out, one of which, the best heifer, died some 
three weeks after reaching Knockalva ; the other survived, 
and was the dam of many valuable animals. In 1872 
two heifers, bred by Mr. Duckham, were imported ; one of 
them was very sick for some weeks, but ultimately recovered ; 
the other passed through its seasoning without any sickness, 
and both were the dams of very valuable stock. In 1872 
two yearling bulls were imported. Sir Harry 3441, bred by 
Mr. Edwards, of Wintercott, and Wallace 3579. Wallace 
died several months after his arrival, but Sir Harry, though 
sick for a time, survived to be the sire of some very fine stock. 
In 1877 a two-year-old bull, Broomhead 5778, a noble animal 
in very high condition, was imported, but died some three 
weeks after arriving at the farm. He was bred by Mr. J. H. 
Arkwright of Hampton Court. 

" The Hereford steers proved to be excellent working stock, 
a qualification absolutely necessary for Jamaica, as they are 
required for the sugar estates. For fattening purposes no 
breed can successfully compete with them, as the numerous 
prizes won at the agricultural shows make abundantly manifest. 
Indeed, at these shows the Knockalva Hereford cattle were 
always to the front, as the records will tell, for at a show held 
near to Montego Bay some three years ago, the Knockalva 
stock won 22 prizes. As to the hardiness of Hereford cattle I 
have had abundant opportunities of knowing that no breed is 
equal to them in that respect." 

The herd at Knockalva and Retrieve Farms numbered 
some 1850 head, of which, however, only about 50 were pure 
pedigreed Herefords. The other importations up to 1884 
were — in 1881, Cherry Boy 6351 and Lastspring 6517, from 
the herd of Mr. J. H. Arkwright ; in 1882, Lemon Boy 
2nd 6020 and Benjamin 17th 6807; in 1883, WelHngton 8157, 
Victor 7332, Prince Ivor 7946, and Landlord 7037 ; and in 
1884 the bull calves Hopetoun, from Mr. Mydleton of Beck- 
jay, and Apollo by Rose Stock 6051, from Mr. Robinson, of 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 3Si 

Lynhales ; and this latter pair were then the stock bulls in 
the Island. 

A correspondent writing in 1890 stated that at Knockalva 
there were in all about 1200 Herefords, of course for the most 
part grades, say from one-quarter to seven-eights bred ; but 
there were then on the pen, owing to the success attending 
the last few importations, several pure-bred bulls and heifers 
of Lord Wilton and The Grove 3rd strains, and from these 
it was hoped in a short time a herd of thoroughbred animals 
\yould be established. Once acclimatised they thrive remark- 
ably well. In 1888 the correspondent was shown a herd of 
about 150 three-quarters and seven-eights bred heifers, and 
was much struck by their splendid form and good quality, and 
indeed he thought one might travel a long way in England 
and not see together a much prettier lot. The bulls, i.e. the 
grade bulls, grew into remarkably fine animals and met a 
great demand from all parts of the island. Knockalva pen 
comprised about 5000 acres of pasturage. 



South Africa 

Hereford cattle have been imported into South Africa in 
small quantities for a considerable number of years. Large 
herds of cattle very similar in character and colouring to the 
Hereford existed on the Veldt before the war, and some of 
the best trek oxen were of this type. A few were sent out, 
and the Boer farmers were beginning to appreciate the way in 
which the white faces adapted themselves to African surround- 
ings, when the rumour of the probability of the Boer war 
breaking out stopped all enterprise in agricultural and stock- 
raising business. Enquiries had been made, and the first steps 
taken to establish a herd of milking Herefords in Cape 
Colony ; in fact the nucleus of a herd had been bought in the 
autumn of 1897 ready for shipment the following spring. 

These animals were selected from the herd of Mr. White 
of Zeals by Mr. John Hill, for Mr. Molyneux of Port Elizabeth, 
but the arrangements falling through, they were sold at the 
dispersion of the Felhampton Court herd in 1898. 

Mr. Molyneux, who was then an agent for Messrs. Cooper 
Nephews, wrote on May 4th, 1896, to Mr. John Hill : " I have 
consulted everywhere on my business rounds with prominent, 
progressive farmers. A few farmers, in scattered instances, 
have nibbled at the Hereford in past years ; there are one or 
two men who fancy them and exhibit them, but it is a very 
rare occurrence to find a solitary representative at even our 



352 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

leading shows. There were a few excellent Herefords at the 
recent Port Elizabeth show, the most important in all South 
Africa. A Hereford bull came out with flying colours. If 
you ask for advice as to the nett result of my investigations, 
I would answer thus : Leave South Africa wholly alone till you 
can offer it a reliable strain of Hereford milkers, whose 
mothers and grandmothers could be pointed to as having 
yielded definite quantities of milk ; then I could promise you 
that you would take the country by storm. Herefords are 
unquestionably (if of a milking strain) the very perfection of 
breed for this country." In those days no South African 
farmer bred for the butcher — the trek ox and the dairy cow 
were the aims of the breeder. The beef of the country was 
almost entirely made from worn out animals from these two 
sections of the cattle industry. As time goes on the con- 
dition of things is changing, and there is every reason for 
concluding that meat- producing breeds, like the Hereford, 
will become more and more popular, and especially if it 
becomes realised that the Hereford is a dual-purpose breed if 
properly selected and trained, and is capable of giving the 
best results at the smallest outlay on feed of, perhaps, any 
breed in the world. 

At the close of the war, Mr. J. K. Hill (now manager of 
Government farm in East Africa), after resigning his com- 
mission in the Imperial Yeomanry, stayed out in South Africa 
with the view of endeavouring to develop the live stock 
industry. The result of this was that Mr. John Hill, Marsh 
Brook House, Church Stretton, obtained the co-operation of 
several breeders, who agreed to send out a pioneer consign- 
ment of Herefords, so as to endeavour to introduce the breed 
afresh in South Africa. Among others from whose herds this 
consignment was drawn were Mr. Barneby, of Saltmarshe 
Castle, Worcestershire ; Mr. J. R. Hill, Orleton Court, Ludlow ; 
and Mr. T. Nott, Buckton Park, Bucknell. These breeders 
materially helped to draw further attention to the breed at 
that time ; and shortly afterwards, in March, 1903, Mr. J. K. 
Hill was specially appointed by the Government of the 
Transvaal to purchase a large number of representative 
animals of the leading British breeds of live stock for the 
experimental farms. Among these, Hereford heifers were 
taken from the Royal farms at Windsor ; from the three herds 
mentioned above ; from Mr. G. H. Green's herd at Wigmore 
Grange, Leintwardine ; Mr. J. Tudge, of Duxmoor, Craven 
Arms ; Mr. W. M. Dawes, New House, Craven Arms ; and 
from the Earl of Coventry, Croome Court, Worcester, who 
most generously presented the valuable bull, British Gold 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 353 

22756, to the Government. This bull proved to be an excellent 
sire; he was by the noted sire Gold Box 15339, ^^d of the 
best Tudge blood, and he and General Nott 28882, bought 
from Mr. T. Nott, of Buckton Park, were, perhaps, the two 
best bulls exported at that time. Here fords have done 
wonderfully well in their new home at Potchefstroom, not far 
from Pretoria, where the Government farm is situated, and the 
breed is becoming one of the most popular in South Africa. 
Recent reports of the Government sales record very satis- 
factory results, and Mr. F. B. Smith, the Agricultural Director, 
and Mr. Alex. Holm, the manager of the farms, have made 
further important purchases in England to keep up and 
improve the Government herd. 

The last purchase by Mr. Holm was that of a two-year-old 
bull Noke Gallant 25606, bred by Mr. H. R. Evans, Pem- 
bridge, to take the place at the head of the herd at Potchef- 
stroom of British Gold, who unfortunately died in 1908. 
Noke Gallant was a winner at the Leominster Show, is a bull 
of good size, and is by Gilderoy 20653, from Doris by Donovan 
18796. At the Rand Agricultural Show at Johannesburg, 
1908, the Herefords were awarded Dunne's lOO-guinea 
Challenge Cup for the best group of any breed. This group 
was headed by the great bull, British Gold, whose loss is so 
much regretted, as he was just in his prime, and his stock 
were turning out so well. This was a great triumph for the 
breed. 



British East Africa 

In the year 1903 the Government farm at Morendat, 
Naivasha, in the British East African Protectorate, was formed. 
At that time the Right Honble. Joseph Chamberlain was 
Colonial Secretary, and Sir Clement Hill, K.C.B., M.P., was 
in charge of the African Department at the Foreign Office ; 
and it was under their direction that the farm was inaugurated. 
Mr. Linton was appointed as agricultural director, and Mr. 
Hopton general farm manager. The selection of the whole 
of the live stock sent out, and all the shipping arrangements, 
were entrusted to Mr. John Hill of Marsh Brook House, 
Church Stretton. The advice given at that time to the 
Government in his report on the subject was adopted. Mr. 
Hill wrote: "From experience gained in various parts of the 
world, it is found that Herefords are specially adapted for hot, 
as well as cold climates ; are very hardy, and will withstand 
drought better than other breeds. They live on less food, 
and are quick feeders. The Hereford bull is everywhere 

2 A 



354 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

successful when used as a cross on other cattle, or on native 
breeds. Being a pure breed unmixed with any alien blood, 
the bulls are specially prepotent, and stamp their character on 
the produce, when crossed with other stock. The Herefords 
are not usually great milkers, but their milk is only second 
to the Jersey in richness. I would suggest that the bulls 
should be bought at from fourteen months to two years old, 
and that dark red colour should be selected with as little white 
as possible, as this colour stands the heat of the sun better 
than the others. All Herefords, of course, have white faces, 
but, if possible, they should have red bordering round the 
eyes, as this has been found to protect their eyes from being 
injured by the glare of the sun," The first consignment of 
Herefords which were ever landed on the shore of East Africa, 
consisted of an i8-months-old bull from the herd of Mr. 
Fredk. R. Hill, and three heifers from that of Mr. J, E. 
Farmer, Felton, Ludlow — two of these were two-year-olds in 
calf at the date of shipment — and a yearling. These, together 
with all the other stock sent out at the same time, were landed 
safely at Mombasa, and sent up country on the Uganda Rail- 
way to Naivasha station. This station is five miles from the 
Government farm, and most unfortunately just as the bull 
arrived an accident occurred which caused a fracture of a hind 
leg, and this first pioneer of the Herefords had to be destroyed. 
Fortunately, however, the heifers calved down all right, and 
they, together with their produce, conclusively proved that the 
Hereford breed can adapt itself to the climate and surround- 
ings of that quarter of the globe. About a year afterwards 
the manager retired, and Mr. J. K. Hill, who had previously 
been employed to purchase all the stock for the Government 
farm in the Transvaal, was appointed as Mr. Hopton's 
successor. Under his management the plan of grading up 
from the native stock with the help of pure-bred imported 
sires has been specially carried out as one of the best ways 
to improve the general stock of the country. Two valuable 
Hereford bulls were sent out in 1907, both of which arrived 
safely on the farm. After a year's service one of these was 
sold to Mr. Chaplin who, with a partner, has taken up a farm 
in the country. This bull was bred by Mr. F. R. Hill at 
Marsh Brook House farm. The stud bull now on the 
Government farm is one that was bred by Mr. Lawton Moore, 
Brampton Bryan, Herefordshire. It is satisfactory to learn 
from the report of the recent sale of Government stock at 
Naivasha, that the Hereford cross from native cows made the 
highest price of any graded stock on that day. A pure-bred 
bull from imported stock on the farm, was also sold to a 



THE BREED'S EXTENSION 355 

settler to improve his native cattle. The result from this 
small trial has been remarkably successful and has fully justified 
the opinion which led to the importation of the Hereford 
breed into the British East African Protectorate. 

In October, 1903, a number of Herefords were selected for 
the Government experimental farms in Uganda. The females 
came from Mr. J. E. Farmer, Felton, and the bull was bred by 
Mr. Caddick. 



France 

Viscount Paul D'Etchegoyen established a herd at Val-de- 
Ruy, purchasing the bull Westward Ho in 1887, At the Paris 
Show in 1892, the French Minister of Agriculture gave him 
permission to send his imported animals for exhibition only, 
they not being eligible for competition, as they were bred in 
England. But Viscount Etchegoyen's Hereford bull Brian 
1 5 120 was eligible to compete, and he won not only the first 
prize in his class, but carried off the Prix d'Honneur for the 
best bull in the Show, beating all the crack Shorthorns in 
France. Brian was bred by the Viscount, got by Westward 
Ho, dam Lovely by Montgomery. It was remarked that 
Hereford breeders owed Viscount D'Etchegoyen a debt of 
gratitude for what he had done for the White-faces in France. 
Ever since 1887, when he first began to breed Herefords, he 
had spared neither time, expense, nor trouble, to bring his 
favourite breed to the front. 

In 1898 a bull and three heifers were sent to the estate of 
Herr Paderewski, the famous pianist, in Galicia. 



As already noticed, Herefords have been exported to many 
other countries, from all of which the reports are favourable. 



CHAPTER X 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BREED 

Hereford cattle are remarkable for the distinctiveness and 
uniformity of their outward characteristics and general attri- 
butes. The red curly hair, and broad, kindly-looking white 
face mark the trail of the Hereford wherever the breed has 
roamed. In former times, as has been seen, the mottle-faced 
and grey strains were cultivated, but all these have disappeared, 
and now the " White-faces " reign supreme. This distinguishing 
feature would seem to be indelibly stamped in the breed. The 
ever present outward and visible sign of the breed, it forms a 
striking instance of the remarkable power and reliability of 
undiluted, long-sustained hereditary influence. It tells us also 
that wonderful results may be achieved by persistent, skilful, 
and methodical breeding, and gives us confidence as to the 
future of our valuable races of stock, whose useful properties 
are cultivated with sustained energy and sound judgment. The 
almost unique permanency of the white face is the strongest 
possible evidence as to the purity of the Hereford breed. 
-Hereditary power is the surest sign of purity of descent ; and 
it may be doubted if any characteristic in any of our domesti- 
cated varieties of farm live stock is more firmly fixed than the 
white face of the Hereford. 

And there are other features in Hereford cattle almost as 
well established as the white face. Who that visits our live 
stock shows does not admire the beautiful rich red curly coats 
of the Herefords ^ They are noted also for their quiet, docile 
tempers and kindly expression of face, features of some 
practical importance, for they are indicative of good fattening 
properties. The prevailing colour is red, from moderately 
light to dark in shade, with white face, and white on the 
shoulder top and in the underline. Some prefer the deep rich 
red, while others favour the paler shades. 

In conformation, the breed displays nearly as much uni- 
formity as in colour. The most striking features in this are 
their broad level back, -deep wide chest and brisket, hanging 



CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BREED 357 

dewlap, and great wealth of flesh. We have occasionally 
heard strangers remark upon what some of them have desig- 
nated the "wedgy" appearance of Herefords — their great 
development in front, broad loins, and thin thighs. The 
light hind leg, as well as the great development in the fore 
parts, are heritages of the good old times when Herefords were 
beasts of burden, when they tilled the fields and " carried the 
harvest." The broad back, wide rib, and wealth of flesh have 
been cultivated for the purpose of meat production, but the old 
characteristic as regards the thighs, though much less apparent 
than it has been, is still a defect in some animals. ' The more 
successful of modern breeders have with excellent results 
given careful attention to the removal of this deficiency. 

In the introductory chapter ^Marshall's description of the 
typical Hereford of a hundred years ago has been reproduced 
in full. That representation so nearly corresponds with the 
Hereford of to-day that it will be read with interest in this 
connection. 

As to the features that are looked for in the modern typical 
Hereford, we quote the following report of a sub-committee 
of the Hereford Herd Book Society appointed to draw up a 
" Standard of Merit " for the breed, which was submitted and 
adopted at a meeting of the Council on April 13th, 1904 : — 

" We find it impossible to establish a Standard of Merit 
for Hereford cattle indicated by points, as breeders diff'er so 
much in the value they attach to certain features of the breed. 
For instance, a bull breeder would place a very high value 
upon the head of the sire he intended to use in his herd, while 
a man who wished to raise steers for market would make that 
point a secondary consideration. It is a common saying that, 
' beef does not grow on the horns,' yet a breeder who aims to 
produce fine breeding-stock would fail in his purpose if he neg- 
lected to place full value upon the shape and colour of the horns." 
The committee, however, gave the following description : — 

"The bull should have a moderately short head, broad 
forehead, and horns nearly resembling the colour of wax, 
springing straight out from the side of the forehead and slightly 
drooping — those with black tips or turning upwards are not 
regarded with favour. The eye should be full and prominent ; 
the nose should be broad and clear — a black nose is objection- 
able ; the body should be massive and cylindrical, on short 
legs, the outline straight, chest full and deep, shoulder sloping, 
but lying well open at the top between the blades ; neck thick 
and reaching from the head to the shoulders ; ribs well sprung ; 
flank deep ; buttocks broad and well let down to the hocks ; 
the tail neatly set and evenly filled between the setting of the 



358 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

tail and the hip bones, which should not be prominent ; the 
whole carcase should be evenly covered with soft curly hair of 
a red colour, but the face, top of neck, and underparts of the 
body should be white. 

" The same description would apply to the cow, excepting 
that she should be grown upon more feminine and refined 
lines, the head and neck being less massive, and the eyes 
should show a quiet disposition. The Hereford cow, under 
the system of management usually pursued in Herefordshire, 
on the North American ranch, and on the South American 
estancia — that is, allowing each cow to raise her own calf, both 
running together in the pastures — does not develop the milk- 
ing properties, but there are many instances of Hereford cows 
brought up to the pail making excellent dairy cattle, the milk 
being very rich. 

--" " The Hereford is essentially a beef breed, and reaches 
maturity at an earlier age and at less cost than any other breed. 
The steers readily fatten at two years old on grass alone, and 
in the summer months they command the top price in the 
London market." 

The above report was drawn up by Messrs. J. W. Smith, 
A. R Turner, and W. E. Britten. 

The following description is from the pen of Mr. John Hill, 
formerly of Felhampton Court * : — 

" In judging Hereford cattle at breeding shows, in my 
opinion too little attention is frequently paid to the question 
of whether the animals brought into the ring are in a healthy 
breeding condition or not. I believe that the judges should 
first satisfy themselves on this point, especially in the older 
classes. If they have been fed abnormally fat, and cannot 
walk freely and easily, and are bad upon their legs and feet, 
or even go cramped and crippled, I should certainly vote for 
their rejection at once. When judging a bull, I should look 
for a good masculine character, and a pronounced style and 
good carriage, which would intimate that he is likely to stamp 
his progeny with his own form and attributes. A bull with- 
out these characteristics is almost^ sure not to be a good and 
impressive sire. 

" The head should be well set on— not carried too low and 
stuck on like a pig's, as some are. It should not be narrow 
or too long, but wide between the eyes, which should be full 
and prominent, yet mild, showing a quiet disposition and apti- 
tude to fatten. I like a good wide muzzle and clear nose. 
Usually a good body follows a good head. I would never 

* " How I Judge Herefords." By Mr. John Hill. Agricultural 
Gazette Almanac, 1885. 



\ 



CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BREED 359 

give a prize to a bull with an effeminate weak head if I could 
find another in the class at all passable, and failing such, I 
would withhold the prize. The crest should be well developed, 
and have a good white mane. I do not fancy any Herefords 
without some white on their shoulders, although, of course, 
its absence is no great point against an animal ; and I dislike 
a bull with narrow crops, and think this a very bad fault, for 
Herefords are most emphatically a beef breed, and narrow 
chines are most objectionable where beef is wanted ; on the 
other hand, the narrow chine is a special attribute of the deep 
milking sorts — for example, the Jerseys. A young bull, 
having good crops, wide between the top of shoulder-blades, 
and having a good fore-flank, will, even if he is not quite 
filled up behind the shoulder, nearly always 'come' in that 
place as he matures, so that it should not be thought a very 
great fault if he is slightly deficient there. 

" A good back is a point that should carry a great deal of 
weight with the judges. A bad-backed one should be put on 
one side, as most of the best cuts of beef worth most per 
pound come from that part. I think there is a difference 
between a low loin and a weak loin. The former may be 
well covered and packed with flesh, and is not such a fault as 
one that is bare and lean. If an animal has rather prominent 
hips and is high on the crup, the loin often looks lower than 
it really is ; as also, when the ribs are especially well sprung 
the hollow behind the shoulder looks more than it really is. 
These points should be well tested before awarding the order 
of merit. Long full hind- quarters, and well-developed wide 
thighs, well let down to the hocks, should score many points, 
and narrow thighs should be always considered one of the 
gravest faults. 

" Perhaps I should have mentioned before that I consider 
quality counterbalances a multitude of other faults, and I 
should always reject an animal that did not handle well, as, 
failing in this, they can never feed. Good hair, and plenty 
of it, is also a great desideratum. Of course, at the summer 
shows many animals have cast their coats, but there is always 
some evidence of what their winter coats are, which a practised 
eye can tell at once. I like a beast that stands over plenty of 
ground, and with his legs well outside him, the belly line as 
close to the ground as possible, without being ' tubby.' A 
big bony animal is certainly to be avoided, but a little size as 
well as quality must be an advantage to all concerned, for 
' when you have done weighing you have done selling.' 

" In the case of cows and heifers, it is difficult to ignore the 
fact that they are in a breeding condition when they have 



36o HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

calves by their side, even though they may be grossly over- 
fed. Still there should be a limit, and I think it an objection 
to an animal being shown as a breeder, if it is in a fit state to 
be shown immediately afterwards at a fat stock show. I like 
a clean-cut delicate head, with the same features that I men- 
tioned above for bulls, but with nice feminine character instead 
of the bull's masculine appearance. A ' gay ' head need not 
be objected to, provided the horns are not cocked up and 
turned back — 'up-turned' horns are very different from 'cock' 
horns. A bull-like coarse head is the worst kind, to my mind, 
as it gives no style and smartness to the animal. I am not 
fond of the very dark reds, as I believe those of a lighter 
colour — not too pale — feed quicker, and are usually of better 
quality. Beauty of form and symmetry should be always 
considered by the judges as two strong points in the favour 
of animals possessing them." 

Commenting on Marshall's description of the Hereford 
already quoted, Mr. Housman wrote : " Subject to modification 
to make it applicable to the ideal Hereford of the present 
day, it is still serviceable. The principal features of the 
breed at that time (1780) are carefully indicated. It particu- 
larly mentions the general look of health and vigour ; the 
small head with clean chops and pleasant, cheerful, open 
countenance, broad forehead, full and lively eye, the bright, 
tapering and spreading horns, and the long and tapering neck. 
This last part of the description relative to the neck scarcely 
seems to convey an accurate idea of the Hereford of the 
present day. The neck measured from shoulder to head is 
certainly in due proportion to the length of middle and of hind 
quarters ; it does not look at all exceedingly long in com- 
parison with the neck in other breeds ; but rather, on the 
contrary, at least in the full-fed Hereford, owing to the 
prominence of the breast and to the thick packing of flesh 
forward on the sides of the neck, nearly to the head, and the 
depth from the back of the crown ridge to the throat, under 
the root of the tongue, has a somewhat shortish appearance. 
The 'tapering' of the neck, as described, also suggests a 
lighter kind of neck than the Hereford often has. One 
peculiarity which now characterises the Hereford generally, 
and may be seen in old portraits also, but is not noticed by 
Marshall, is the comparatively horizontal carriage of the head, 
less bridling than in some other breeds. Marshall goes on to 
describe a deep chest, broad and projecting bosom, and 
' shoulder-bone, thin, flat, no way protuberant in bone, but 
full and mellow in flesh.' Marshall's exact words are here 
repeated because their meaning does not seem very clear. 



CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BREED 361 

If the ' shoulder-bone ' here is intended to mean the shoulder- 
blade (scapula), that bone having always a ridge of bone 
extending lengthwise nearly from top to bottom upon its 
otherwise flat face, can never be what Marshall requires, but 
thejiesh may be so distributed upon either side of the ridge as 
to give an even surface. When the muscle is so distributed 
as to rise with the bone the effect is what is termed a 
big out-shoulder. The lower shoulder-bone (the humerus), 
joined at its upper end to the scapula, and at its lower end 
to the principal arm-bone, is not a flat bone ; but possibly 
Marshall may have been thinking of the joint of the shoulder- 
blade and lower shoulder-bone forming a prominence called 
the shoulder-point, and may have meant that the flesh should 
conceal the prominence of that joint. Proceeding with his 
description we read that the chine is full (big, wide crops 
understood — emphatically true of the Hereford of to-day), the 
loin broad, hips wide, and level with the spine ; quarters long 
and wide at the 'nache' (an old-fashioned term apparently 
having the same meaning as 'catch,' or end of the quarter), 
the end even with the general level of the back, not drooping, 
nor standing high and sharp above the quarters ; the tail 
slender and neatly haired. Here it is perhaps necessary to 
add to Marshall's description the remark that in many of the 
finest specimens of the breed we see the tail ending in a very 
large and handsome bush of white hair, sometimes springing 
from a considerable height, quite as high as the twist, and 
nearly touching the ground. Marshall describes the barrel as 
round and roomy, smooth and even ; the carcase throughout 
deep and well spread ; ribs broad, close, flat outwardly, ' the 
hindmost large and of full length ; the round bone small, 
snug, not prominent.' His note on the thigh needs alteration 
to make it suit the highly-bred Hereford of to-day, as 
originally it suited the Gloucestershire grazing Hereford 
bullock of the end of the eighteenth century. The exact 
words are 'the thigh clean and regularly tapering.' A 
marked characteristic of the mature Hereford now, in full 
flesh, is roundness of thigh. The shortness and straightness 
(or ' uprightness ' as he calls it) of the legs and the fineness of 
bone below the knees and the hocks, and the fulness of the 
twist and appurtenances, the middle size of the feet, the large 
flank, and the mellowness of the pleasantly yielding flesh, are 
as truly characteristic now as they were more than a hundred 
years ago. In assenting, however, to the term ' soft,' which 
is also used in connection with ' mellow,' we must remember 
that while this applies to the grazing or half-fat bullock under 
favourable feeding, the animal becomes eventually ' hard fat,' 



362 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

so that the same flesh which, when the animal was in merely- 
fresh condition, varied from softness to firm elasticity, may 
acquire that extra firmness which the butcher well understands 
and appreciates. This condition may be modified to please 
the touch with a softer sensation. Good oilcake freely used 
and other food producing the softer fat will do it ; but the 
thoroughly fatted animal in perfection is of substance too 
solid to yield easily under the hand. Our authority observes 
that the handling as described by him is especially pleasant on 
the chine, shoulders, and ribs ; that the hide is mellow, supple, 
of medium thickness, and loose on the 'nache' and huckle. 
The term ' nache ' is this time used in a connection that 
leaves little doubt of its meaning. The huckle, unquestionably, 
is the hip, and the coverings of the hip-bones and of the bones 
ending with the quarter are recognised test-points of quality. 
The hair and colour are thus described : ' the coat neatly 
haired, bright, and silky ; its colour a middle red with a 
bald face, the last being esteemed characteristic of the true 
Herefordshire breed.' " 

An important characteristic in Hereford cattle is that they 
carry flesh most heavily on the parts of the frame from which 
the best meat is cut. Their broad backs are usually loaded 
with meat of the very finest quality, and the average Hereford 
carcase is found to have its fat and lean mixed in the most 
admirable manner. Butchers and consumers alike hold Here- 
ford beef in high esteem. Indeed the grass-fed Hereford beef 
enjoys quite an enviable reputation, and brings top figures in 
the best markets of the country. The perfect mixing of 
Hereford beef has been notorious for generations, and has 
frequently been illustrated both by brush and pen. The pro- 
portion of lean to fat is exceptionally large, and the whole 
is juicy, tender, and choicely flavoured. 

Hereford cattle are unsurpassed as grazers. Robust in 
constitution, quiet in temperament, kindly feeders, and large 
growers, they thrive and fatten admirably on pasture land. 
The late Mr. Charles Howard of Biddenham, a leading Short- 
horn breeder, every year bought a lot of Hereford steers — 
" they are such grand yard cattle." And his experience is 
corroborated by that of many others who rear and fatten 
" white faces." No variety of cattle will give a better return 
for the run of a yard, and moderate feeding during winter — 
say pulped roots, straw chaff and a few pounds of cake or 
grain. 

As regards the average live weight of selected specimens, 
fattened for exhibition, the following figures are taken from 
the records of the Smithfield Club Show : — 



CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BREED 363 

lbs. 

Steers under two years old 1350 

Steers under three years old 1820 

Oxen over three years old ... ... ... ... ... 2115 

Heifers under three years old 1595 

Cows over three years old 1740 

The average daily gain in live weight of Herefords 
exhibited at these sho\vs was : — 

lbs. 

Steers under two years old ... i"85 

Steers under three years old r66 

Oxen over three years old I"42 

Heifers under three years old i'45 

It may be mentioned that the classes for oxen over three 
years old and for cows have been abolished, the age limit 
at Fat Stock Shows being now three years old and under. 

It is well known that Herefords are exceptionally robust 
and hardy. They suffer less than most other varieties from 
exposure to cold and wet, and it would appear that their 
share of the common ailments of the cattle kind is com- 
paratively light. Abortion is of rare occurrence, and Hereford 
cows, even when submitted to extreme high pressure in feeding, 
breed with remarkable regularity. The exceptionally hardy 
constitution and freedom from disease so much valued are 
hereditary characteristics of the breed which have been con- 
firmed and strengthened by management on prudent and 
natural methods. With respect to tuberculosis, the breed, as 
will be seen, enjoys rare immunity, and reactions to the 
tuberculin test are very infrequent. This is a very important 
point in connection with the export trade, now that the appli- 
cation of the test is so generally insisted upon. 

It has been noted in earlier chapters that the dairy properties 
of Herefords were at one time of a high order. In Culley's 
"Observations on Live Stock" (1794), it is stated that a good 
cow after rearing her calf 11 or 12 weeks — when it is weaned 
and turned to grass — " will produce from 6 to 8 lbs. of butter 
a week for three or four months after taking off the calf, and 
double that quantity of skimmed milk cheese. They do not 
give so large a quantity of milk as Suffolk cattle, but it is 
much richer in quality." In the Farmers' Magazine of 1844, 
there is an account of some experiments as to the relative 
dairy properties of Herefords and Shorthorns which were 
conducted by a gentleman in Leicestershire, who kept a 
large dairy. The Shorthorn gave the larger quantity of milk, 
but that of the Hereford was much the richer, both in butter 
fat and curd. Unfortunately these good dairy properties 
have not been maintained in the main body of the breed. 
As will be seen presently, those gentlemen in Cornwall who 



364 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

took up Hereford cattle kept milk production carefully in 
view, and there the breed enjoys a good name in the dairy 
as well as in the feeding house. But in the old home 
of the Hereford attention has been too exclusively devoted 
to beef production, with the result that while the quality of 
the Hereford milk is as rich as ever, the yield is rather less 
now than formerly. The system of allowing cows to suckle 
their calves is unfavourable to the development of large milk 
production, and this practice has long been prevalent in 
Herefordshire. Still the experience in Cornwall and in other 
instances, where the dairy has been an important considera- 
tion, shows that with skilful cultivation the dairy properties 
of the Hereford might be raised to a useful standard. The 
account of Mr. White's herd at Zeals, carried on for many 
years for dairy purposes, proves what can be done in this 
direction, and there are numerous instances to demonstrate 
the fact that Hereford cows when managed with that object 
are good milkers. 

Mr. A. P. Turner writes :— " My father [Mr. P. Turner] 
told me that for symmetry and quality the modern Hereford 
is far before the Hereford of 50 or 60 years ago. The cattle 
bred in those days were of great size, with narrow chines, 
wide hips, thighs generally rather thin, immense horns spread- 
ing out and giving the animals a very grand appearance, heavy 
bone, and an immense weight of good flesh, but more unevenly 
laid on than at present. The oxen were rarely sold under 
three years old. The chief improvements now are that they 
have less bone, more even flesh, mature earlier, and consume 
less food. In 1804 my great-grandfather offered to show an 
ox bred and fed by himself, for p^ioo, against any ox in the 
county of Hereford. The challenge was not accepted. He 
had the ox slaughtered and sold out in joints. I have full 
particulars of the prices received for each joint, which, altogether, 
including hide, tallow, etc., amounted to i^Si gs. 4(1 His dead 
weight, sinking the offal, was 24 score 8 lbs. per quarter. I 
believe he was about five years old, and fed on grass. My 
cousin, Mr. P. W. Turner, of Lynch Court, Pembridge, has 
a good painting of this ox." 

As to the grazing capabilities of the breed, some notes 
were given for the first edition of this book by Mr. Joseph P. 
Terry, Berry Field, Aylesbury, who bought annually about 
200 Hereford steers, generally about two and a half and three 
years old. The cattle were grazed entirely on grass in fields 
varying from 20 to 100 acres, and were bought in the months 
of March and April, costing for season 1885 from ;^i8 to £2^ 
each, being lower in value than for some years previously. 



CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BREED 365 

He gave as high as £2^ to £26 for a drove. He Hked them 
very much for grazing purposes. They fattened quickly, " I 
may say more quickly than any other breed, get to heavy 
weights, and I always find a ready sale for them, being good 
butchers' beasts. I commence selling them in July. Those 
that do not get fat, which are only inferior animals, are stall 
fed in November. I may add that I graze about 100 head 
of other breeds, but my preference is for Herefords. I cannot 
find the Shorthorns sufficiently well bred, and they cost more 
money when bought, and are much more for money when 
sold. I buy the principal part of the Herefords in Hereford- 
shire and Shropshire ; some from the farmers who winter or 
breed them, and others at the different fairs and markets. I 
may add that I have two brothers who feed each about the 
same number as myself. I see nearly the whole of them 
bought and sold, and they are all fed in a similar way to 
my own — nothing but grass. Herefords crossed with Short- 
horns also make excellent grazing animals." 

The fattening properties of the breed were vigorously set 
forth by Mr. E. J. Morris, Stapleton Castle, Presteign, who 
wrote as follows : — During my residence in Gloucestershire, I 
had ample opportunities of testing the merits of the Hereford 
with those of their great rivals the Shorthorns. I am speaking 
now more particularly as to the relative value of the two 
breeds as beef producers, for although many Hereford cows 
are very excellent milkers, and the milk of the breed is 
generally far richer than that of the Shorthorn, I am not 
prepared to say that the Shorthorn is not the more valuable 
breed from a dairyman's point of view. But I contend that 
the Hereford will produce more beef in proportion to the food 
consumed, that is, it will make more beef per acre. I do not 
say I ever went into the details of weighing the animals and 
the food they consumed, but although my test was one of 
capacity and not of weight, it was equally conclusive to my 
mind and it never varied. It was my custom to have Here- 
ford cows on one side of a long cow-house, and Shorthorns 
on the opposite, in the winter, when none were giving milk. 
They were fed chiefly upon chaff with a few roots pulped 
among it. This was given to the cows in a " wisket " or 
" kipe," and given to them in equal quantities, but the Short- 
horn could always eat a feed or two after the Hereford was 
satisfied. Then again the Hereford has the greater amount 
of roasting to boiling meat, and generally of better quality, as 
proved repeatedly by the reports of our great meat markets, 
where at the end of the report one veiy frequently sees added 
the words, " A few Herefords made one farthing per lb. more." 



Z66 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

With regard to proportion of meat to offal, there cannot be 
two opinions, the bone of the Shorthorn being very much the 
heavier and larger. As a sire for crossing purposes I consider 
the Hereford by far the most impressive, and the Cheltenham 
butchers have told me the best bullock they hang up is a cross 
between the Hereford and the Shorthorn — so much lean 
meat in proportion to fat, and of the best quality and grain. 
But then you must mind which way you cross. I speak from 
experience when I say it makes all the difference in the world 
whether the Hereford is the sire or the dam. I say he must 
be the former. Whoever saw a more beautiful beast than 
the champion at Islington in 1884? He was bred from an 
ordinary Shorthorn cow by a pedigree Hereford bull. Bred 
in this way, the calves generally favour the sire much more 
than \^■hen the cross is in the contrary way, and I look forward 
to a great demand for pure-bred Hereford bulls to cross with 
dairy cattle. Of the heifers when they calve, the best milkers 
can be kept for the pail and the remainder fattened off. As 
the Americans say, the Herefords are much the best " wrestlers," 
that is, they can better fight for a living. Nature has pro- 
vided them with good constitutions and warm coats, which 
enable them to bear the cold weather and poor food of the 
more exposed districts better than the more tender breeds. 
Then they are generally more docile and placid than most 
breeds. Another trait in their favour is their comparative 
freedom from disease. Although I have bred and owned 
some hundred of cows, yet I never knew a Hereford cow have 
milk fever or the drop after calving, so common amongst 
Shorthorn cows ; neither a disease called the " yellows," a 
very commo.i and troublesome complaint. Pleuro also I 
believe them to be freer from than any other breed— at least 
it has never come under my notice, while I have known many 
instances among other breeds. The hoose or husk among 
calves is almost unknown amongst them. Another dis- 
tinguishing point in favour of the Hereford cow is her 
longevity or power to bear age. At ten years old she looks 
no older than a Shorthorn at half the age. It is nothing 
uncommon for cows of this breed to arrive at 20 years old, 
and breed regularly, and instances of still greater age are 
not rare. It is supposed that old Governess lived to be 33 ! 
and only a few years before she bred the twin bulls Zeal and 
Zealous. She was bred by the late Mr. Jeffries of The Grove 
(who also bred Cotmore), and was purchased by Mr. J. B. 
Green of Marlow, at the sale of Mr. Moore of Newton. 
Unfortunately the catalogue of the sale is lost, so there is 
no authentic record of her age, but there is no doubt it was 



CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BREED 367 

very great. Cotmore, just mentioned, weighed no less than 
35 cwt, probably the heaviest beast ever bred in England, 
and as good as he was great. Another notable Hereford was 
the renowned Admaston bullock. I have the catalogue now 
before me of the sale of the stock of the late Mr, John Haynes 
of Admaston, near Wellington, Salop, on the 9th of November, 
1857. The iDullock was known then to be over 20 years old, 
and his description is as follows : — " The renowned Admaston 
bullock, supposed to be the largest in the kingdom. Dimen- 
sions : Height 6 ft. i in. ; in length from the nose to the 
setting on of the tail, 10 ft. 6 ins. ; girth 10 ft. 2 ins. ; breadth 
from point to point of horns, 3 ft. 3 ins. Supposed weight, 
24 scores per quarter " (1920 lbs). He was purchased for show 
purposes by a friend of the writer's, but he began to pine 
away as soon as he was removed, refused to eat, and set up 
a continual moaning, and died in a few days (it was believed) 
from a broken heart. 

Mr. W, G. Hotten, Trelasker, Tregoney, Cornwall, stated 
in 1885 that a gentleman having an estate adjoining his farm 
had been breeding Shorthorns, some of which were descended 
from the best Shorthorn sires that were brought into the 
county. A few years previously this gentleman sent two 
or three of his inferior heifers to try a cross with one of 
Mr. Hotten's Hereford bulls. These half-breds were sold at 
two years old, and pure Shorthorns at three years old, to the 
same dealer, after having been kept alike in every respect. 
The two-year-old half-breds realised 20s. per head less than 
the three-year-old Shorthorns. Mr. Hotten thought this a 
most conclusive proof of the superiority of the Hereford cattle 
over Shorthorns as beef producers, and it was only one of 
many instances that had come under his notice. With him 
Herefords fattened more readily and attained greater weight 
in a given time on less food than any other breed he had met 
with. He found they were increasing in favour with butchers, as 
they produced more lean meat, and consequently more sale- 
able joints. He said there had been, and still was, a great 
prejudice against Hereford cattle in Cornwall, and consequently 
they were in few hands. But they were steadily progressing, 
and would no doubt be the dominant breed in the county, as 
they were, in his opinion, eminently adapted to the exposed 
hillsides and the humid, fickle climate of the county. Answer- 
ing a question particularly as to the milking properties of the 
breed, Mr. Hotten said that when he took the farm of Trelasker 
he had several Jersey and Shorthorn crosses. Some of them 
were put to Hereford bulls, and he had found their milking 
qualities fully retained. He had occasionally taken a Hereford 



368 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

cow when required to give milk for the house, but only in one 
instance had he tested them. That was in the case of Jewess, 
bred by Mr. Duckham ; she produced if lb. cream per day, 
making i lb. 6 ozs. butter. He found the cows required a 
good deal of attention for some time after calving, to keep the 
milk under. If pedigree Hereford cows were treated like 
pedigree Shorthorns, he considered them at least their equals 
in yield of milk and butter. He had not tried the Shorthorn 
on Hereford, as he thought it would be the wrong cross. The 
dairy was quite of secondary importance with him, but he got 
a large number of cows sent to his Hereford bulls — these cows 
were kept principally for dairy purposes. 

Mr. J. S. Tucker, Pathada, Cornwall, found the pure-bred 
Hereford made beef faster than any other breed he had tried. 
Many people in Cornwall were prejudiced against them, saying 
butchers did not like them ; but, observed Mr. Tucker, " in my 
opinion that arises from Hereford cattle being sold before they 
are ripe. They so quickly look fat that graziers are apt to 
sell too soon. I have found, when fed fairly w^ell, they are 
quite as heavy as they are called, and have never had a com- 
plaint from a butcher when killing pure-bred Herefords. The 
breed is increasing in Cornwall, and I have no doubt it will 
still continue to do so. There were then some very good herds 
in the county, and I feel sure if we are to face the increasing 
competition in our markets, it will only be successfully done 
by breeding first-class stock, and I know of none better than 
heavy-fleshed Herefords. With regard to the general manage- 
ment of Herefords in Cornwall, I find for rearing calves the 
better plan is to let the calves suck the dams for three or four 
months. We like to get our calves in early spring. They are 
then strong to face the winter. In crossing Herefords for 
general purposes we find that the Hereford bull put to a South 
Hams cow produces abetter beast than any other, the Hereford 
giving quality to the large, roomy South Hams." 

Mr. Ralph Palmer, Nazeing, Waltham Cross, Essex, has 
recently fed his male calves as bullocks, but he finds he can 
always buy bullocks more profitably and cheaper than he 
can breed them. Hereford bullocks are the best and most 
profitable cattle for Essex clays, but cattle bought in Here- 
ford in March and sold off the grass in August are more 
profitable by £2 a head than anything he can breed. His 
Hereford cows are milked, mixing the milk with that of a 
few Jerseys and Guernseys, and he has a reputation for butter. 
On the whole, bullock buying and breeding have in the last two 
years given a profit of ^8 in 1907, and of £\ in 1908 on each 
animal, provided they are always sold in August, as his were. 



CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BREED 369 

In a paper contributed to the Journal of the Welsh 
National Agricultural Society, Mr. J. K. Hyslop wrote as 
follows : " For the production of prime beef the Hereford has 
acquired a very high reputation. It reaches maturity at an 
earlier age and at less cost than any of our other breeds ; 
moreover it possesses in an eminent degree another property 
which has raised it to a high standard, and that is its remark- 
able adaptability for living on scanty food and resisting cold in 
foreign fields. For instance, in America some are found on 
ranches 6000 feet above sea-level. No better proof can be 
given of the hardiness of the breed. They are a perfectly 
pure race of cattle, and have been brought to their present 
state of excellence, not by introducing crosses of other breeds, 
but by the judicious selection of sires and dams. The bull, 
to be of a right and admirable character, should have horns 
springing out from a broad, flat forehead, and, to be of a pleasant 
appearance, the horns should be slightly drooping ; the 
countenance should be open and cheerful, which denotes a 
good temper and that quietude of disposition which is neces- 
sary to the successful rearing of all cattle. The eye should 
be full and lively, the nose broad and clear, the chest deep 
and full, well furnished outwardly with mellow flesh, ribs well 
sprung and level with shoulder points, flanks deep, buttocks 
broad and well let down to the hocks ; the whole carcase 
should be evenly and well covered with rich flesh, pleasing 
to the touch ; the skin should be thick and also mellow to the 
touch, and well covered with soft, curly hair. The general 
characteristics essentially necessary in the pure-bred and true 
female are flesh of the choicest quality, combined with the 
soft skin and beautiful hair which have made the Hereford 
breed so justly famous." 

Going from the south of England into the north-east of 
Scotland, the Earl of Southesk and Mr. Copland, Milton of 
Ardlethen, Aberdeenshire, gave strong testimony as to the 
excellent fattening and other good properties of the Hereford. 
The communications in which this testimony is contained will 
be found in Chapter IX., as also further similar evidence from 
Ireland, and from America, and other distant lands where the 
Hereford has firmly established itself. 



Milking Properties 

Mr. W. G. C. Britten, Secretary of the Hereford Herd 
Book Society, in October, 1906, paid a visit of inspection to 
Mr. W. J. S. White's herd of eighty pedigree Hereford cows 

2 B 



370 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

at Zeals, Wilts, which are kept exclusively for milking purposes, 
and wrote as follows : — 

" Any one desirous of having ample proof of the milking 
qualities of Hereford cattle should pay a visit to the Zeals 
Farm, Wiltshire, where there is to be seen a grand herd of 
pedigree Herefords, kept exclusively for milking purposes by 
Mr. W. J. S. White. This herd was founded in 1819 by the 
present owner's great-uncle, Mr. Robert White, who must have 
had the courage of his convictions as to the milking qualities 
of Herefords to start a herd so far from their native county, 
in a stronghold of Shorthorn and dairy cattle. However, the 
character of the breed as emigrants was known even then, and 
the whole history of this herd and its standard as a milking 
herd to-day has been that of unqualified success. 

" When starting the herd, Mr. White selected animals from 
the most eminent breeders of the day — of course, choosing 
those which were known to be from a good milking strain. 
Additions to the herd were made from time to time, among 
them being Quickset, purchased at Mr. Roberts' sale at 
Ivingtonbury, and Queen of the Arrow by Torro, a son of 
Lord Wilton. In 1897 Mr. White purchased the cow Pretty- 
face and her bull calf Prince Brunswick 19654 from Mr. John 
Tudge, of Duxmoor. This cow was noted for her immense 
milking propensity, producing no less than seven gallons of 
milk per day. She is also the dam of Prince Edward 20936, 
and through him is the grand-dam of practically all the cows 
now in the herd, and has transmitted to her progeny her own 
remarkable milking qualities. 

" Mr. White spared no trouble or expense in obtaining 
first-class sires, his contention being that the selection of sires 
is of the utmost importance. Among those who have left 
their mark in the herd are Hero 2040, bred by the late Mr. T. 
Edwards, of Wintercott, and Helianthus 4641, bred by the 
Earl of Southesk, by King of the Lilies, who was used for 
three years, and got some wonderfully good stock. He was 
of immense size, weighing 3024 lbs. at ten years old, and it 
is to a great extent through him that the herd is so good 
for milking, his progeny invariably being heavy milkers, yet 
having plenty of good flesh and an aptitude to fatten. Justice 
5404 was bred by Mr. J. D. Allen, of Tisbury, Wilts., by 
Palmerston, out of that famous cow Queen of the Lilies. 
Queen of the Lilies was bred by the late Mr. J. Rea, of 
Monaughty, and was sold to Mr. Allen, who again sold her 
at the Southampton meeting of the Bath and West of England 
Show to the Earl of Southesk. She won numerous prizes at 
all the leading shows, including the Royal at Manchester, and 



CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BREED 371 

was considered to be the best cow of her time. She was also 
the grand-dam of Helianthus. Lord Salisbury 12297, bred by- 
Mr. W. Thomas, The Hayes, Cardiff, and Bransdale 17 136, 
bred by Mr. A. E. Hughes, of Wintercott, were also used for 
a number of years. 

" The Zeals Farm is over 700 acres in extent, and at 
present there are eighty milking cows in the herd, and this 
number seems always to have been well maintained. The 
custom which Mr, White used to adopt was to let out his 
cows to dairymen at an agreed price for the year, he finding 
them in land and making the hay, the calves being taken 
away and reared by hand, a quarter year's rent of a cow 
being allowed for each calf And Mr. White stated that he 
was always able to get quite as good a letting-price as his 
neighbours did for their Shorthorns. This practice, however, 
has been given up for some years. The herd at present have 
the run of over 180 acres of grass, one-third of which is 
mown for winter consumption. In the winter the cows are 
kept entirely on oat-straw, and are allowed to run over the 
pastures till about a fortnight before calving, when they are 
given hay and straw chaff with roots till after calving, when 
about 4 lbs. of cotton cake are added to their allowance. 

" The cows are due to calve in the Spring, when the grass 
is beginning to get plentiful, and the calves are taken away 
from their dams when about a week old, and reared by hand, 
the larger number of them being sold for veal, which Mr. White 
finds more remunerative than rearing them for beef. How- 
ever, several bull calves are kept and sold for use in dairy 
herds in the locality, and also as far away as Cornwall and 
even Pembrokeshire, where they always give great satisfaction. 
The heifer calves, which are intended to replenish the dairy 
herd, are also reared by hand, receiving about a gallon of 
milk per day till they can eat a little cake and other artificial 
food and hay, when the milk is reduced. They run on the 
grass all the summer, having a little linseed cake until winter, 
when they are put into a dry, sheltered field, and only get 
hay. They seem to thrive wonderfully on this meagre fare, 
and are, of course, as hardy as can be, making great progress 
in the spring and summer, 

" The bull is put to the yearHngs about the end of July, 
so that they shall calve when two years old, the following 
April, It is found necessary to have them calve thus young so 
that their udders and milking propensities may be developed 
before the natural beef-producing qualities assert themselves. 
Of course, they continue to improve as milkers until when at 
about the third calf they are at their best. The cows are 



372 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

milked almost up to the day of calving ; in fact, Mr. White 
has sometimes a difficulty in drying them off ; but that this 
heavy milking does not in any way mitigate their natural 
aptitude to fatten is proved by the appearance of the animals 
themselves, and Mr. White states that their milk is produced 
cheaper, and when fed off they fetch better prices at less cost 
than any other breed of cattle, needing, as they do, prac- 
tically no artificial food to bring them into condition for the 
butcher. 

"The eighty cows at Zeals in 1905 produced 38,500 gallons 
of milk. This, on the face of it, perhaps does not seem a 
great quantity, but it must be borne in mind that these cows 
received no artificial food during the year, except that given 
them in the spring months and after calving. The milk, with 
the exception of 90 gallons per day, which is made into cheese 
at the farm, is sent to the factory in the neighbourhood. In 
May and June, 1905, 5400 gallons of milk produced 5434 lbs. 
of cheese, which was sold in the following September. This 
yield of cheese per gallon of milk will, I am sure, compare 
very favourably with that of the majority of dairies. There 
is no doubt that the milk from Hereford cows is exceptionally 
rich in fat. 

" Mr. White told me of a friend of his who had a Shorthorn 
dairy, and whose cheese-tub would not hold the amount of 
milk they gave, so he changed his herd for Herefords, and 
found that, though the milk from them did not nearly fill his 
cheese-tub, he was able to make a greater amount of cheese 
than formerly. Mr. White has submitted for analysis a fair 
sample of his May milk, which assayed 4*30 per cent, of 
butter-fat. This compares very favourably with pure milk 
from other breeds in this country and on the Continent, which 
ranges from 2 per cent, to 6 per cent, of butter-fat. A glance 
through the record of the prize-winning milkers at the Royal 
Show of 1906 will prove this. 

" In years past, animals from the Zeals herd have won 
numerous prizes, but lately Mr. White has not exhibited any 
individual animal. However, the herd, as a whole, has been 
in competition at the Bath and West of England, the Royal 
Counties, and most of the local shows, where they generally 
succeeded in carrying off a prize. At the Royal Counties 
Show in 1905 this herd was awarded third prize in a class 
for large dairy herds. The judges, in their report, stated that 
the herd consisted of seventy-four of the best Hereford cows 
they had ever seen, and were all of uniform type, large, and in 
high condition (although only moderately kept), and, lastly, and 
of the most consequence, they were evidently splendid milkers. 



CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BREED 373 

This is only one of the many testimonials Mr. White has 
received as to the excellence of his herd, 

"It is a known fact that heavy milkers very often are 
tuberculous, but in this case the famous record of the freedom 
of Herefords from this disease is not broken, as several of 
the Zeals cattle have been tested, and all have passed success- 
fully, Mr. White has sold several animals for exportation, 
notably eight cows and their calves to Mr. George Leigh, of 
Aurora, U,S.A,, besides others to the States, South Africa, 
Portugal, etc, ; and these cattle continue to be good milkers, 
and it is safe to assume their produce will inherit all their 
good qualities. After such a visit as mine at the Zeals Farm, 
one must perforce become a convert to the milking qualities 
of Hereford cattle, and I can only reiterate the oft-repeated 
statement that, if this breed were only treated as milkers, and 
the practice ceased of letting the calves run with their dams, 
as is done in Herefordshire where the production of beef is 
the chief consideration, the Herefords will milk as well as, if 
not better than, any other breed of similar character. When 
the calves run with the dams it does not matter how much 
milk the cow gives ; if the calf does not require it all, in course 
of time Nature limits the supply of milk to the requirements 
of the calf, obviously to the detriment of the cow's milking 
propensities. 

" Mr. White's own opinion is that there is nothing in a 
time of agricultural depression so valuable as a good herd of 
cattle, and when there is a quantity of straw and roots to 
consume, and the land is of moderate quality, that there is 
no better breed than the Herefords to keep." 



CHAPTER XI 

SYSTEMS OF MANAGEMENT 

In the management of Hereford cattle the outstanding feature 
is the natural conditions under which they are kept. This 
has had a great deal to do with maintaining their robustness 
of constitution, the breed being also naturally of a very healthy 
and hardy character. It is usually arranged to have the 
calves dropped in the early months of the year. The spring 
calves run with their dams till the autumn, when they are 
weaned at about six months old. The aim is to carry out 
steady growth of the animals from birth to maturity, and to 
perpetuate and encourage their natural hardy constitution 
by careful even management. Some interesting notes on the 
various methods adopted are given by leading breeders and 
graziers. 

Mr. A. P. Turner, The Leen, says he endeavours as much 
as possible to get the calves dropped in the spring months — 
February, March, April, and May. They run in the pastures 
with their dams until autumn. The heifer and steer calves 
are then weaned and fed upon hay, roots, and about 2 lbs. 
of crushed oats and cake each a-day. Those intended for 
bulls of course get more liberal treatment. When turned 
to grass the following spring, the young stock get no extra 
food. In the second winter they are fed upon straw and 
turnips, with sometimes a little hay. The cows get straw and 
a few roots until they calve ; sometimes a little hay in addition. 
The stock bulls are kept inside, but are not fed at all highly. 
When above two years old they usually live upon hay and 
roots, and in the summer upon cut grass, vetches, clover, etc. 
Mr. Turner houses all his stock in winter in open sheds, cow- 
houses, and stalls. His buildings are all constructed of wood, 
and are very draughty and cold. It is almost unnecessary 
to say that he has not buildings of this character from choice ; 
but because his landlord will not put up more convenient 
erections. At the same time he thinks cattle do better in 
them than they do in covered yards and close boxes ; they 



SYSTEMS OF MANAGEMENT 375 

are hardier and less liable to chills and other diseases. The 
cows and heifers get a few hours' run in the pastures daily 
during winter. Abortion is almost unknown in The Leen 
herd, and during the forty years Mr. Turner's father was 
engaged in breeding he never had more than one case a 
year, and that could generally be traced to an accident or 
some other cause. This immunity is attributed in a great 
measure to the regular system of feeding. He always endea- 
vours to keep the cows in about the same condition. The 
few male calves made into steers are sold to the butcher 
before they are eighteen months old. 

Mr. G. T. Forester, Sherlowe, said that his cows were due 
to calve — as nearly as they can be brought to do so — about 
February, if possible not later than the end of March ; his 
object being to breed steers for the butcher and to get them 
off at two years old, after the second winter's keep, when they 
usually make from 10 to 11 score per quarter (800 lbs. to 
880 lbs.). The calves were run upon the cows during summer, 
and were weaned as soon after harvest as convenient, the 
younger ones — those that may not have been dropped till later 
in the spring — being kept by themselves, as far as a rather 
limited accommodation would allow. The cows were turned 
out in winter during the day to graze any rough grass that 
might have been left, and at night lay in the open yards ; except 
that in very rough weather those that had recently calved, or 
were about to do so, were housed as far as space admits. They 
had a feed of turnips night and morning, and as much straw 
as they liked to consume. Mr. Forester discontinued pulping 
as a troublesome and expensive operation. After calving, the 
cows had a little hay until the grass was reaay. The calves 
got from I lb. to i^ lb. of linseed cake a day, and the yearling 
steers a mixture of linseed cake and cotton cake, beginning 
with 3 or 4 lbs. and ending with 6 lbs., sometimes eked 
out towards the end of their time with 2 or 3 lbs, of offal 
corn. 

Mr. Stephen Robinson, Lynhales, informed us that the 
custom formerly was to have no calves dropped before the ist 
of April in each year, so that a flush of milk might be secured 
from the newly sprung grass. This practice had by 1886 been 
altered for the following reasons : (i) To secure a market from 
Americans and others for bull and heifer calves, which are 
often shipped before they are a year old. For this reason he 
endeavoured to arrange for the cows to drop their calves as 
early in the year as possible. (2) He found that the calves which 
were steered were much more easily sold as yearlings if they 
were born early in the year. A great advantage also accrued 



376 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

to the breeder if he wished to feed off his bullocks, as they 
could be made fit for the butcher at about eighteen months 
old. (3) The Royal Agricultural and other societies calculate 
the age of show animals from the 1st of January in each year. 
Mr. Robinson observ^ed that under the above practice it was 
necessary to give the early calvers, especially the younger cows 
and heifers, extra food, either in the shape of pulp or corn. 
A small allowance of this character prevents the cattle from 
sinking in condition, and it has also the effect of increasing 
the flow of milk, which proves a great advantage to the calf 
In his herd, as in most others, the calf is allowed in winter access 
to the cow at least twice in the twenty-four hours, and it may 
be mentioned that when a cow is found to yield a large supply 
of milk, it is the custom of the cowman to allow a calf to share 
it whose dam is but an indifferent milker. In the cots the 
calves have before them at an early age a little ground oats 
and linseed cake, with some sweet hay. This food they are 
not long in learning to partake of, and it is surprising how 
soon this treatment shows itself in the improved condition of 
the youngsters. It appears to many breeders that calf meals 
and spices, at present so much advertised, are too expensive 
for the result which they produce. The bull and heifer calves 
intended to be matured at an early age are not turned out to 
grass, but this plan necessitates the bringing in of the mothers 
to suckle the calves twice a day. The calves which run with 
their dams in the pastures have no extra food allowed them 
beyond the grass they pick up, but it has often occurred to 
Mr. Robinson that it would be desirable to have pens in the 
fields, where corn could be supplied to the calves. Should 
any of the calves be observed to be doing badly, they are 
immediately brought to the house and put into the cots, where 
they soon improve in condition, as the result of the extra food 
they receive. The calves are weaned when they are from six 
to nine months old. They are then put together in covered 
yards, where they have a liberal allowance of crushed oats, 
cake, pulped turnips, and some hay. They are kept in grow- 
ing condition ; never being allowed to lose what is termed 
their "sucking flesh." In this way they are carried on until 
the following spring, when they are turned out to grass. 
Carrying out the idea of early maturity, the yearlings have an 
allowance of 3 lbs. of decorticated cake daily. This practice 
keeps them in a thriving state, and is found to improve the 
condition of the pastures. Under this treatment the heifers are 
at eighteen months old in good condition, and ready to be put 
to breeding purposes, which is now the usual custom at Lyn- 
hales. The heifers continue to receive assistance in the shape 



Weights. 


Increase per day. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lOOO ... 


... 2*OI ... 


1042 ... 


... 2-03 ... 


II22 ... 


... 2'00 ... 


986 ... 


... 2-CX5 ... 


912 ... 


... ro9 ... 


916 ... 


... 2-00 ... 


886 ... 


... I-09 ... 


906 ... 


... 2-03 ... 


872 ... 


... 1-09 ... 



SYSTEMS OF MANAGEMENT 377 

of decorticated cotton cake, as well as other nourishing food, 
until they are three years old. 

In 1890 Mr, Stephen Robinson, Lynhales, sold his yearling 
Hereford steers as " baby beef," disposing of them by live 
weight. The following were the particulars as to the weights 
and gain per day since birth : — 

Steers weighed May 12, 1890. 

Calved. 
January 25, 1889, 
February 25, 1889. 
November 5, 1888. 
January 11, 1889. 
January 19, 1889. 
February 12, 1889. 
January 20, 1889. 
March 10, 1889. 
February 5, 1889. 

Mr. Stewart Robinson, writing in 1908, says that little 
alteration has been made in the system of management since 
1886, except that yearling heifers are not put to the bulls, 
the heifers being kept until they are two years old before 
they are bred from. 

Mr. George Child, then at Court of Noke, who bred and fed 
Smithfield and Bingley Hall winners, told us that the heifers 
in his herd were as a rule put to the bull at about 16 months 
old, and afterwards bred from as often as they came into 
service. He endeavoured to get as many of his calves as 
possible to come in the months of March and April ; still 
a calf was always welcome at any time of the year. The 
spring calves ran with their dams till the autumn, when they 
were weaned at about six months old. Those intended for 
steers were castrated when about four or five months old. 
After weaning they were taken to the house ; steers and 
heifers were separated ; and both fed exactly alike until the 
spring. Oil cake and the best of ground oats and peas, as 
much as they would eat, were given to those likely to make 
show animals. The others had second-class wheat and barley 
or both mixed with their food, commencing with 2 or 3 lbs. 
each of the mixture per day given in two feeds. The quantity 
was increased by degrees, as the cattle got older, up to 5 or 
6 lbs. in the spring. About the first week in May, steers and 
heifers were turned to grass. The latter had their corn in 
gradually diminishing quantities for about a fortnight or so, 
when it was taken off them entirely, and they never received 
any more during their lives, but had the run of some of the 
best meadows during the summer. They were fed with good 



378 HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

hay and pulped swedes, with oat-straw in summer and inferior 
hay in winter, and were turned out in first-rate condition the 
following spring, about which time they drop their first calf. 
The steers were generally treated, after going to grass, in 
much the same manner, except that towards the end of 
September they have an allowance of cotton cake and ground 
corn, wheat, barley, or oats, usually home grown, receiving 
about 4 lbs', to commence with. In the end of September 
they were taken to the house and had the best hay and pulp, 
the same as the heifers, and as much oil cake, cotton cake, 
and crushed corn in two feeds as they would eat — say about 
8 or 9 lbs. When cake and corn were cheap, and grass 
scarce, the steers had 4 lbs. each of cotton cake and meal, 
but it was not his usual practice to give this food. By 
Christmas the earlier calves were quite fit for the butcher, 
being then from 18 to 20 months old. They always made 
the top price current. Mr. Child mentioned that he had no 
accurate m.eans of telling their weights, as he always sokl 
them at home by hand, but he thought their weights would 
be about 8 score per quarter ; some more, some less. The 
best of the male calves were kept for bulls, except two or 
three that promise to make show steers. There are many 
calves dropped in the herd at other times than spring. Mr. 
Child's object was never to let them lose their sucking flesh, 
but keep pushing them on from birth to finish. His cows 
were always in a half-fat state, and most of them fit for the 
butcher soon after becoming dry. Many of them had good 
milking qualities and yielded more than sufficient milk to 
supply the house at all times of the year. 

Mr. Tudge, Leinthall, now of Summer Court, wrote : — 
I prefer having my calves in the spring of the year, so that by 
the time the grass increases the dams' milk they are able to 
take it, and then by autumn the calves can be weaned, and 
the cows go dry and get up a bit in condition before winter ; 
and they can then be kept much more economically, getting 
some oat or barley-straw night and morning, and being out 
in the day-time in a pasture near. This, I find, answers very 
well until they calve, when I generally give them a few pulped 
turnips and cut the straw to mix with it. That, with the 
majority of Hereford cows, does very well until the grass 
comes, when they and their calves go off together. Of course, 
in many instances, the calf cannot take all the milk until two 
or three months old. I keep the calf in until it can do so for 
fear of garget or bad udder, for it is quite a mistake to think 
the Herefords are not good milkers ; but the less people know 
of them the more prejudiced they are against them as milkers. 



SYSTEMS OF MANAGEMENT 379 

For example, at the Shrewsbury Show I entered my Hereford 
cow Roseleaf in the class for the best cow of any breed in 
milk. She was then in full milk and gave sufficient to make 
from 12 to 14 lbs, of butter per week regularly, but the judges 
passed her by, the steward not having her out ; and when I 
complained that they had not done so, the judges came and 
looked at her, and very coolly said they did not believe in 
Herefords as good milkers — they were beef animals. At the 
same time there was her full udder to show what a good milker 
she was, as well as a good cow. At the Worcestershire Meet- 
ing at Dudley she took the first prize in a good milking class ; 
and there are many Hereford cows, thoroughbred, equally as 
good milkers as the best Shorthorns. As to what I consider 
a good Hereford, I may say I like good scale, quality, and 
form, with a thick, mellow hide and a glossy, curly coat, both 
denoting plenty of weight of flesh, hardihood of constitution, 
and early maturity ; in colour a red, body not too light, with 
a white mane, white tip of the tail, flank, etc, 

Mr. James, Mappowder, Blandford, Dorset, supplied the 
following notes to Mr. Duckham, and they were given in his 
Cirencester lecture (1863), "Our herd of Herefords has been 
established nearly thirty years, and so far from their having 
degenerated with us, they are much improved, and Hereford 
dairies are becoming very common in this county. In proof that 
they are good for milk with us, we let nearly a hundred cows 
to dairy people, and if I buy one of any other breed to fill 
up the dairy, they always grumble, and would rather have one 
of our own bred heifers. Our system is — we let our cows at 
so much per year, finding them in land and making the hay ; 
the calves being reared by hand with skim milk and linseed 
until three months old, when we take to them and allow a 
quarter's rent of the cow for the calf at that age ; they are 
then turned into the pasture." 

Mr, W. S. Powell, Eglwysnunyd, South Wales, allowed his 
calves to suckle their dams until they were about six months 
old. They were fed during the winter months on pulped 
turnips and chaff When the steers were fed off, they were 
allowed 3 lbs. to 6 lbs. of meal per day. They were sold at 
from two to three years old, and always made top price. Not 
many of the herd had been exhibited, as over feeding had 
been found injurious to stock-breeding. Mr. Powell found 
a good local demand for young Hereford bulls, farmers dis- 
covering that their produce from the common cow was much 
improved, fatten quickly, and are very hardy — in fact, quite 
as much so as the native black cattle. The farm was much 
exposed, being subject to fierce Channel blasts. Some of the 



38o HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATTLE 

grass land was very wet, but notwithstanding these drawbacks, 
Herefords have kept up their good character for hardiness 
and quick maturity, and Hereford beef is well known in South 
Wales as being of first quality. 

Mr. G. H. Meire, Eyton-on-Severn, Shrewsbury, stated that 
from 1829 to 1882 the cows in the herd generally calved in 
the open fields during September and October, and in the 
house during November, They were not put to the bull in 
1882, but allowed to run by for six months, so that now calves 
are produced in the spring. He believes the object of the 
old-fashioned plan, which used to be the rule, was to have 
the young stock more than one year old before the attempt 
was made to pass the winter without the help of the dam's 
milk, the use of cake or corn being unknown or considered 
too expensive. By the modern arrangement less cost is 
incurred in wintering a breeding cow, and if the buildings 
will allow, more of them can be kept. But it is much more 
difficult to get a rear of calves of the same age unless the bull 
is turned out with the cows and calves, and Mr. Meire finds 
there is more trouble to keep the calves healthy. Spring 
calving cows can be kept hard during the early part of the 
winter upon a few turnips and barley-straw. As they approach 
the time of calving, hay is added. Before calving, cake or 
corn is given, and after calving the cow is forced if the calf 
can take her milk. Hay and water are found to be the 
best food for bulls, but a good one will sometimes become 
too heavy if too much of the former is allowed. As regards 
housing, boxes are best for all cattle where expense is no 
object. He has not found any plan of housing cows, whether 
calving or not, equal to a properly constructed cow-house in 
which to tie them up in double stalls. The bullocks, after 
having twice been to grass, have been fattened in the winter 
on swede, turnips, straw, hay, and up to 6 lbs. of cake and 
meal. They are sold when under two years and six months 
old, and in March last the price obtained gave an average 
of £1^ \os. Mr. Meire, writing in 1908, advises us that his 
management remains much as it was twenty-five years ago. 
Probably he now uses linseed cake more freely for a few weeks 
after calves are weaned. 

Mr. Rees Keene, Pencraig, reared his calves the first year 
with great care, and they were afterwards fed in the ordinary 
way with straw roots and the poorest hay. Early calving cows 
were fed during the winter with hay and roots ; barrens with 
straw and roots. The bulls were generally taken care of for 
sale purposes, and fed on cake, hay, and roots. The cattle 
were housed in open sheds and yards. 



SYSTEM